Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49.526
Filtrar
1.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 129, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587647

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are being used as a new generation of biofertilizers to increase plant growth by improving plant nutrition and bio-protection. However, because of the obligatory nature of the plant host, large-scale multiplication of AM propagules is challenging, which limits its applicability. This study evaluates the ability of Burkholderia arboris to increase AM production in soybean mill waste and vermicompost amended by soil-sand mixture planted with sorghum as a host plant. The experiment was conducted in a nursery using a completely randomized design with four inoculation treatments (B. arboris, AM fungi, B. arboris + AM fungi, and control) under sterilized and unsterilized conditions. AM production was investigated microscopically (spore density and root colonization), and biochemically (AM-specific lipid biomarker, 16:1ω5cis derived from neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA), and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) fractions from both soil and roots). Integrating B. arboris with AM fungi in organically amended pots was found to increase AM fungal production by 62.16 spores g-1 soil and root colonization by 80.85%. Biochemical parameters also increased with B. arboris inoculation: 5.49 nmol PLFA g-1 soil and 692.68 nmol PLFA g-1 root and 36.72 nmol NLFA g-1 soil and 3147.57 nmol NLFA g-1 root. Co-inoculation also increased glomalin-related soil protein and root biomass. Principal component analysis (PCA) further supported the higher contribution of B. arboris to AM fungi production under unsterilized conditions. In conclusion, inoculation of AM plant host seeds with B. arboris prior to sowing into organic potting mix could be a promising and cost-effective approach for increasing AM inoculum density for commercial production. Furthermore, efforts need to be made for up-scaling the AM production with different plant hosts and soil-substrate types.


Assuntos
Complexo Burkholderia cepacia , Burkholderia , Sorghum , Areia , Solo , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos , Fungos
2.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 167, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592380

RESUMO

Microorganisms are crucial elements of terrestrial ecosystems, which play significant roles in improving soil physicochemical properties, providing plant growth nutrients, degrading toxic and harmful chemicals, and biogeochemical cycling. Variations in the types and quantities of root exudates among different plants greatly alter soil physicochemical properties and result in variations in the diversity, structure, and function of soil microorganisms. Not much is understood about the differences of soil fungi and archaea communities for different plant communities in coastal wetlands, and their response mechanisms to environmental changes. In this study, fungal and archaea communities in soils of Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, and Spartina alterniflora in the intertidal habitat of coastal wetlands were selected for research. Soil fungi and archaea were analyzed for diversity, community structure, and function using high throughput ITS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study revealed significant differences in fungi and archaea's diversity and community structure in the rhizosphere soil of three plant communities. At the same time, there is no significant difference in the functional groups. SOM, TP, AP, MC, EC and SOM, TN, TP, AP, MC, EC are the primary environmental determinants affecting changes in soil fungal and archaeal communities, respectively. Variations in the diversity, community structure, and ecological functions of fungi and archaea can be used as indicators characterizing the impact of external disturbances on the soil environment, providing a theoretical foundation for the effective utilization of soil microbial resources, thereby achieving the goal of environmental protection and health promotion.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Archaea/genética , Poaceae , Solo , Fungos/genética
3.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 339, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580669

RESUMO

Bridging molecular information to ecosystem-level processes would provide the capacity to understand system vulnerability and, potentially, a means for assessing ecosystem health. Here, we present an integrated dataset containing environmental and metagenomic information from plant-associated microbial communities, plant transcriptomics, plant and soil metabolomics, and soil chemistry and activity characterization measurements derived from the model tree species Populus trichocarpa. Soil, rhizosphere, root endosphere, and leaf samples were collected from 27 different P. trichocarpa genotypes grown in two different environments leading to an integrated dataset of 318 metagenomes, 98 plant transcriptomes, and 314 metabolomic profiles that are supported by diverse soil measurements. This expansive dataset will provide insights into causal linkages that relate genomic features and molecular level events to system-level properties and their environmental influences.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Microbiota , Populus , Transcriptoma , Fungos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Populus/genética , Solo
4.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13253, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575147

