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1.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120717, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579466

RESUMO

Household food waste is increasingly recognised as a global wicked problem for its greenhouse gas emissions, economic damage, and resource loss. Although targeted in the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, countries can only respond according to their capacity. For Australia, national policy has put the pressure on states and territories to divert food waste away from landfill into a nascent circular economy. For councils, this increasingly means implementing a FOGO (Food Organics/Garden Organics) kerbside collection. Despite funding and infrastructure development, many are resisting. Framed by the tenets of policy diffusion, this paper presents the results of a nationwide exploratory survey aimed at identifying how and why council-based waste services staff resist, emulate or lead FOGO implementation. By assessing participants current kerbside systems and their attitudes towards household food waste management, the survey found costs, contamination, and capacity and were key concerns. However, responses to these varied considerably despite similarities of situation, often relating more to collaborative attitudes across waste services, council, and councillors. This paper recognises that a conducive environment for change is urgently needed for Australia to achieve organics diversion targets and shift household food towards a circular economy. It provides a starting point for further research into the complex and nuanced dynamics between council waste services and FOGO implementations, from external drivers and council paradigms to individual attitudes and perceptions.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , 60659 , Alimentos , Fricção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Austrália , Políticas
2.
Int Wound J ; 21(4): e14871, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591160

RESUMO

Pressure ulcers including heel ulcers remain a global healthcare concern. This study comprehensively evaluates the biomechanical effectiveness of the market-popular ALLEVYN® LIFE multilayer dressing in preventing heel ulcers. It focuses on the contribution of the frictional sliding occurring between the non-bonded, fully independent layers of this dressing type when the dressing is protecting the body from friction and shear. The layer-on-layer sliding phenomenon, which this dressing design enables, named here the frictional energy absorber effectiveness (FEAE), absorbs approximately 30%-45% of the mechanical energy resulting from the foot weight, friction and shear acting to distort soft tissues in a supine position, thereby reducing the risk of heel ulcers. Introducing the novel theoretical FEAE formulation, new laboratory methods to quantify the FEAE and a review of relevant clinical studies, this research underlines the importance of the FEAE in protecting the heels of at-risk patients. The work builds on a decade of research published by our group in analysing and evaluating dressing designs for pressure ulcer prevention and will be useful for clinicians, manufacturers, regulators and reimbursing bodies in assessing the effectiveness of dressings indicated or considered for prophylactic use.


Assuntos
Lesão por Pressão , Humanos , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Fricção , Úlcera , Bandagens , Higiene da Pele , Calcanhar
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612749

RESUMO

A large amount of primary energy is lost due to friction, and the study of new additive materials to improve friction performance is in line with the concept of low carbon. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have advantages in drag reduction and wear resistance with their hollow structure and self-lubricating properties. This review investigated the mechanism of improving friction properties of blocky composites (including polymer, metal, and ceramic-based composites) with CNTs' incorporation. The characteristic tubular structure and the carbon film make low wear rate and friction coefficient on the surface. In addition, the effect of CNTs' aggregation and interfacial bond strength on the wear resistance was analyzed. Within an appropriate concentration range of CNTs, the blocky composites exhibit better wear resistance properties. Based on the differences in drag reduction and wear resistance in different materials and preparation methods, further research directions of CNTs have been suggested.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Cerâmica , Fricção , Polímeros , Software
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297912, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573995

