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1.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 96(1): 12186, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Various factors, such as obstructive azoospermia, cause infertility in men. Biochemical examination of ejaculate, especially measurement of fructose, can be an additional investigation that can be used for this diagnosis in reproductive health. Examination of fructose is carried out after routine ejaculate analysis, resulting in prolonging the examination time so that it will affect the measurement of fructose level in the ejaculate and the accuracy of the diagnosis. This study aims to determine the best timing and procedure for measurement of fructose using a semiautomatic method. METHODS: This research is an analytic observational study conducted at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. A total of 13 ejaculate samples from infertile male patients who met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Each ejaculate was divided into eight aliquots that were examined for fructose using a semiautomated method after different intervals of time and centrifugation modalities. RESULTS: This study showed a significant difference in fructose levels when aliquots were centrifuged and examined immediately or after different interval of time (p=0.036). In addition, aliquots left standing for more than 60 minutes (p=0.012) and 120 minutes (p<0.001) before centrifugation, showed significantly lower levels compared to aliquots that were centrifuged and then immediately examined. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that measuring fructose immediately after centrifugation is more reliable than measuring fructose left standing before or after centrifugation. Leaving the ejaculate standing will reduce the fructose level so that it does not resemble its real level.


Assuntos
Azoospermia , Infertilidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Frutose , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Centrifugação , Espermatozoides
2.
Cryo Letters ; 45(2): 134-138, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examining semen cryopreservation in Calomys laucha offers valuable insights for reproductive research and species conservation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective sugar for the cryopreservation of C. laucha semen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using 36 epididymides from C. laucha, semen samples were diluted in a 3% skimmed milk medium supplemented with one of four sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose, or sucrose) at a concentration of 0.3 M. These mixtures underwent a conditioning phase at 37 degree C for 10 min, cooled to -80 degree C for another 10 min, and were subsequently stored in liquid nitrogen. RESULTS: Upon thawing, samples treated with lactose and glucose solutions show superior sperm motility, achieving 8.2% and 10.0% respectively, in contrast to the fructose (2.0%) and sucrose (4.1%) mixtures. Furthermore, samples preserved in glucose registered the highest sperm penetration rates, reaching 44.9%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a cryopreservation medium containing 0.3 M glucose can contribute to the safeguarding C. laucha rodent semen. https://doi.org/10.54680/fr24210110612.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Criopreservação , Lactose , Roedores , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Glucose/farmacologia , Frutose , Sacarose/farmacologia , Espermatozoides , Crioprotetores
3.
Se Pu ; 42(4): 327-332, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566421

RESUMO

The physical and chemical properties of chiral drugs are very similar. However, their pharmacological and toxicological effects vary significantly. For example, one enantiomer may have favorable properties whereas the other may be ineffective or even have toxic side effects. Hence, exploring innovative strategies to improve enantiomeric resolution is of great importance. Metoprolol (MET) is a ß-receptor blocker used to treat hypertension, stable angina pectoris, and supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. Establishing chiral separation and analysis methods of MET enantiomers is important for enhancing the quality of chiral drugs. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has the advantages of a small sample size, simple operation, high separation efficiency, and many alternative modes; therefore it is widely used in the field of chiral drug separation. The chiral selectors commonly used for CE-based chiral separation include cyclodextrin (CD) and its derivatives, polysaccharides, proteins, and macrocyclic antibiotics. CD is one of the most commonly used and effective chiral selectors for CE. The relatively hydrophobic structure inside the cavity and the relatively hydrophilic structure outside the cavity of CD enable it and chiral molecules to form inclusion compounds with different binding constants, thus achieving chiral separation. However, the use of CD alone as a chiral selector does not always yield satisfactory separation results. Hence, the addition of other additives, such as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) to assist CD-based chiral separation systems has received extensive attention. Previous studies on the enantiomeric separation of MET by CE have focused on the addition of CD and its derivatives alone for separation. Few studies have been conducted on the synergistic addition of auxiliary additives to CD to improve the enantiomeric resolution of MET. In this study, three DESs, namely, choline chloride-D-glucose, choline chloride-D-fructose, and lactate-D-glucose, were used for the CE-based chiral separation of MET for the first time, and the synergistic effect of the DESs on the separation of MET enantiomers by CD-based capillary zone electrophoresis was speculated. For this purpose, an uncoated fused silica capillary with inner diameter of 50 µm, total length of 50 cm and effective length of 41.5 cm was used as the separation column. First, the effects of CD type, CD concentration, buffer pH, and buffer concentration on MET separation were investigated, and the optimal conditions (15 mmol/L carboxymethyl-ß-cyclodextrin (CM-ß-CD), pH=3.0, and 40 mmol/L phosphate buffer) were obtained. Other CE conditions were as follows: UV detection at 230 nm, applied voltage of 25 kV. All operations were carried out at 20 ℃. Next, three types of DESs were prepared as auxiliary additives via a mixed-heating method. The DESs were mixed in a 50 mL round-bottomed flask at a certain molar ratio and then heated in a water bath at 80 ℃ for 3 h until a clear and transparent liquid was obtained. The effects of different DESs and their mass fraction on chiral separation were subsequently studied. The optimal choline chloride-D-fructose mass fraction was ultimately determined to be 1.5%. The resolution of MET increased from 1.30 without DES to 2.61 with 1.5% choline chloride-D-fructose, thereby achieving baseline separation. Finally, the separation effect and mechanism were speculated. The MET chiral separation method established in this study is of great significance for improving the quality of chiral compounds and ensuring the safety and effectiveness of clinical drugs. Furthermore, it may be useful in the research and development of CE-based chiral separation techniques using CD derivatives with DESs.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Metoprolol , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Colina , Frutose , Glucose , Estereoisomerismo
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301012, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573884