RESUMO

Partner specificity is a well-documented phenomenon in biotic interactions, yet the factors that determine specificity in plant-fungal associations remain largely unknown. By utilizing composite soil samples, we identified the predictors that drive partner specificity in both plants and fungi, with a particular focus on ectomycorrhizal associations. Fungal guilds exhibited significant differences in overall partner preference and avoidance, richness, and specificity to specific tree genera. The highest level of specificity was observed in root endophytic and ectomycorrhizal associations, while the lowest was found in arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The majority of ectomycorrhizal fungal species showed a preference for one of their partner trees, primarily at the plant genus level. Specialist ectomycorrhizal fungi were dominant in belowground communities in terms of species richness and relative abundance. Moreover, all tree genera (and occasionally species) demonstrated a preference for certain fungal groups. Partner specificity was not related to the rarity of fungi or plants or environmental conditions, except for soil pH. Depending on the partner tree genus, specific fungi became more prevalent and relatively more abundant with increasing stand age, tree dominance, and soil pH conditions optimal for the partner tree genus. The richness of partner tree species and increased evenness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in multi-host communities enhanced the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, it was primarily the partner-generalist fungi that contributed to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Micorrizas/genética , Árvores/microbiologia , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Fungos/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Extremophiles ; 28(2): 23, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575688

RESUMO

We assessed the fungal diversity present in snow sampled during summer in the north-west Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctica using a metabarcoding approach. A total of 586,693 fungal DNA reads were obtained and assigned to 203 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). The dominant phylum was Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Penicillium sp., Pseudogymnoascus pannorum, Coniochaeta sp., Aspergillus sp., Antarctomyces sp., Phenoliferia sp., Cryolevonia sp., Camptobasidiaceae sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Bannozyma yamatoana were assessed as abundant taxa. The snow fungal diversity indices were high but varied across the different locations sampled. Of the fungal ASVs detected, only 28 were present all sampling locations. The 116 fungal genera detected in the snow were dominated by saprotrophic taxa, followed by symbiotrophic and pathotrophic. Our data indicate that, despite the low temperature and oligotrophic conditions, snow can host a richer mycobiome than previously reported through traditional culturing studies. The snow mycobiome includes a complex diversity dominated by cosmopolitan, cold-adapted, psychrophilic and endemic taxa. While saprophytes dominate this community, a range of other functional groups are present.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Neve , Regiões Antárticas , Fungos/genética , Temperatura Baixa , DNA Fúngico/genética
6.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 75(1): 13-20, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578113

RESUMO

Background: The rising prevalence of gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease explains the increased consumption of gluten-free foods (GFF). However, these foods must be safe in terms of both gluten content and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in order to avoid food poisoning. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of gluten-free meals, naturally gluten free foods, and gluten free-labelled products. Material and Methods: We collected 62 GFF samples including 20 meals (M-GF), 22 naturally gluten free (N-GFF) and 20 labelled (L-GFF) products, which were investigated for microbiological contamination according to Moroccan regulations guidelines, issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The analysis consisted of the detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in each sample, and the quantification of the microbial load of the following six micro-organisms: total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Sulphite-Reducing Anaerobic, and yeasts and molds. Results: A total of 372 analyses were carried out, showing a microbiological contamination rate of 5.1%. This contamination concerned N-GFF in 8.3% (predominantly with yeasts and molds), and meals prepared at home in 11.7 (predominantly with Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms). Only one case (0.8%) of contamination was observed in products labelled gluten-free and no contamination was noticed in meals prepared in food services. Listeria monocytgenes and Salmonella were not detected in any samples of food analyzed. These results indicate a good compliance of L-GFP and M-GF prepared in food services, while unsatisfactory quality was observed in N-GFF and M-GF prepared at home. Conclusion: Therefore, rigorous hygienic practices and adequate corrective measures should be considered by celiac patients, especially regarding the N-GFF and M-GF prepared at home.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Glutens/análise , Refeições , Fungos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
7.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 353, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594632

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are prolific vectors of human pathogens, therefore a clear and accurate understanding of the organization of their antimicrobial defenses is crucial for informing the development of transmission control strategies. The canonical infection response in insects, as described in the insect model Drosophila melanogaster, is pathogen type-dependent, with distinct stereotypical responses to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria/fungi mediated by the activation of the Imd and Toll pathways, respectively. To determine whether this pathogen-specific discrimination is shared by mosquitoes, we used RNAseq to capture the genome-wide transcriptional response of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) to systemic infection with Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, as well as challenge with heat-killed Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and fungal pathogens. From the resulting data, we found that Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae both mount a core response to all categories of infection, and this response is highly conserved between the two species with respect to both function and orthology. When we compared the transcriptomes of mosquitoes infected with different types of bacteria, we observed that the intensity of the transcriptional response was correlated with both the virulence and growth rate of the infecting pathogen. Exhaustive comparisons of the transcriptomes of Gram-negative-challenged versus Gram-positive-challenged mosquitoes yielded no difference in either species. In Ae. aegypti, however, we identified transcriptional signatures specific to bacterial infection and to fungal infection. The bacterial infection response was dominated by the expression of defensins and cecropins, while the fungal infection response included the disproportionate upregulation of an uncharacterized family of glycine-rich proteins. These signatures were also observed in Ae. aegypti challenged with heat-killed bacteria and fungi, indicating that this species can discriminate between molecular patterns that are specific to bacteria and to fungi.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções Bacterianas , Micoses , Animais , Humanos , Drosophila melanogaster , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Aedes/genética , Aedes/microbiologia , Bactérias , Fungos/genética
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 128, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580768