RESUMO

The bulkhead additional thrust during shield tunneling, the force of friction between shield and soil, and the additional grouting pressure can cause additional stress in the surrounding soil, thereby disturbing existing buildings and structures. However, few studies focused on the disturbance situation when the shield tunneling machine approaches the receiving well. If the additional stress and deformation of the receiving well are too excessive, it could result in the collapse of the receiving well. Based on the two-stage method, this study derived the calculation formula of the additional stress and deformation of the receiving well enclosure structure caused by shield tunneling. Taking a shield machine receiving engineering as the context, this study established a numerical simulation model and compared theoretical calculation, the results of numerical simulation model and on-site monitoring data. Finally, the additional stress of the receiving well is analyzed. The research findings demonstrate that the theoretical prediction results, numerical simulation calculation results, and on-site monitoring data exhibit relatively small calculation errors, which validated the applicability of the theoretical prediction formula and numerical simulation model. As the distance between the shield machine and the receiving well decreases, the disturbance to the receiving well increases sharply. When the distance between the cutter head and the receiving well is less than three times the shield length, it is crucial to enhance the deformation monitoring of the receiving well. The primary factors affecting the additional load and deformation of the receiving well enclosure structure are the force of friction between shield and soil and the additional thrust of the cutterhead. The disturbance caused by the additional grouting pressure on the enclosure structure can be ignored.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Equipamentos de Proteção , Simulação por Computador , Fricção , Solo
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 199: 107536, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447354

RESUMO

Horizontal curves are locations that, as a result of the changing alignment, may be a contributing factor in roadway departure crashes. One low-cost countermeasure to mitigate crashes at these locations is the installation of the high friction surface treatment (HFST), which increases roadway friction and is intended to help keep drivers on the roadway when traversing a horizontal curve. This treatment has been implemented at numerous curves in Pennsylvania, but the overall safety effectiveness is not known. The purpose of this study is to estimate a suite of Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) for HFST applied to curve sections of undivided two-lane roadways. A novel combination of the empirical Bayes observational before-after study design and propensity score matching was used to estimate CMFs for multiple crash types, crash severities, and roadway settings (urban and rural). Propensity score matching was implemented to identify the most appropriate reference group to use within the empirical Bayes methodology. The results indicate that the installation of HFST is associated with a statistically significant decrease in all crash types and severities considered.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Pontuação de Propensão , Teorema de Bayes , Fricção
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2490, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509080

RESUMO

Protein loop dynamics have recently been recognized as central to enzymatic activity, specificity and stability. However, the factors controlling loop opening and closing kinetics have remained elusive. Here, we combine molecular dynamics simulations with string-method determination of complex reaction coordinates to elucidate the molecular mechanism and rate-limiting step for WPD-loop dynamics in the PTP1B enzyme. While protein conformational dynamics is often represented as diffusive motion hindered by solvent viscosity and internal friction, we demonstrate that loop opening and closing is activated. It is governed by torsional rearrangement around a single loop peptide group and by significant friction caused by backbone adjustments, which can dynamically trap the loop. Considering both torsional barrier and time-dependent friction, our calculated rate constants exhibit very good agreement with experimental measurements, reproducing the change in loop opening kinetics between proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate the applicability of our results to other enzymatic loops, including the M20 DHFR loop, thereby offering prospects for loop engineering potentially leading to enhanced designs.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fricção , Conformação Proteica , Solventes , Cinética
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298722, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512881

RESUMO

The tribological behaviour of articular cartilage plays a key role in joint motion; however, there is a gap in research on the effect of hyperuricemic joint fluid on cartilage friction behaviour in acute gouty arthritis. In this study, we carried out a fixed-load scratch experiment to compare the friction and wear of articular cartilage under the lubrication of gouty arthritis arthritic fluid and normal human arthritic fluid, and the results showed that the cartilage friction coefficient of patients with acute gouty arthritis was significantly larger than that of normal human beings, and that the cartilage friction coefficient decreased with the elevation of normal load and sliding speed, and the change with the sliding speed varied more differently from that of normal human beings, and that the cartilage surface wear was more severe after prolonged friction. The wear and tear of the cartilage surface is more severe after prolonged friction. Patients with gouty arthritis should reduce the sudden speed changes such as fast running and variable speed running to maintain the stability of the cartilage surface friction coefficient.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa , Cartilagem Articular , Humanos , Fricção , Estresse Mecânico , Líquido Sinovial , Lubrificação
8.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 25(1): 41-51, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514430