RESUMO

Different functional foods with bioactive nutrients are being explored for the management of NAFLD. Whey proteins are rich in bioactive peptides and are suggested to show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We aim to test the hypothesis that the whey protein supplementation following a high fat-high fructose (HFHF) diet would protect against liver damage, inflammation, endotoxemia and steatosis in male Wistar rats. 36 rats were randomized into four groups for 8 weeks as the HFHF diet group, HFHF diet and whey protein isolate (WPI-200mg/kg/day) group (HFHF+WPI), control (C) group, and C+WPI (200mg/kg/day) group. Rats fed with a HFHF diet had higher final body weight compared to C and C+WPI groups (p = 0.002). Thus, WPI showed no significant effects for the body weight of rats with a HFHF diet. On the other hand, the HFHF+WPI group had significantly lower abdominal circumference when compared with the HFHF group (p<0,001). Higher serum CRP levels were observed in the groups with a HFHF diet (p<0,001) and WPI supplementation showed no effects on CRP levels. Whey protein supplementation resulted with lower total liver damage score in HFHF+WPI group compared with the HFHF diet group (p<0,001). Conversely, higher liver damage scores were observed with the C+WPI group compared to C group (p<0,001). HFHF diet resulted with higher expression of TLR-4 in the liver meanwhile WPI supplementation showed no effects on liver TLR-4 expression. We observed higher colon Occludin expression in HFHF+WPI and C+WPI groups compared with HFHF and C groups (p<0,001). Our results showed that, whey protein supplementation might help improve liver damage associated with a high fat-high fructose diet and increase the expression of Occludin in the small intestine and colon.


Assuntos
Frutose , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Ocludina , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Peso Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais
5.
Appl Opt ; 63(9): 2279-2285, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568583

RESUMO

The stratum corneum of the outermost skin is an important barrier impeding transdermal permeation, and permeation enhancers can reduce the barrier resistance of the stratum corneum and enhance the permeation of drugs in tissues. The optical imaging depth, signal intensity, and scattering coefficient variation rules of skin tissues in time dimension are obtained by using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The effect of optical clearing agents (OCAs) on OCT imaging is obtained by quantitatively analyzing the changes in the optical properties of tissues. D-fructose, one of the monosaccharides, and sucrose, one of the disaccharides, were selected for the ex vivo optical clearing experiments on pig skin tissues utilizing the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) carrier effect. We find that DMSO synergized with sugars applied to skin tissue has a more significant increase in the optical imaging depth and signal intensity, and a reduction in the scattering coefficient with an increasing concentration of DMSO. DMSO with a high concentration and D-fructose with saturated concentration (10:1; v/v) effectively reduce light attenuation in OCT imaging and improve the image quality. This operation will also shorten the application time to minimize skin damage from hyperosmotic agents.


