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1.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e277974, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808784

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays L.) is of socioeconomic importance as an essential food for human and animal nutrition. However, cereals are susceptible to attack by mycotoxin-producing fungi, which can damage health. The methods most commonly used to detect and quantify mycotoxins are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, alternative non-destructive methods are required urgently. The present study aimed to use near-infrared spectroscopy with hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) and multivariate image analysis to develop a rapid and accurate method for quantifying fumonisins in whole grains of six naturally contaminated maize cultivars. Fifty-eight samples, each containing 40 grains, were subjected to NIR-HSI. These were subsequently divided into calibration (38 samples) and prediction sets (20 samples) based on the multispectral data obtained. The averaged spectra were subjected to various pre-processing techniques (standard normal variate (SNV), first derivative, or second derivative). The most effective pre-treatment performed on the spectra was SNV. Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to quantify the fumonisin content. The final model presented a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.98 and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 508 µg.kg-1 for the calibration set, an R2 of 0.95 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 508 µg.kg-1 for the test validation set and a ratio of performance to deviation of 4.7. It was concluded that NIR-HSI with partial least square regression is a rapid, effective, and non-destructive method to determine the fumonisin content in whole maize grains.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Zea mays , Zea mays/química , Fumonisinas/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Imageamento Hiperespectral/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Quimiometria/métodos
2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(5): 294, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698253

RESUMO

Early transition metal carbides (MXene) hybridized by precious metals open a door for innovative electrochemical biosensing device design. Herein, we present a facile one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-doped two-dimensional (2D) titanium carbide MXene nanoflakes (Ti3C2Tx/Au). Ti3C2Tx MXene exhibits high electrical conductivity and yields synergistic signal amplification in conjunction with AuNPs leading to excellent electrochemical performance. Thus Ti3C2Tx/Au hybrid nanostructure can be used as an electrode platform for the electrochemical analysis of various targets. We used screen-printed electrodes modified with the Ti3C2Tx/Au electrode and functionalized with different biorecognition elements to detect and quantify an antibiotic, ampicillin (AMP), and a mycotoxin, fumonisin B1 (FB1). The ultralow limits of detection of 2.284 pM and 1.617 pg.mL-1, which we achieved respectively for AMP and FB1 are far lower than their corresponding maximum residue limits of 2.8 nM in milk and 2 to 4 mg kg-1 in corn products for human consumption set by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Additionally, the linear range of detection and quantification of AMP and FB1 were, respectively, 10 pM to 500 nM and 10 pg mL-1 to 1 µg mL-1. The unique structure and excellent electrochemical performance of Ti3C2Tx/Au nanocomposite suggest that it is highly suitable for anchoring biorecognition entities such as antibodies and oligonucleotides for monitoring various deleterious contaminants in agri-food products.


Assuntos
Ampicilina , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Fumonisinas , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Titânio , Fumonisinas/análise , Ouro/química , Ampicilina/análise , Ampicilina/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Titânio/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Leite/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Eletrodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais
3.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 40(1): 33, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769285

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a water-soluble mycotoxin released by Fusarium moniliforme Sheld, is widely present in corn and its derivative products, and seriously endangers human life and health. Recent studies have reported that FB1 can lead to pyroptosis, however, the mechanisms by which FB1-induced pyroptosis remain indistinct. In the present study, we aim to investigate the mechanisms of pyroptosis in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and the relationship between FB1-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and pyroptosis. Our experimental results showed that the pyroptosis protein indicators in IPEC-J2 were significantly increased after exposure to FB1. The ERS markers, including glucose-regulated Protein 78 (GRP78), PKR-like ER kinase protein (PERK), and preprotein translocation factor (Sec62) were also significantly increased. Using small interfering RNA silencing of PERK or Sec62, the results demonstrated that upregulation of Sec62 activates the PERK pathway, and activation of the PERK signaling pathway is upstream of FB1-induced pyroptosis. After using the ERS inhibitor 4-PBA reduced the FB1-triggered intestinal injury by the Sec62-PERK pathway. In conclusion, we found that FB1 induced pyroptosis by upregulating Sec62 to activate the PERK pathway, and mild ERS alleviates FB1-triggered damage. It all boils down to one fact, the study provides a new perspective for further, and improving the toxicological mechanism of FB1.