RESUMO

AIM: The study aims to correlate the frictional forces (FF) of four different types of commercially available ceramic brackets to their surface topography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two monocrystalline (MC) brackets (CLEAR™, Adanta, Germany; Inspire ICE™, Ormco, USA), one polycrystalline (PC) bracket (Symetri Clear™, Ormco, USA), one clear hybrid esthetic bracket (DISCREET™, Adanta, Germany), and a stainless-steel (SS) bracket (Victory™, 3M Unitek, USA) served as control. Both static friction (SF) and kinetic friction (KF) were recorded during sliding using an Instron universal machine in dry settings. The bracket slot surface topography was evaluated. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a profilometer machine were used for assessment before and after sliding. RESULTS: Frictional forces values during sliding were as follows in descending order; Inspire ICE™, CLEAR™, DISCREET™, Symetri Clear™, and, lastly, Victory™. Also, DISCREET™ scored the highest in surface roughness (Sa) values followed by Symetri Clear™. None of the correlations were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Frictional forces produced during sliding were not always directly related to surface roughness. Monocrystalline ceramic brackets appeared to have the greatest FF and a low surface roughness. Furthermore, DISCREET™ scored a very low frictional value comparable to metal brackets yet showed the highest surface roughness. Metal brackets exhibited the greatest surface smoothness before sliding and the least SF. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Predicting the FFs produced during sliding mechanics would help the practitioner while choosing the bracket system to be used, and while planning the treatment mechanics, how much force to deliver, and how much tooth movement to expect. How to cite this article: AlBadr AH, Talic NF. Correlating Frictional Forces Generated by Different Bracket Types during Sliding and Surface Topography Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Profilometer. J Contemp Dent Pract 2024;25(1):41-51.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fricção , Fios Ortodônticos , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Estética Dentária , Metais , Aço Inoxidável/química , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(3): e240207, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517421

RESUMO

This Viewpoint describes the administrative barriers experienced by mental health professionals and recommends strategies to address these barriers.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Fricção , Pessoal de Saúde
10.
Acta Biomater ; 178: 196-207, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428511

RESUMO

Articular cartilage's remarkable low-friction properties are essential to joint function. In osteoarthritis (OA), cartilage degeneration (e.g., proteoglycan loss and collagen damage) decreases tissue modulus and increases permeability. Although these changes impair lubrication in fully depressurized and slowly slid cartilage, new evidence suggests such relationships may not hold under biofidelic sliding conditions more representative of those encountered in vivo. Our recent studies using the convergent stationary contact area (cSCA) configuration demonstrate that articulation (i.e., sliding) generates interfacial hydrodynamic pressures capable of replenishing cartilage interstitial fluid/pressure lost to compressive loading through a mechanism termed tribological rehydration. This fluid recovery sustains in vivo-like kinetic friction coefficients (µk<0.02 in PBS and <0.005 in synovial fluid) with little sensitivity to mechanical properties in healthy tissue. However, the tribomechanical function of compromised cartilage under biofidelic sliding conditions remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of OA-like changes in cartilage mechanical properties, modeled via enzymatic digestion of mature bovine cartilage, on its tribomechanical function during cSCA sliding. We found no differences in sliding-driven tribological rehydration behaviors or µk between naïve and digested cSCA cartilage (in PBS or synovial fluid). This suggests that OA-like cartilage retains sufficient functional properties to support naïve-like fluid recovery and lubrication under biofidelic sliding conditions. However, OA-like cartilage accumulated greater total tissue strains due to elevated strain accrual during initial load application. Together, these results suggest that elevated total tissue strains-as opposed to activity-mediated strains or friction-driven wear-might be the key biomechanical mediator of OA pathology in cartilage. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Osteoarthritis (OA) decreases cartilage's modulus and increases its permeability. While these changes compromise frictional performance in benchtop testing under low fluid load support (FLS) conditions, whether such observations hold under sliding conditions that better represent the joints' dynamic FLS conditions in vivo is unclear. Here, we leveraged biofidelic benchtop sliding experiments-that is, those mimicking joints' native sliding environment-to examine how OA-like changes in mechanical properties effect cartilage's natural lubrication. We found no differences in sliding-mediated fluid recovery or kinetic friction behaviors between naïve and OA-like cartilage. However, OA-like cartilage experienced greater strain accumulation during load application, suggesting that elevated tissue strains (not friction-driven wear) may be the primary biomechanical mediator of OA pathology.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Osteoartrite , Animais , Bovinos , Lubrificação , Estresse Mecânico , Líquido Sinovial , Osteoartrite/terapia , Fricção , Digestão
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5409, 2024 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443416