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria serve as a rich source of diverse antimicrobial compounds. Recently, there has been a growing interest in utilizing endophytic Bacillus spp. as biological agents against phytogenic fungi, owing to their potential to produce a wide range of antimicrobial substances. The objective of this research was to investigate the protective abilities of 15 endophytic Bacillus spp. isolated from previous study from wheat plant, against the phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina. A dual culture plate assay was conducted as a preliminary analysis, revealing that 7 out of 15 endophytic Bacillus spp. demonstrated inhibition against one or both of the phytopathogenic fungi used in this study. All seven endophytes were further assessed for the presence of diffusible antifungal metabolites. The cultures were grown in potato dextrose broth for 120 h, and the cell-free supernatant was extracted and analyzed using the cup plate method. The methanolic extract yielded similar results to the dual culture plate analysis, except for WL2-15. Additionally, deformities in the mycelial structure were examined under the light microscope upon exposure to methanolic extract. Furthermore, the analysis and identification of metabolites were carried out via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of methanolic extract from selected seven endophytic Bacillus spp. The chromatogram revealed the presence of some major peaks such as tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, hydroperoxide, 1-methylbutyl, 9-octadecenamide, (z)-, hexane-1,3,4-triol, 3,5-dimethyl- tetradecanoic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these biocontrol agents in endophytic Bacillus spp. Interestingly, volatile organic compound production was also seen in all the isolates against the phytopathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bacillus , Antifúngicos/química , Bacillus/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Endófitos
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7757, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565875

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms with diverse bioactive compounds such as Streptomyces are appreciated as valuable resources for the discovery of eco-friendly fungicides. This study isolated a novel Streptomyces from soil samples collected in the organic green tea fields in South Korea. The isolation process involved antifungal activity screening around 2400 culture extracts, revealing a strain designated as S. collinus Inha504 with remarkable antifungal activity against diverse phytopathogenic fungi. S. collinus Inha504 not only inhibited seven phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger in bioassays and but also showed a control effect against F. oxysporum infected red pepper, strawberry, and tomato in the in vivo pot test. Genome mining of S. collinus Inha504 revealed the presence of the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) in the chromosome encoding a polyene macrolide which is highly homologous to the lucensomycin (LCM), a compound known for effective in crop disease control. Through genetic confirmation and bioassays, the antifungal activity of S. collinus Inha504 was attributed to the presence of LCM BGC in the chromosome. These results could serve as an effective strategy to select novel Streptomyces strains with valuable biological activity through bioassay-based screening and identify biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the metabolites using genome mining approach.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Streptomyces , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Lucensomycin/metabolismo , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Família Multigênica , Solo
10.
Int. microbiol ; 27(2): 377-391, Abr. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-151

RESUMO

The influence of elevation on natural terrestrial ecosystems determines the arrangements of microbial communities in soils to be associated with biotic and abiotic factors. To evaluate changes of fungi and bacteria at the community level along an elevational gradient (between 1000 and 3800 m.a.s.l.), physicochemical measurements of soils, taxonomic identifications of plants, and metabarcoding sequences of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ITS1 region for fungi were obtained. The bacterial taxonomic composition showed that Acidobacteriota increased in abundance with elevation, while Actinobacteriota and Verrucomicrobiota decreased. Furthermore, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria maintained maximum levels of abundance at intermediate elevations (1200 and 2400 m.a.s.l.). In fungi, Ascomycota was more abundant at higher elevations, Basidiomycota tended to dominate at lower elevations, and Mortierellomycota had a greater presence at intermediate sites. These results correlated with the edaphic parameters of decreasing pH and increasing organic carbon and available nitrogen with elevation. In addition, the Shannon index found a greater diversity in bacteria than fungi, but both showed a unimodal pattern with maximum values in the Andean Forest at 2400 m.a.s.l. Through the microbial characterization of the ecosystems, the elevational gradient, soil properties, and vegetation were found to exert significant effects on microbial communities and alpha diversity indices. We conclude that the most abundant soil microorganisms at the sampling points differed in abundance and diversity according to the variations in factors influencing ecological communities. (AU)


Assuntos
Microbiota , Fatores Bióticos , Fatores Abióticos , Fungos , Bactérias
11.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14243, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467539