Assuntos
Chaperona BiP do Retículo Endoplasmático , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Piroptose , Transdução de Sinais , eIF-2 Quinase , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Suínos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Chaperona BiP do Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumonisinas
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11643, 2024 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773169

RESUMO

Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural commodities is a global public health problem that has remained elusive to various mitigation approaches, particularly in developing countries. Climate change and its impact exacerbates South Africa's vulnerability to mycotoxin contamination, and significantly threatens its's food systems, public health, and agro-economic development. Herein we analyse sixteen years (2005/2006-2020/2021) of annual national meteorological data on South Africa which reveals both systematic and erratic variability in critical climatic factors known to influence mycotoxin contamination in crops. Within the same study period, data on fumonisin (FB) monitoring show clear climate-dependent trends. The strongest positive warming trend is observed between 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 (0.51 °C/year), and a strong positive correlation is likewise established between FB contamination and temperature (r ranging from 0.6 to 0.9). Four machine learning models, viz support vector machines, eXtreme gradient boosting, random forest, and orthogonal partial least squares, are generalized on the historical data with suitable performance (RMSE as low as 0.00). All the adopted models are able to predict future FB contamination patterns with reasonable precision (R2 ranging from 0.34 to 1.00). The most important model feature for predicting average FB contamination (YA) is the historical pattern of average FB contamination in maize within the region (ΣFBs_avg). The two most significant features in modelling maximum FB contamination (YM) are minimum temperature from the CMIP6 data (Pro_tempMIN) and observed precipitation from the CRU data (O_prep). Our study provides strong evidence of the impact of climate change on FB in South Africa and reiterates the significance of machine learning modelling in predicting mycotoxin contamination in light of changing climatic conditions, which could facilitate early warnings and the adoption of relevant mitigation measures that could help in mycotoxin risk management and control.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fumonisinas , Zea mays , África do Sul , Fumonisinas/análise , Zea mays/microbiologia , Clima , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Produtos Agrícolas
5.
Chemosphere ; 359: 142300, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729444

RESUMO

The neurotoxicity of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a commonly detected mycotoxin in crops and the environment, has attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, no effective method for eliminating FB1 completely exists due to the thermal stability and water solubility of this mycotoxin. Magnolol (MAG) is a neolignane with antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. It has been applied in neurotoxicity treatment. However, the application of MAG to attenuate FB1-induced toxicity has not been reported. This study explored the protective mechanism of MAG against FB1-induced damage in C6 cells through antioxidant and lipid metabolism modulation. Results showed that exposure to 15 µM FB1 caused oxidative stress by changing the levels of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total glutathione. These changes were reversed by MAG addition, especially at the concentration of 80 µM. The protective effects of MAG were further confirmed by the reduction in the phosphorylation levels of proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway. Lipidomics analysis identified 263 lipids, which belong to 24 lipid classes. Among all of the identified lipids, triglycerides (TGs), diglycerides (DGs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs), wax monoesters (WEs), Cers, and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) were major categories. Moreover, nine categories of lipids showed the opposite change trend in the FB1 exposure and MAG 80 groups. A further investigation of the 34 co-occurring differential lipids with remarkable changes (P value < 0.05 and VIP value > 1) in the control, FB1 exposure, and MAG 80 groups was performed. Therein, nine lipids (PCs, LPCs, and SM) were screened out as potential biomarkers to reveal the cytoprotective effects of MAG. This work is the first to investigate the rescue mechanism of MAG in FB1-induced cytotoxicity. The obtained results may expand the application of MAG to alleviate the toxicity of mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo , Fumonisinas , Lignanas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Ratos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Glutationa/metabolismo
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 259: 116387, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754194