RESUMO

Current communication deals with the flow impact of blood inside cosine shape stenotic artery. The under consideration blood flow is treated as Newtonian fluid and flow is assumed to be two dimensional. The governing equation are modelled and solved by adopting similarity transformation under the stenosis assumptions. The important quantities like Prandtl number, flow parameter, blood flow rate and skin friction are attained to analyze the blood flow phenomena in stenosis. The variations of different parameters have been shown graphically. It is of interest to note that velocity increases due to change in flow parameter gamma and temperature of blood decreases by increasing nanoparticles volume fraction and Prandtl number. In the area of medicine, the most interesting nanotechnology approach is the nanoparticles applications in chemotherapy. This study provides further motivation to include more convincing consequences in the present model to represent the blood rheology.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Constrição Patológica , Comunicação , Fricção , Artérias
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5836, 2024 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462667

RESUMO

Vascular injury such as central venous stenosis (CVS) is a common complication in hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters (CVCs), yet the impact of the microstructure and partial physic characteristics of catheter surface on the chronic injury of central vein has not been elucidated. In this study, the microscopic morphology of tips and bodies of six different brands of polyurethane CVCs was observed and their roughness was assessed. Subsequently, an in vitro model was established to measure the coefficients of friction (COF) between CVCs (tips and bodies) and the vena cava intima of Japanese rabbits under the same condition in a linear reciprocating mode, and changes in the intima of vessels after friction were observed. The study found that there was a significant variation in surface roughness among different brands of CVCs (tips P < 0.001, bodies P = 0.02), and the COF was positively correlated with the catheter surface roughness (tips P = 0.005, R = 0.945, bodies P = 0.01, R = 0.909). Besides, the endovascular roughness increased after friction. These findings suggest that the high roughness surface of CVCs may cause chronic mechanical friction injury to the central venous intima, which is one of the potential factors leading to CVS or occlusion. This provides a breakthrough for reducing complications, improving patient prognosis, and advancing catheter surface lubrication technology.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Doenças Vasculares , Humanos , Coelhos , Animais , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Fricção , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Veias , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1900): 20230051, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432320

RESUMO

To understand the mechanisms that coordinate the formation of biological tissues, the use of numerical implementations is necessary. The complexity of such models involves many assumptions and parameter choices that result in unpredictable consequences, obstructing the comparison with experimental data. Here, we focus on vertex models, a family of spatial models used extensively to simulate the dynamics of epithelial tissues. Usually, in the literature, the choice of the friction coefficient is not addressed using quasi-static deformation arguments that generally do not apply to realistic scenarios. In this manuscript, we discuss the role that the choice of friction coefficient has on the relaxation times and consequently in the conditions of cell cycle progression and division. We explore the effects that these changes have on the morphology, growth rate and topological transitions of the tissue dynamics. These results provide a deeper understanding of the role that an accurate mechanical description plays in the use of vertex models as inference tools. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Causes and consequences of stochastic processes in development and disease'.