RESUMO

Seed priming with beneficial endophytic fungi is an emerging sustainable strategy for enhancing plant resistance against insect pests. This study examined the effects of Beauvaria bassiana Bb20091317 and Metarhizium rileyi MrCDTLJ1 fungal colonization on maize growth, defence signalling, benzoxazinoid levels and gene expression. The colonization did not adversely affect plant growth but reduced larval weights of Spodoptera frugiperda. Maize leaves treated with M. rileyi exhibited higher levels of jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-Isoleucine, salicylic acid, and indole acetic acid compared to control. B. bassiana and M. rileyi accelerated phytohormone increase upon S. frugiperda herbivory. Gene expression analysis revealed modulation of benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes. We further elucidated the immune regulatory role of the transcription factor zmWRKY36 using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in maize. zmWRKY36 positively regulates maize immunity against S. frugiperda, likely by interacting with defense-related proteins. Transient overexpression of zmWRKY36 in tobacco-induced cell death, while silencing in maize reduced chitin-triggered reactive oxygen species burst, confirming its immune function. Overall, B. bassiana and M. rileyi successfully colonized maize, impacting larval growth, defense signalling, and zmWRKY36-mediated resistance. This sheds light on maize-endophyte-insect interactions for sustainable plant protection.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas , Zea mays , Animais , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Fungos
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17212, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450825

RESUMO

Heterotrophic soil microorganisms are responsible for ~50% of the carbon dioxide released by respiration from the terrestrial biosphere each year. The respiratory response of soil microbial communities to warming, and the control mechanisms, remains uncertain, yet is critical to understanding the future land carbon (C)-climate feedback. Individuals of nine species of fungi decomposing wood were exposed to 90 days of cooling to evaluate the medium-term effect of temperature on respiration. Overall, the effect of temperature on respiration increased in the medium term, with no evidence of compensation. However, the increasing effect of temperature on respiration was lost after correcting for changes in biomass. These results indicate that C loss through respiration of wood-decomposing fungi will increase beyond the direct effects of temperature on respiration, potentially promoting greater C losses from terrestrial ecosystems and a positive feedback to climate change.


Assuntos
Fungos , Temperatura , Madeira , Mudança Climática , Fungos/fisiologia , Microbiota , Solo , Madeira/microbiologia
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475060

RESUMO

Rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives are attractive compounds with versatile effects. What is very important is that compounds of this type have many biological properties. They are tested, among others, as fluorescent probes for bioimaging and aldose reductase inhibitors. Rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives also have antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activity. The presented work demonstrates that a slight change in the five-membered heterocyclic substituent significantly affects the properties of the compounds under consideration. Three rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives (A-1-A-3) were obtained in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction with good yields, ranging from 54% to 71%. High thermal stability of the tested compounds was also demonstrated above 240 °C. The absorption and emission maxima in polar and non-polar solvents were determined. Then, the possibility of using the considered derivatives for fluorescence bioimaging was checked. Compounds A-1 and A-2 were successfully used as fluorescent dyes of fixed cells of mammalian origin. In addition, biological activity tests against bacteria and fungi were carried out. Our results showed that A-1 and A-2 showed the most excellent antimicrobial activity among the newly synthesized compounds, especially against Gram-positive bacteria.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Rodanina , Animais , Ácido Acético/química , Rodanina/química , Rodanina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Fungos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mamíferos
14.
Microb Biotechnol ; 17(3): e14439, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478382

RESUMO

Global climate changes threaten food security, necessitating urgent measures to enhance agricultural productivity and expand it into areas less for agronomy. This challenge is crucial in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger). Plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPM), bacteria and fungi, emerge as a promising solution to mitigate the impact of climate extremes on agriculture. The concept of the plant holobiont, encompassing the plant host and its symbiotic microbiota, underscores the intricate relationships with a diverse microbial community. PGPM, residing in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere, play vital roles in nutrient solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and biocontrol of pathogens. Novel ecological functions, including epigenetic modifications and suppression of virulence genes, extend our understanding of PGPM strategies. The diverse roles of PGPM as biofertilizers, biocontrollers, biomodulators, and more contribute to sustainable agriculture and environmental resilience. Despite fungi's remarkable plant growth-promoting functions, their potential is often overshadowed compared to bacteria. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with many terrestrial plants, enhancing plant nutrition, growth, and stress resistance. Other fungi, including filamentous, yeasts, and polymorphic, from endophytic, to saprophytic, offer unique attributes such as ubiquity, morphology, and endurance in harsh environments, positioning them as exceptional plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF). Crops frequently face abiotic stresses like salinity, drought, high UV doses and extreme temperatures. Some extremotolerant fungi, including strains from genera like Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, and others, have been studied for their beneficial interactions with plants. Presented examples of their capabilities in alleviating salinity, drought, and other stresses underscore their potential applications in agriculture. In this context, extremotolerant and extremophilic fungi populating extreme natural environments are muchless investigated. They represent both new challenges and opportunities. As the global climate evolves, understanding and harnessing the intricate mechanisms of fungal-plant interactions, especially in extreme environments, is paramount for developing effective and safe plant probiotics and using fungi as biocontrollers against phytopathogens. Thorough assessments, comprehensive methodologies, and a cautious approach are crucial for leveraging the benefits of extremophilic fungi in the changing landscape of global agriculture, ensuring food security in the face of climate challenges.