Assuntos
Açúcares , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Animais , Suínos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Pele , Frutose
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 166, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired gluconeogenesis. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) mutations demonstrate ethnic patterns. For instance, Turkish populations commonly harbor exon 2 deletions. We present a case report of whole exon 2 deletion in a Syrian Arabian child as the first recording of this mutation among Arabian ethnicity and the first report of FBP1 gene mutation in Syria. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 2.5-year-old Syrian Arab child with recurrent hypoglycemic episodes, accompanied by nausea and lethargy. The patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory findings raised suspicion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. Whole exome sequencing was performed, revealing a homozygous deletion of exon 2 in the FBP1 gene, confirming the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This case highlights a potential novel mutation in the Arab population; this mutation is well described in the Turkish population, which suggests potential shared mutations due to ancestral relationships between the two ethnicities. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Frutose-1,6-Difosfatase , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Documentação , Etnicidade , Frutose , Deficiência de Frutose-1,6-Difosfatase/complicações , Deficiência de Frutose-1,6-Difosfatase/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Frutose-1,6-Difosfatase/genética , Frutose-Bifosfatase/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação , Deleção de Sequência
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8052-8059, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563420

RESUMO

d-Allulose, a functional bulk sweetener, has recently attracted increasing attention because of its low-caloric-ness properties and diverse health effects. d-Allulose is industrially produced by the enzymatic epimerization of d-fructose, which is catalyzed by ketose 3-epimerase (KEase). In this study, the food-grade expression of KEase was studied using Bacillus subtills as the host. Clostridium sp. d-allulose 3-epimerase (Clsp-DAEase) was screened from nine d-allulose-producing KEases, showing better potential for expression in B. subtills WB600. Promoter-based transcriptional regulation and N-terminal coding sequence (NCS)-based translational regulation were studied to enhance the DAEase expression level. In addition, the synergistic effect of promoter and NCS on the Clsp-DAEase expression was studied. Finally, the strain with the combination of a PHapII promoter and gln A-Up NCS was selected as the best Clsp-DAEase-producing strain. It efficiently produced Clsp-DAEase with a total activity of 333.2 and 1860.6 U/mL by shake-flask and fed-batch cultivations, respectively.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Racemases e Epimerases , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Cetoses
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 279, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564031

RESUMO

A novel L-rhamnose isomerase was identified and cloned from an extreme-temperature aquatic habitat metagenome. The deduced amino acid sequence homology suggested the possible source of this metagenomic sequence to be Chloroflexus islandicus. The gene expression was performed in a heterologous host, Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RIM) was extracted and purified. The catalytic function of L-RIM was characterized for D-allulose to D-allose bioconversion. D-Allose is a sweet, rare sugar molecule with anti-tumour, anti-hypertensive, cryoprotective, and antioxidative properties. The characterization experiments showed L-RIM to be a Co++- or Mn++-dependent metalloenzyme. L-RIM was remarkably active (~ 80%) in a broad spectrum of pH (6.0 to 9.0) and temperature (70 to 80 °C) ranges. Optimal L-RIM activity with D-allulose as the substrate occurred at pH 7.0 and 75 °C. The enzyme was found to be excessively heat stable, displaying a half-life of about 12 days and 5 days at 65 °C and 70 °C, respectively. L-RIM catalysis conducted at slightly acidic pH of 6.0 and 70 °C achieved biosynthesis of about 30 g L-1 from 100 g L-1 D-allulose in 3 h. KEY POINTS: • The present study explored an extreme temperature metagenome to identify a novel gene that encodes a thermostable l-rhamnose isomerase (L-RIM) • L-RIM exhibits substantial (80% or more) activity in a broad spectrum of pH (6.0 to 9.0) and temperature (70 to 80 °C) ranges • L-RIM is excessively heat stable, displaying a half-life of about 12 days and 5 days at 65 °C and 70 °C, respectively.