Assuntos
Cabeça , Fricção , Divisão Celular , Epitélio
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(2): 177-186, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311408

RESUMO

Moisturization causes physiological changes that improve the barrier function of human skin and mechanical changes, including skin friction characteristics. This study evaluated petrolatum- or silicone oil-treated human skin to determine the effect of moisturizing on the friction dynamics. The friction force on the human skin was measured using a contact probe with a sinusoidal motion. The contact probe was used to rub the skin of the upper arm of 20 subjects. The water content of the stratum corneum, softness, and barrier function of the skin were measured using a corneometer, cutometer, and tewameter, respectively. Both oils reduce the frictional force on the human skin. Simultaneously, silicone oil also reduced the delay time δ, which is the standardized time difference between the frictional force response to contact probe movement. Three typical friction patterns were also discovered, which were significantly changed by the treatment with oil. These changes were attributed to the lubrication effect and elimination of adhesion at the true contact point between the skin and the contact probe.


Assuntos
Óleos de Silicone , Pele , Humanos , Fricção , Óleos , Epiderme
15.
J Biomech ; 164: 111971, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309134

RESUMO

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are commonly studied in vitro using cerebral artery models made of nonbiological materials. However, these models often report higher recanalization rates than those observed clinically, suggesting a discrepancy between experimental models and clinical settings. We believe this may be partly due to the frictional interactions between blood clots, stent retrievers (SRs), and the vessel walls. Experiments were performed to measure the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between blood clots, common nonbiological model materials, and bovine carotid arteries (CAs). Additional friction testing was performed with nitinol SRs. Coefficients of static friction between blood clots and nonbiological materials were found to range from 0.1 to 0.2, increasing with decreasing clot hematocrit, but were significantly higher between blood clots and CAs (1.49, 0.57, and 0.46 for 0, 20, and 40% hematocrit clots, respectively). For 0% and 40% hematocrit clots, the coefficients of kinetic friction with nonbiological materials were less than 0.1, while significantly higher with CAs (0.26 and 0.23 for 0% and 40% hematocrit clots, respectively). However, no significant differences in the coefficients of kinetic friction were found between the different hematocrit clots. Testing with the nitinol SR showed no significant differences in the coefficients of kinetic friction for CAs (0.73) and silicone (0.78), suggesting that silicone could be a suitable model material for evaluating SR-vessel interactions in vitro. Overall, it is evident that discrepancies exist in the frictional forces between materials commonly used in experimental models of AIS and MT and those seen in vivo. The individual contributions of clot-artery, SR-artery, and clot-SR interactions during blood clot removal merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Ligas , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Trombose , Animais , Bovinos , Trombectomia , Fricção , Stents , Modelos Teóricos , Silicones , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297537, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329964

RESUMO

Pipe jacking is a trenchless construction method to achieve forward tunneling and efficient construction of underground structure simultaneously without extensive surface excavation. In the process of pipe jacking construction, the jacking force provided by the hydraulic jacking equipment must overcome the frontal resistance of the cutter head and the frictional resistance between the pipe sections and formation at the same time. In particular, the pipe-soil frictional resistance increases with the increases of jacking distance, buried depth, pipe diameter and the complexity of jacking trajectory. Therefore, it is very important to correctly estimate jacking force in trenchless jacking engineering practice for the smooth implementation of pipe jacking, operation risk and comprehensive cost control. Firstly, the stress states of jacking circular and rectangular pipe sections in the soil are analyzed, and the key influencing factors of their pipe-soil frictional resistance are obtained respectively. Then, the pipe-soil frictional resistance of jacking the circular and rectangular pipe sections with the same external surface area in the dry sandy soil and coal granular layer are tested separately by using the self-developed multifunctional experimental apparatus during trenchless pipe jacking. The results show that the pipe-soil frictional resistances of jacking circular and rectangular pipe sections in the coal granular layer are always smaller than that in the sandy soil under the same experimental conditions, and the corresponding fitting calculation equation of pipe-soil frictional resistances are obtained respectively. Meanwhile, the modified calculation methods of the above pipe-soil frictional resistances are proposed respectively based on the relationship between the lateral pressure coefficient K and the buried depth of pipe section H. Moreover, the disturbed area of soil in the upper part of jacking circular pipe section presents an arc distribution, while the disturbed area of soil in the upper part of jacking rectangular pipe section presents a slightly concave distribution. Due to the different disturbance conditions of soil around the pipe section, the lateral pressure coefficient K should be corrected in the calculation equations of pipe-soil frictional resistance of jacking circular and rectangular pipe sections based on the discrete element numerical simulation analysis by EDEM software. Finally, the pipe-soil frictional resistances obtained by different methods in the sandy soil are compared and analyzed. The calculated values of the modified theoretical calculation method are very close to the experimental test values, while the other methods are smaller than the experimental test values, which makes the rationality of the modified theoretical calculation method of pipe-soil frictional resistance is verified, and some suggestions are also put forward for the value of some coefficients in the relevant empirical estimation equations. The above research achievements systematically compared the states of pipe-soil frictional resistances of jacking circular and rectangular pipe sections based on different research methods, especially for the correct evaluation of jacking force during trenchless pipe jacking, they could provide some valuable references and effective guidance for the subsequent research, engineering practice and further development of trenchless pipe jacking technology.