RESUMO

The incidence of esophageal cancer is positively associated with fumonisin contamination. It is necessary to develop methods for the rapid detection of fumonisins. In this work, a self-powered photoelectrochemical aptamer sensor based on ZnIn2S4/WO3 photoanode and Au@W-Co3O4 photocathode is proposed for the sensitive detection of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Among them, under visible light irradiation, the Z-type heterostructure of ZnIn2S4/WO3 acts as a photoanode to improve the electron transfer rate, which contributes to the enhancement of the photocathode signal and lays the foundation for a wider detection range. The Au@W-Co3O4 photocathode as a sensing interface reduces the probability of false positives (comparison of anode sensing platforms). The PEC sensor has a good working performance in the detection range (10 pg/mL-1000 ng/mL) with a detection limit of 2.7 pg/mL (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor offers good selectivity, stability and excellent recoveries in real sample analysis. This work is expected to play a role in the field of analyzing environmental toxins.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Fumonisinas , Limite de Detecção , Fumonisinas/análise , Fumonisinas/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Tungstênio/química , Eletrodos , Óxidos/química , Ouro/química , Humanos , Luz , Zinco/química
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134682, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795487

RESUMO

The high osmolarity glycerol 1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (Hog1-MAPK) cascade genes are important for diverse biological processes. The activated Hog1 upon multiple environmental stress stimuli enters into the nucleus where it directly phosphorylates transcription factors to regulate various physiological processes in phytopathogenic fungi. However, their roles have not been well-characterized in Fusarium verticillioides. In this study, FvHog1 is identified and functionally analyzed. The findings reveal that the phosphorylation level and nuclear localization of FvHog1 are increased in Fumonisin B1 (FB1)-inducing condition to regulate the expression of FB1 biosynthesis FUM genes. More importantly, the deletion mutants of Hog1-MAPK pathway show increased sensitivity to Ca2+ stress and elevated intracellular Ca2+ content. The phosphorylation level and nuclear localization of FvHog1 are increased with Ca2+ treatment. Furthermore, our results show that FvHog1 can directly phosphorylate Ca2+-responsive zinc finger transcription factor 1 (FvCrz1) to regulate Ca2+ homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FvHog1 is required for FB1 biosynthesis, pathogenicity and Ca2+ homeostasis in F. verticillioides. It provides a theoretical basis for effective prevention and control maize ear and stalk rot disease.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Fumonisinas , Proteínas Fúngicas , Fusarium , Homeostase , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Fusarium/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fumonisinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fosforilação , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 395: 111005, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615975

RESUMO

Poultry feed is often contaminated with fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone, which can result in oxidative damage, inflammation and change in lipid metabolism. Although sphingolipids play key roles in cells, only the effects of fumonisins on the sphingolipidome are well-documented. In chickens, fumonisins have been shown to increase the sphinganine to sphingosine ratio and the C22-24:C16 sphingolipid ratio, which has been proposed as a new biomarker of toxicity. In this study, we used UHPLC-MSMS targeted analysis to measure the effect of fusariotoxins on sphingolipids in the livers of chickens fed with diets containing fusariotoxins administered individually and in combination, at the maximum levels recommended by the European Commission. Chickens were exposed from hatching until they reached 35 days of age. This study revealed for the first time that fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone alone and in combination have numerous effects on the sphingolipidome in chicken livers. A 30-50 % decrease in ceramide, dihydroceramide, sphingomyelin, dihydrosphingomyelin, monohexosylceramide and lactosylceramide measured at the class level was observed when fusariotoxins were administered alone, whereas a 30-100 % increase in dihydroceramide, sphingomyelin, dihydrosphingomyelin, and monohexosylceramide was observed when the fusariotoxins were administered in combination. For these different variables, strong significant interactions were observed between fumonisins and zearalenone and between fumonisins and deoxynivalenol, whereas interactions between deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were less frequent and less significant. Interestingly, an increase in the C22-24:C16 ratio of ceramides, sphingomyelins, and monohexosylceramides was observed in chickens fed the diets containing fumonisins only, and this increase was close when the toxin was administered alone or in combination with deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. This effect mainly corresponded to a decrease in sphingolipids with a fatty acid chain length of 16 carbons, whereas C22-24 sphingolipids were unaffected or increased. In conclusion the C22-24:C16 ratio emerged as a specific biomarker, with variations dependent only on the presence of fumonisins.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Fumonisinas , Fígado , Esfingolipídeos , Tricotecenos , Zearalenona , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ração Animal/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(4)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668592