Assuntos
Aldose-Cetose Isomerases , Frutose , Glucose , Anti-Hipertensivos , Escherichia coli/genética
9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1375453, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596671

RESUMO

The overconsumption of dietary fructose has been proposed as a major culprit for the rise of many metabolic diseases in recent years, yet the relationship between a high fructose diet and neurological dysfunction remains to be explored. Although fructose metabolism mainly takes place in the liver and intestine, recent studies have shown that a hyperglycemic condition could induce fructose metabolism in the brain. Notably, microglia, which are tissue-resident macrophages (Mφs) that confer innate immunity in the brain, also express fructose transporters (GLUT5) and are capable of utilizing fructose as a carbon fuel. Together, these studies suggest the possibility that a high fructose diet can regulate the activation and inflammatory response of microglia by metabolic reprogramming, thereby altering the susceptibility of developing neurological dysfunction. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of microglia metabolism and how it supports its functions will be summarized. The results from both in vivo and in vitro studies that have investigated the mechanistic link between fructose-induced metabolic reprogramming of microglia and its function will then be reviewed. Finally, areas of controversies and their associated implications, as well as directions that warrant future research will be highlighted.


Assuntos
Frutose , Microglia , Frutose/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Fígado/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo
10.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474737

RESUMO

Accurately measuring dietary sugars intake in large-scale epidemiological studies is necessary to understand dietary sugars' true impact on health. Researchers have developed a biomarker that can be used to assess total sugars intake. Our objective is to test this biomarker in diverse populations using an ad libitum intake protocol. Healthy adult participants (n = 63; 58% Indigenous Americans/Alaska Natives; 60% male; BMI (mean ± SD) = 30.6 ± 7.6 kg.m2) were admitted for a 10-day inpatient stay. On day 2, body composition was measured by DXA, and over the last 3 days, ad libitum dietary intake was measured using a validated vending machine paradigm. Over the same days, participants collected daily 24 h urine used to measure sucrose and fructose. The 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose biomarker (24hruSF) (mg/d) represents the sum of 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose excretion levels. The association between the 3-day mean total sugars intake and log 24uSF level was assessed using the Pearson correlation. A linear mixed model regressing log-biomarker on total sugars intake was used to investigate further the association between biomarker, diet, and other covariates. Mean (S.D.) total sugars intake for the group was 197.7 g/d (78.9). Log 24uSF biomarker was moderately correlated with total sugars intake (r = 0.33, p = 0.01). In stratified analyses, the correlation was strongest in females (r = 0.45, p = 0.028), the 18-30 age group (r = 0.44, p = 0.079), Indigenous Americans (r = 0.51, p = 0.0023), and the normal BMI category (r = 0.66, p = 0.027). The model adjusted for sex, age, body fat percent, and race/ethnicity demonstrated a statistically significant association between 24uSF and total sugars intake (ß = 0.0027, p < 0.0001) and explained 31% of 24uSF variance (marginal R2 = 0.31). Our results demonstrated a significant relationship between total sugars intake and the 24uSF biomarker in this diverse population. However, the results were not as strong as those of controlled feeding studies that investigated this biomarker.


Assuntos
Frutose , Sacarose , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carboidratos da Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Biomarcadores , Inquéritos sobre Dietas
11.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452127

RESUMO

To investigate the role of sugar metabolism in desiccation-sensitive seeds, we performed a natural desiccation treatment on Phoebe chekiangensis seeds in a room and systematically analyzed the changes in seed germination, sugar compounds, malondialdehyde, and relative electrical conductivity during the seed desiccation. The results revealed that the initial moisture content of P. chekiangensis seed was very high (37.06%) and the seed was sensitive to desiccation, the germination percentage of the seed decreased to 5.33% when the seed was desiccated to 22.04% of moisture content, therefore, the seeds were considered recalcitrant. Based on the logistic model, we know that the moisture content of the seeds is 29.05% when the germination percentage drops to 50% and that it is desirable to keep the seed moisture content above 31.74% during ambient transportation. During seed desiccation, sucrose and trehalose contents exhibited increasing trends, and raffinose also increased during the late stage of desiccation, however, low levels of the non-reducing sugar accumulations may not prevent the loss of seed viability caused by desiccation. Glucose and fructose predominated among sugar compounds, and they showed a slight increase followed by a significant decrease. Their depletion may have contributed to the accumulation of sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between the accumulation of sucrose, trehalose, and soluble sugars, and the reduction in seed viability. Sucrose showed a significant negative correlation with glucose and fructose. Trehalose also exhibited the same pattern of correlation. These results provided additional data and theoretical support for understanding the mechanism of sugar metabolism in seed desiccation sensitivity.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Açúcares , Açúcares/metabolismo , Dessecação/métodos , Rafinose/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Germinação , Sacarose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo
12.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 845-858, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524878