Assuntos
Areia , Solo , Fricção , Engenharia , Carvão Mineral
17.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298337, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330083

RESUMO

This paper investigates the sliding surface failure characteristics, earth pressure distribution law and stability safety factor of inverted T-type retaining wall by using the finite element limit analysis software OptumG2, the effects of width of wall heel plate, width of wall toe plate, thickness of bottom plate, soil-wall interface friction angle, soil cohesion and soil internal friction angle of filling on the failure characteristics of sliding surface, the earth pressure distribution law and stability safety factor of retaining walls are analyzed, The stability safety factor of the retaining wall showed a gradually increasing trend as the width of wall heel plate and wall toe plate increased; as the bottom plate thickness increases, the stability safety factor of the retaining wall gradually increases; as the soil-wall interface element reduction coefficient rises, that is, the internal friction angle of the soil-wall gradually increases to the soil internal friction angle, the stability safety factor of the retaining wall gradually increases; as the soil cohesion and internal friction angle increase, the stability safety factor of the retaining wall progressively increases. The safety factor of retaining wall increases by 0.45 for every 0.5m increase in the width of the wall heel plate; the safety factor of the retaining wall increases by 0.29 when the width of the wall toe plate increases by 0.5m; for every 0.5m increase in the width of wall plate thickness, the safety factor of the retaining wall is increased by 0.62; for every 0.25 increase in soil-wall interface element reduction coefficient, the safety factor of the retaining wall increases by 0.29; for every increase of 5KPa in soil cohesion, the safety factor of the retaining wall increased by 1.16; for every 5° increases in soil internal friction angle, the safety factor of retaining wall increases by 0.6. The research is significant for studying the failure laws and stability of retaining walls and providing references for retaining wall design.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas , Solo , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Fricção
18.
Med Eng Phys ; 123: 104094, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365334

RESUMO

Medical interventions have significantly progressed in developing minimally invasive techniques like percutaneous procedures. These procedures include biopsy and internal radiation therapy, where a needle or needle-like medical device is inserted through the skin to access a target inside the body. Ensuring accurate needle insertion and minimizing tissue-damage or cracks are critical in these procedures. This research aims to examine the coated needle effect on the force required to insert the needle (i.e., insertion force) and on tissue-damage during needle insertion into the bovine kidney. Reducing the needle insertion force, which is influenced by needle surface friction, generally results in a reduction in tissue-damage. Surgical needles were coated with a composite material, combining Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polydopamine, and Activated Carbon. Force measurement during needle insertion and a histological study to determine tissue-damage were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the coating. The insertion force was reduced by 49 % in the case of the coated needles. Furthermore, a histological analysis comparing tissue-damage resulting from coated and uncoated needles revealed an average 39 % reduction in tissue-damage with the use of coated needles. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of coated needles to enhance needle insertion and safety during percutaneous procedures.