RESUMO

Broiler chickens in livestock production face numerous challenges that can impact their health and welfare, including mycotoxin contamination and heat stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of two mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs), along with short-term heat stress conditions, on broiler gut health and endotoxin translocation. An experiment was conducted to assess the impacts of mycotoxin exposure on broilers, focusing on intestinal endotoxin activity, gene expression related to gut barrier function and inflammation, and the plasma concentration of the endotoxin marker 3-OH C14:0 either at thermoneutral conditions or short-term heat stress conditions. Independently of heat stress, broilers fed DON-contaminated diets exhibited reduced body weight gain during the starter phase (Day 1-12) compared to the control group, while broilers fed FB-contaminated diets experienced decreased body weight gain throughout the entire trial period (Day 1-24). Furthermore, under thermoneutral conditions, broilers fed DON-contaminated diets showed an increase in 3-OH C14:0 concentration in the plasma. Moreover, under heat stress conditions, the expression of genes related to gut barrier function (Claudin 5, Zonulin 1 and 2) and inflammation (Toll-like receptor 4, Interleukin-1 beta, Interleukin-6) was significantly affected by diets contaminated with mycotoxins, depending on the gut segment. This effect was particularly prominent in broilers fed diets contaminated with FBs. Notably, the plasma concentration of 3-OH C14:0 increased in broilers exposed to both DON- and FB-contaminated diets under heat stress conditions. These findings shed light on the intricate interactions between mycotoxins, heat stress, gut health, and endotoxin translocation in broiler chickens, highlighting the importance of understanding these interactions for the development of effective management strategies in livestock production to enhance broiler health and welfare.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Endotoxinas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fusarium , Tricotecenos , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Endotoxinas/sangue , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Masculino , Dieta/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(4)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668593

RESUMO

The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the effects of a novel mycotoxin detoxifier whose formulation includes clay (bentonite and sepiolite), phytogenic feed additives (curcumin and silymarin) and postbiotics (yeast products) on the health, performance and redox status of weaned piglets under the dietary challenge of fumonisins (FUMs). The study was conducted in duplicate in the course of two independent trials on two different farms. One hundred and fifty (150) weaned piglets per trial farm were allocated into two separate groups: (a) T1 (control group): 75 weaned piglets received FUM-contaminated feed and (b) T2 (experimental group): 75 weaned piglets received FUM-contaminated feed with the mycotoxin-detoxifying agent from the day of weaning (28 days) until 70 days of age. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), protein carbonyls (CARBs) and the overall antioxidant capacity (TAC) were assessed in plasma as indicators of redox status at 45 and 70 days of age. Furthermore, mortality and performance parameters were recorded at 28, 45 and 70 days of age, while histopathological examination was performed at the end of the trial period (day 70). The results of the present study reveal the beneficial effects of supplementing a novel mycotoxin detoxifier in the diets of weaners, including improved redox status, potential hepatoprotective properties and enhanced growth performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Curcumina , Oxirredução , Desmame , Animais , Curcumina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Suínos , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bentonita/farmacologia , Bentonita/química , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Silicatos de Alumínio/farmacologia , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Micotoxinas/toxicidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530071

RESUMO

This review analyzes the occurrence and co-exposure of aflatoxins and fumonisins in conventional and organic corn, and compares the vulnerability to contamination of both. The risks of fungal contamination in corn are real, mainly by the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium, producers of aflatoxins and fumonisins, respectively. Aflatoxins, especially AFB1, are related to a high incidence of liver cancer, and the International Agency Research of Cancer (IARC) classified them in group 1A 'carcinogenic to humans'. The occurrence in conventional corn is reported in many countries, including at higher levels than those established by legislation. IARC classified fumonisins in group 2B 'possibly carcinogenic to humans' due to their link with incidence of esophageal cancer. However, comparing corn and organic and conventional by-products from different regions, different results are observed. The co-occurrence of both mycotoxins is a worldwide problem; nevertheless, there is little data on the comparison of the co-exposure of these mycotoxins in corn and derivatives between both systems. It was found that the agricultural system is not a decisive factor in the final contamination, indicating the necessity of effective strategies to reduce contamination and co-exposure at levels that do not pose health risks.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fumonisinas , Zea mays , Zea mays/química , Fumonisinas/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Aspergillus , Fusarium
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1866(5): 184310, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479610