RESUMO

Purpose: Anti-obesity medications (AOMs), along with lifestyle interventions, are effective means of inducing and maintaining weight loss in patients with obesity. Although the efficacy of AOMs has been reported, there have been no direct comparisons of these drugs. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of all the AOMs available in Korea in a real-world setting. Patients and Methods: The body weight and composition of 205 adults treated with phentermine, phentermine/topiramate, liraglutide, naltrexone/bupropion, lorcaserin, or orlistat for at least 6 months were analyzed at 2 month intervals. The prevalence of the achievement of a ≥5% weight loss and the changes in body composition were compared between participants using each AOM at each visit. Results: A total of 132 (64.4%) participants achieved ≥5% weight loss within 6 months (prevalence of ≥5% weight loss after 6 months: phentermine, 87.2%; phentermine/topiramate, 67.7%; liraglutide, 58.1%; naltrexone/bupropion, 35.3%; lorcaserin, 75%; orlistat, 50%). At each visit, after adjustment for age, sex, and baseline body weight, phentermine use was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of ≥5% weight loss than the use of the other AOMs, except for liraglutide. There were significant differences in the body weight, body mass index and body fat mass among the AOM groups by visit (P for interaction <0.05), but not in their waist circumference, skeletal muscle mass, percentage body fat, or visceral fat area. Conclusion: All the AOMs were effective at inducing and maintaining weight loss, in the absence of significant changes in muscle mass, over a 6 month period, and the short-term use of phentermine and the long-term use of phentermine/topiramate or liraglutide would be practical choices for the treatment of obesity. However, further, large-scale studies are necessary to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade , Liraglutida , Adulto , Humanos , Orlistate/uso terapêutico , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Frutose , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Peso Corporal , Fentermina/efeitos adversos , Redução de Peso
13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(3): 548-554, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Abdominal pain remains one of the most common referral reasons to pediatric gastroenterology. Dietary intolerances are often considered but due to various factors are hardly pursued. We observed that diet review in large number of children with abdominal pain was high in sugary foods which led to food intolerance investigation and dietary intervention. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or vomiting and negative GI evaluation, who underwent fructose breath testing. Patients younger than 20 years old who were seen between June 1, 2018 and March 1, 2021 were included. Statistical analysis was performed in R. RESULTS: There were 110 pediatric patients during the study period who underwent fructose breath testing, with 31% male and 69% female. The average age was 12.14 ± 4.01 years, and the average BMI was 21.21 ± 6.12. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (74.5%) followed by diarrhea and vomiting. Seventy-seven patients (70%) had a positive fructose breath test and were diagnosed with dietary intolerance to fructose. The 56 (67.5%) of those patients experienced symptoms during the breath test. Forty-three patients improved with dietary intervention. Twenty-seven on low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols diet and 16 on other diets. CONCLUSIONS: Based on analysis of our cohort of children with abdominal pain and high incidence of fructose intolerance as well as improvement in symptoms, following dietary changes, this condition should be considered and treated. Further investigation is needed to improve diagnostic testing but also into understanding mechanisms behind symptom presentation in this population.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Frutose , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Polímeros , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dissacarídeos , Intolerância à Frutose/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Frutose/terapia , Intolerância à Frutose/complicações , Monossacarídeos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Dieta , Oligossacarídeos , Dor Abdominal/complicações , Diarreia/etiologia , Frutose , Vômito/complicações , Fermentação
14.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 26(3): 67-76, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505904

RESUMO

Five kinds of exopolysaccharides (EPS) were obtained by fermentation of Scleroderma areolatum Ehrenb. with sucrose, glucose, maltose, lactose, and fructose as carbon sources. Antioxidant abilities of the obtained EPSs were evaluated by inhibiting AAPH, HO·, and glutathione (GS·) induced oxidation of DNA and quenching 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical (ABTS· and galvinoxyl radicals. The effects of carbon sources on the antioxidant properties of EPSs could be examined. The results showed that five EPSs can effectively inhibit radicals induced oxidation of DNA, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) percentages were 44.7%-80.8%, 52.3%-77.5%, and 44.7%-73.3% in inhibiting AAPH, HO·, and GS· induced oxidation of DNA, respectively. All five EPSs could scavenge ABTS· and galvinoxyh, and exhibit superior activity in scavenging free radicals. Antioxidant abilities of EPS with fructose as carbon source were highest among five EPS.