Assuntos
Rim , Agulhas , Animais , Bovinos , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Fricção , Pele
19.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 47(2): 102129, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423868

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro wettability and coefficient of friction of a novel amphiphilic polymeric surfactant (APS), poly(oxyethylene)-co-poly(oxybutylene) (PEO-PBO) releasing silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens material (serafilcon A), compared to other reusable SiHy lens materials. METHODS: The release of fluorescently-labelled nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-PEO-PBO was evaluated from serafilcon A over 7 days in a vial. The wettability and coefficient of friction of serafilcon A and three contemporary SiHy contact lens materials (senofilcon A; samfilcon A; comfilcon A) were evaluated using an in vitro blink model over their recommended wearing period; t = 0, 1, 7, 14 days for all lens types and t = 30 days for samfilcon A and comfilcon A (n = 4). Sessile drop contact angles were determined and in vitro non-invasive keratographic break-up time (NIKBUT) measurements were assessed on a blink model via the OCULUS Keratograph 5 M. The coefficient of friction was measured using a nano tribometer. RESULTS: The relative fluorescence of NBD-PEO-PBO decreased in serafilcon A by approximately 18 % after 7 days. The amount of NBD-PEO-PBO released on day 7 was 50 % less than the amount released on day 1 (6.5±1.0 vs 3.4±0.5 µg/lens). The reduction in PEO-PBO in the lens also coincided with an increase in contact angles for serafilcon A after 7 days (p < 0.05), although there were no changes in NIKBUT or coefficient of friction (p > 0.05). The other contact lens materials had stable contact angles and NIKBUT over their recommended wearing period (p > 0.05), with the exception of samfilcon A, which had an increase in contact angle after 14 days as compared to t = 0 (p < 0.05). Senofilcon A and samfilcon A also showed an increase in coefficient of friction at 14 and 30 days, respectively, compared to their blister pack values (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that serafilcon A gradually depletes its reserve of PEO-PBO over 1 week, but this decrease did not significantly change the lens performance in vitro during this time frame.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Silicones , Humanos , Molhabilidade , Hidrogéis , Fricção
20.
J Biomech Eng ; 146(7)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323667

RESUMO

Healthy articular cartilage is a remarkable bearing material optimized for near-frictionless joint articulation. Because its limited self-repair capacity renders it susceptible to osteoarthritis (OA), approaches to reinforce or rebuild degenerative cartilage are of significant interest. While exogenous collagen crosslinking (CXL) treatments improve cartilage's mechanical properties and increase its resistance to enzymatic degradation, their effects on cartilage lubrication remain less clear. Here, we examined how the collagen crosslinking agents genipin (GP) and glutaraldehyde (GTA) impact cartilage lubrication using the convergent stationary contact area (cSCA) configuration. Unlike classical configurations, the cSCA sustains biofidelic kinetic friction coefficients (µk) via superposition of interstitial and hydrodynamic pressurization (i.e., tribological rehydration). As expected, glutaraldehyde- and genipin-mediated CXL increased cartilage's tensile and compressive moduli. Although net tribological rehydration was retained after CXL, GP or GTA treatment drastically elevated µk. Both healthy and "OA-like" cartilage (generated via enzymatic digestion) sustained remarkably low µk in saline- (≤0.02) and synovial fluid-lubricated contacts (≤0.006). After CXL, µk increased up to 30-fold, reaching values associated with marked chondrocyte death in vitro. These results demonstrate that mechanical properties (i.e., stiffness) are necessary, but not sufficient, metrics of cartilage function. Furthermore, the marked impairment in lubrication suggests that CXL-mediated stiffening is ill-suited to cartilage preservation or joint resurfacing.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Iridoides , Osteoartrite , Humanos , Lubrificação , Glutaral , Colágeno , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Fricção , Estresse Mecânico
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