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a food-borne mycotoxin, is a cancer promoter in rodent liver and augments proliferation of initiated cells while inhibiting the growth of normal hepatocytes by disrupting lipid biosynthesis at various levels. HepG2 cancer cells exhibited resistance to FB1-induced toxic effects presumably due to their low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) even though FB1-typical lipid changes were observed, e.g. significantly increased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), decreased sphingomyelin and cholesterol content, increased sphinganine (Sa) and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, increased C18:1ω-9, decreased C20:4ω-6 content in PE and decreased C20:4ω-6_PC/PE ratio. Increasing PUFA content of HepG2 cells with phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles containing C20:4ω-6 (SAPC) or C22:6ω-3 (SDPC) disrupted cell survival, cellular redox status and induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. A partially protective effect of FB1 was evident in PUFA-enriched HepG2 cells which may be related to the FB1-induced reduction in oxidative stress and the disruption of key cell membrane constituents indicative of a resistant lipid phenotype. Interactions between different ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA, membrane constituents including cholesterol, and the glycerophospho- and sphingolipids and FB1 in this cell model provide further support for the resistant lipid phenotype and its role in the complex cellular effects underlying the cancer promoting potential of the fumonisins.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Fumonisinas , Fumonisinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Hep G2 , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535820

RESUMO

In the context of nephrotoxic risks associated with environmental contaminants, this study focused on the impact of mycotoxin exposure on the renal health of laying hens, with particular attention to oxidative stress pathways. Sixty laying hens were assigned to three groups-a control group (CON), a low-dose mycotoxin group (LOW), and a high-dose mycotoxin group (HIGH)-and monitored for 72 h. Mycotoxin contamination involved T-2/HT-2 toxin, DON/3-AcDON/15-AcDON, and FB1 at their EU-recommended levels (low mix) and at double doses (high mix). Clinical assessments revealed no signs of toxicity or notable weight changes. Analysis of the glutathione redox system parameters demonstrated that the reduced glutathione content was lower than that in the controls at 48 h and higher at 72 h. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in response to mycotoxin exposure. In addition, the gene expression patterns of key redox-sensitive pathways, including Keap1-Nrf2-ARE and the AhR pathway, were examined. Notably, gene expression profiles revealed dynamic responses to mycotoxin exposure over time, underscoring the intricate interplay of redox-related mechanisms in the kidney. This study sheds light on the early effects of mycotoxin mixtures on laying hens' kidneys and their potential for oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Micotoxinas , Toxina T-2 , Tricotecenos , Animais , Feminino , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Galinhas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estresse Oxidativo , Rim , Glutationa
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8550-8568, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546976

RESUMO

Pathogenic fungi pose a significant threat to crop yields and human healthy, and the subsequent fungicide resistance has greatly aggravated these agricultural and medical challenges. Hence, the development of new fungicides with higher efficiency and greater environmental friendliness is urgently required. In this study, luvangetin, isolated and identified from the root of Zanthoxylum avicennae, exhibited wide-spectrum antifungal activity in vivo and in vitro. Integrated omics and in vitro and in vivo transcriptional analyses revealed that luvangetin inhibited GAL4-like Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional factor-mediated transcription, particularly the FvFUM21-mediated FUM cluster gene expression, and decreased the biosynthesis of fumonisins inFusarium verticillioides. Moreover, luvangetin binds to the double-stranded DNA helix in vitro in the groove mode. We isolated and identified luvangetin, a natural metabolite from a traditional Chinese edible medicinal plant and uncovered its multipathogen resistance mechanism. This study is the first to reveal the mechanism underlying the antifungal activity of luvangetin and provides a promising direction for the future use of plant-derived natural products to prevent and control plant and animal pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Zanthoxylum , Animais , Humanos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Zanthoxylum/metabolismo , Fumonisinas/metabolismo
15.
Mutagenesis ; 39(3): 181-195, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468450