Assuntos
Amidinas , Antioxidantes , Basidiomycota , Benzotiazóis , Carbono , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , DNA/química , Frutose , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1330629, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532897

RESUMO

Background: L-carnitine therapy for idiopathic sperm abnormalities exhibits variable effectiveness, and currently, there are no established criteria to predict patient response. This study investigated correlations between seminal plasma markers and semen parameters to identify biomarkers that can guide indications for L-carnitine therapy indications in patients with idiopathic sperm abnormalities. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 223 male patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia, who sought medical attention at our clinic between January 2020 and October 2022. These patients underwent a pretreatment seminal plasma biochemical analysis, followed by a three-month continuous L-carnitine treatment. The correlation between seminal plasma biochemical parameters and pretreatment semen parameters was analyzed. Semen quality was compared between cases with normal and abnormal seminal plasma biochemical parameters, both pretreatment and posttreatment. The correlation between the changes in semen parameters after treatment and seminal plasma biochemical parameters were investigated. Results: Correlation analyses revealed significant associations between all pretreatment semen parameters and seminal plasma biochemical markers, except for liquefying time and the ratio of normal morphology. Subgroup analysis, stratified by seminal fructose, zinc, citric acid, and neutral glycosidase levels, demonstrated that abnormal groups exhibited significantly different levels of semen parameters compared with the normal groups. The changing difference and changing ratio in the ratio of forward motile sperm showed a negative correlation with seminal fructose levels (r=-0.165 and -0.144). The changing difference in semen volume was negatively correlated with the level of seminal neutral glycosidase (r=-0.158). The changing ratio in semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and count of forward motile sperm all exhibited negative correlations with the levels of seminal neutral glycosidase (range from -0.178 to -0.224). Conclusion: Seminal plasma biochemical markers, particularly fructose and neutral glycosidase, may serve as valuable indicators for determining the eligibility of patients with idiopathic sperm abnormalities for L-carnitine therapy.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Sêmen , Masculino , Humanos , Sêmen/química , Análise do Sêmen , Carnitina , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Biomarcadores/análise , Frutose , Glicosídeo Hidrolases
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300719, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527055

RESUMO

Climate change increases global temperatures, which is lethal to both livestock and humans. Heat stress is known as one of the various livestock stresses, and dairy cows react sensitively to high-temperature stress. We aimed to better understand the effects of heat stress on the health of dairy cows and observing biological changes. Individual cows were divided into normal (21-22 °C, 50-60% humidity) and high temperature (31-32 °C, 80-95% humidity), respectively, for 7-days. We performed metabolomic and transcriptome analyses of the blood and gut microbiomes of feces. In the high-temperature group, nine metabolites including linoleic acid and fructose were downregulated, and 154 upregulated and 72 downregulated DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes) were identified, and eighteen microbes including Intestinimonas and Pseudoflavonifractor in genus level were significantly different from normal group. Linoleic acid and fructose have confirmed that associated with various stresses, and functional analysis of DEG and microorganisms showing significant differences confirmed that high-temperature stress is related to the inflammatory response, immune system, cellular energy mechanism, and microbial butyrate production. These biological changes were likely to withstand high-temperature stress. Immune and inflammatory responses are known to be induced by heat stress, which has been identified to maintain homeostasis through modulation at metabolome, transcriptome and microbiome levels. In these findings, heat stress condition can trigger alteration of immune system and cellular energy metabolism, which is shown as reduced metabolites, pathway enrichment and differential microbes. As results of this study did not include direct phenotypic data, we believe that additional validation is required in the future. In conclusion, high-temperature stress contributed to the reduction of metabolites, changes in gene expression patterns and composition of gut microbiota, which are thought to support dairy cows in withstanding high-temperature stress via modulating immune-related genes, and cellular energy metabolism to maintain homeostasis.