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins widely distributed in maize and maized-based products, often occurring together. The implications of co-exposure to aflatoxin and fumonsin for human health are numerous, but a particular concern is the potential of FB1 to modulate AFB1 hepatotoxicity. This study evaluated the toxicity of these mycotoxins, alone or combined, in a human non-tumorigenic liver cell line, HHL-16 cells, and assessed the effects of AFB1 and FB1 on expression of genes involved in immune and growth factor pathways. The results demonstrated that in HHL-16 cells, both AFB1 and FB1 had dose-dependent and time-dependent toxicity, and the combination of them showed a synergistic toxicity in the cells. Moreover, AFB1 caused upregulation of IL6, CCL20, and BMP2, and downregulation of NDP. In combination of AFB1 with FB1, gene expression levels of IL6 and BMP2 were significantly higher compared to individual FB1 treatment, and had a tendency to be higher than individual AFB1 treatment. This study shows that FB1 may increase the hepatoxicity of AFB1 through increasing the inflammatory response and disrupting cell growth pathways.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Fumonisinas , Hepatócitos , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 253: 116183, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452570

RESUMO

Fumonisin (FB) is a pervasive hazardous substance in the environment, presenting significant threats to human health and ecological systems. Thus, the selective and sensitive detection of fumonisin B1 (FB1) is crucial due to its high toxicity and wide distribution in corn, oats, and related products. In this work, we developed a novel and versatile fluorescent aptasensor by combining enzyme-assisted dual recycling amplification with 2D δ-FeOOH-NH2 nanosheets for the determination of FB1. The established CRISPR/Cas12a system was activated by using activator DNA (aDNA), which was released via a T7 exonuclease-assisted recycling reaction. Additionally, the activated Cas12a protein was utilized for non-specifically cleavage of the FAM-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA-FAM) anchored on δ-FeOOH-NH2 nanosheets. The pre-quenched fluorescence signal was restored due to the desorption of the cleaved ssDNA-FAM. Due to the utilization of this T7 exonuclease-Cas12a-δ-FeOOH-NH2 aptasensor for signal amplification, the detection range of FB1 was expanded from 1 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.45 pg/mL. This study not only provides novel insights into the development of fluorescence biosensors based on 2D nanomaterials combined with CRISPR/Cas12a, but also exhibits remarkable applicability in detecting other significant targets.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Fumonisinas , Humanos , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Corantes Fluorescentes , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Limite de Detecção
17.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103598, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489885

RESUMO

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) lameness is the most critical animal health and welfare issue facing the broiler industry worldwide. It is estimated that 1 to 2% of bird condemnation at marketing age is caused by BCO lameness, resulting in tens of millions of dollars in annual losses. Fast-growing broilers are prone to mechanical stress that triggers bacterial translocation across epithelial barriers into the bloodstream, followed by bacterial colonization in the growth plate of long bones, and eventually, bone necrosis and lameness. Mycotoxins (MTX) are secondary metabolites produced naturally by microfungi, of which deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin (FUM), and zearalenone are the most prevalent in corn and soybean-meal-based diets. The presence of these mycotoxins in feed has been proven to reduce the barrier strength of the intestinal tracts and trigger immunosuppressive effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of the DON and FUM-contaminated feeds on the incidence of BCO lameness in broilers reared in both wire- and litter-floors. 720 one-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to the 2 × 2 factorial design: 2 MTX diets containing DON and FUM on wire flooring (MTX-W) and litter flooring (MTX-L), and 2 diets without MTX contamination on control wire flooring (CW) and control litter flooring (CL). Throughout the trial, the cumulative incidence of lameness per treatment was assessed by necropsying the lame birds. Birds in the MTX-W group had a higher incidence of lameness compared to those in CW (73.3% vs. 62.0%) (P < 0.05), and birds in the MTX-L group had a higher incidence of lameness compared to birds in CL (54.0% vs. 34.0%) (P < 0.05). MTX elicited net increases in BCO to a greater degree on litter (+20%) than on wire flooring (+12%). The increased incidence of BCO lameness in the MTX-W coincided with increased intestinal permeability supporting a correlation between intestinal barrier integrity and BCO lameness. To conclude, DON and FUM are predisposing factors for increasing BCO. However, no significant interaction exists between the diet and floor types in inducing lameness in broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Fumonisinas , Coxeadura Animal , Osteomielite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Tricotecenos , Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Osteomielite/veterinária , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/etiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Dieta/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais
18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(2)2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393173