Assuntos
Lactação , Ácido Linoleico , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Lactação/fisiologia , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Homeostase , Frutose/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Leite/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542281

RESUMO

Epilepsy ranks as the second-most prevalent neurological disease, and is characterized by seizures resulting in neurobiological and behavioral impairment. Naturally occurring in coffee beans or tea leaves, the alkaloid caffeine (CAF) is the most prevalent global stimulant. Caffeine has been observed to influence epileptic seizures and the efficacy of antiepileptic medications, with a notable impact on topiramate (TPM). This study aimed to explore the influence of CAF on TPM's anticonvulsant effects in zebrafish larvae within a PTZ-induced seizure model, concurrently determining TPM concentrations through a sophisticated analytical approach based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and subsequent mass spectrometric detection. Zebrafish larvae four days post-fertilization were incubated for 18 h with varying doses of TPM or combinations of CAF + TPM, and locomotor activity was then assessed. Seizures were induced by introducing a PTZ solution to achieve a final concentration of 20 mM. Utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), TPM levels in the larvae were quantified. CAF co-administration (especially in higher doses) with TPM caused a decrease in the average locomotor activity in the larvae compared to TPM alone. Moreover, CAF decreased TPM levels in the larvae at all investigated doses. In conclusion, these findings offer a novel perspective on the interplay between CAF and TPM, shedding light on previously unexplored facets. The potential impact of CAF consumption in assisting with epileptic seizure control, unless proven otherwise, suggests a noteworthy consideration for future research and clinical practices.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Pentilenotetrazol/toxicidade , Cafeína/farmacologia , Cafeína/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542783

RESUMO

There is currently a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals as a means of preventing the development of complex diseases. Given the considerable health potential of milk-derived peptides, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of glycomacropeptide (GMP) on metabolic syndrome. Particular emphasis was placed on the potential mechanisms mitigating cardiometabolic disorders in high-fat, high-fructose diet-fed mice in the presence of GMP or Bipro, an isocaloric control. The administration of GMP for 12 weeks reduced obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia caused by a high-fat, high-fructose diet, resulting in a decline in insulin resistance. GMP also lessened systemic inflammation, as indicated by decreased circulating inflammatory cytokines. In the intestinal and hepatic tissues, GMP improved homeostasis by increasing insulin sensitivity and attenuating high-fat, high-fructose-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biochemical and histological analyses revealed improved hepatic steatosis and fatty acid composition in the livers of high-fat, high-fructose diet-fed mice treated with GMP compared to Bipro. A trend toward a decrease in bile acids without any marked changes in intestinal microbiota composition characterized GMP-treated animals compared to those administered Bipro. GMP offers considerable potential for fighting metabolic syndrome-related components and complications given its beneficial effects on risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress without involving the intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Hiperinsulinismo , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Animais , Camundongos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474061

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is a key player in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) progression. Necroptosis, an inflammatory cell death pathway, is elevated in MAFLD patients and mouse models, yet its role is unclear due to the diverse mouse models and inhibition strategies. In our study, we inhibited necroptosis by targeting mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL), the terminal effector of necroptosis, in a high-fat, high-fructose, high-cholesterol (HFHFrHC) mouse model of diet-induced MAFLD. Despite the HFHFrHC diet upregulating MLKL (2.5-fold), WT mice livers showed no increase in necroptosis markers or associated proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, Mlkl-/- mice experienced exacerbated liver inflammation without protection from diet-induced liver damage, steatosis, or fibrosis. In contrast, Mlkl+/- mice showed a significant reduction in these parameters that was associated with elevated Pparα and Pparγ levels. Both Mlkl-/- and Mlkl+/- mice on the HFHFrHC diet resisted diet-induced obesity, attributed to the increased beiging, enhanced oxygen consumption, and energy expenditure due to adipose tissue, and exhibited improved insulin sensitivity. These findings highlight the tissue-specific effects of MLKL on the liver and adipose tissue, and they suggest a dose-dependent effect of MLKL on liver pathology.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Frutose , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Inflamação , Colesterol , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo
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