RESUMO

Maize production in South Africa is concentrated in its central provinces. The Eastern Cape contributes less than 1% of total production, but is steadily increasing its production and has been identified as a priority region for future growth. In this study, we surveyed ear rots at maize farms in the Eastern Cape, and mycotoxins were determined to be present in collected samples. Fungal isolations were made from mouldy ears and species identified using morphology and DNA sequences. Cladosporium, Diplodia, Fusarium and Gibberella ear rots were observed during field work, and of these, we collected 78 samples and isolated 83 fungal strains. Fusarium was identified from Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Gibberella ear rot (GER) and Stenocarpella from Diplodia ear rot (DER) samples, respectively. Using LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin analysis, it was revealed that 83% of the collected samples contained mycotoxins, and 17% contained no mycotoxins. Fifty percent of samples contained multiple mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, diplodiatoxin and zearalenone) and 33% contained a single mycotoxin. Fusarium verticillioides was not isolated and fumonisins not detected during this survey. This study revealed that ear rots in the Eastern Cape are caused by a wide range of species that may produce various mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Tricotecenos , Micotoxinas/análise , Zea mays/microbiologia , África do Sul , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fungos , Fumonisinas/análise , Fusarium/genética
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(2)2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393168

RESUMO

Fusarium fungi produce a diverse array of mycotoxic metabolites during the pathogenesis of cereals. Some, such as the trichothecenes and fumonisins, are phytotoxic, acting as non-proteinaceous effectors that facilitate disease development in cereals. Over the last few decades, we have gained some depth of understanding as to how trichothecenes and fumonisins interact with plant cells and how plants deploy mycotoxin detoxification and resistance strategies to defend themselves against the producer fungi. The cereal-mycotoxin interaction is part of a co-evolutionary dance between Fusarium and cereals, as evidenced by a trichothecene-responsive, taxonomically restricted, cereal gene competing with a fungal effector protein and enhancing tolerance to the trichothecene and resistance to DON-producing F. graminearum. But the binary fungal-plant interaction is part of a bigger ecosystem wherein other microbes and insects have been shown to interact with fungal mycotoxins, directly or indirectly through host plants. We are only beginning to unravel the extent to which trichothecenes, fumonisins and other mycotoxins play a role in fungal-ecosystem interactions. We now have tools to determine how, when and where mycotoxins impact and are impacted by the microbiome and microfauna. As more mycotoxins are described, research into their individual and synergistic toxicity and their interactions with the crop ecosystem will give insights into how we can holistically breed for and cultivate healthy crops.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Tricotecenos , Fumonisinas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Melhoramento Vegetal , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(2): 427-434, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381585

RESUMO

Mycotoxins that contaminate grain can cause the devaluation of agricultural products and create health risks for the consumer. Fumonisins are one such mycotoxin. Produced primarily by Fusarium verticillioides (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) (Nirenberg, 1976) on corn, fumonisins' economic impact can be significant by causing various diseases in livestock if contaminated corn is not monitored and removed from animal feed. Finding safe alternatives to the destruction and waste of contaminated grain and restoring its economic value is needed for a sustainable future. Safe reintroduction into the farm food web may be possible through a consumable intermediary such as insects. This study demonstrates the suitability of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus L., as an alternative protein source in domestic animal feed by quantifying fumonisin B1 (FB1) levels in their subsequent insect meal and frass. Small colonies of 2nd instar A. domesticus were reared to 5th instar adults on nutrient-optimized corn-based diets treated with 4 levels of FB1 from 0 to 20 ppm. Increasing levels of FB1 had no adverse effects on the survivorship or growth of A. domesticus. Insect meals prepared from A. domesticus had significantly lower levels of FB1, at 3%-5% of their respective diets, while frass did not differ significantly from their diet. The successful rearing to adulthood of A. domesticus on fumonisin-contaminated diet paired with lower levels of FB1 in their processed insect meal supports the idea that more sustainable agricultural practices can be developed through remediation of low-value mycotoxin-contaminated grain with safer, higher-value insects as livestock feed components.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Gryllidae , Micotoxinas , Animais , Fumonisinas/análise , Fumonisinas/metabolismo , Gado , Micotoxinas/análise , Ração Animal
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