Assuntos
Extremófilos , Micorrizas , Simbiose , Fungos/genética , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(4): 157, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480543

RESUMO

Potassium-solubilizing microorganisms are capable of secreting acidic chemicals that dissolve and release potassium from soil minerals, thus facilitating potassium uptake by plants. In this study, three potassium-dissolving filamentous fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a poplar plantation in Jiangsu Province, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, 18 S, and 28 S showed that these three isolates were most similar to Mortierella. These strains also possessed spherical or ellipsoidal spores, produced sporangia at the hyphal tip, and formed petal-like colonies on PDA media resembling those of Mortierella species. These findings, along with further phenotypic observations, suggest that these isolates were Mortierella species. In addition, the potassium-dissolution experiment showed that strain 2K4 had a relatively high potassium-solubilizing capacity among these isolated fungi. By investigating the influences of different nutrient conditions (carbon source, nitrogen source, and inorganic salt) and initial pH values on the potassium-dissolving ability, the optimal potassium-solubilization conditions of the isolate were determined. When potassium feldspar powder was used as an insoluble potassium source, isolate 2K4 exhibited a significantly better polysaccharide aggregation ability on the formed mycelium-potassium feldspar complex. The composition and content of organic acids secreted by strain 2K4 were further detected, and the potassium-dissolution mechanism of the Mortierella species and its growth promotion effect were discussed, using maize as an example.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio , Mortierella , Compostos de Potássio , Solo , Solo/química , Fosfatos , Mortierella/genética , Potássio , Rizosfera , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5934, 2024 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467843

RESUMO

The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in powder form using the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, FESEM, and EDX. The synthesized AgNPs were in a powdered state and dispersed completely in 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and demonstrated prolonged shelf life and enhanced bioavailability over a year without any aggregation. The resulting silver nanoformulation demonstrated complete inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Colletotrichum falcatum and 68% to 80% inhibition against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizoctonia solani respectively, at 2000 ppm. The EC50 values determined through a statistical analysis were 66.42, 157.7, 19.06, and 33.30 ppm for S. sclerotiorum, C. falcatum, C. gloeosporioides, and R. solani respectively. The silver nanoformulation also established significant cytotoxicity, with a 74.96% inhibition rate against the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG at 250 ppm. The IC50 value for the cancerous cell lines was determined to be 56.87 ppm through statistical analysis. The proposed silver nanoformulation may be used as a next-generation fungicide in crop improvement and may also find application in anticancer investigations. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first report of silver nanoformulation demonstrating complete inhibition against the economically significant phytopathogen C. falcatum.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Prata/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fungos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474227

RESUMO

Inflammation, which has important functions in human defense systems and in maintaining the dynamic homeostasis of the body, has become a major risk factor for the progression of many chronic diseases. Although the applied medical products alleviate the general status, they still exert adverse effects in the long term. For this reason, the solution should be sought in more harmless and affordable agents. Microorganisms offer a wide range of active substances with anti-inflammatory properties. They confer important advantages such as their renewable and inexhaustible nature. This review aims to provide the most recent updates on microorganisms of different types and genera, being carriers of anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Anormalidades da Pele , Humanos , Inflamação , Anti-Inflamatórios , Transtornos da Visão , Fungos
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 113, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472456

RESUMO

During this coronavirus pandemic, when a lot of people are already severely afflicted with SARS-CoV-19, the dispersion of black fungus is making it worse, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Considering this situation, the idea for an in silico study to identify the potential inhibitor against black fungal infection is envisioned and computational analysis has been conducted with isatin derivatives that exhibit considerable antifungal activity. Through this in silico study, several pharmacokinetics properties like absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) are estimated for various derivatives. Lipinski rules have been used to observe the drug likeliness property, and to study the electronic properties of the molecules, quantum mechanism was analyzed using the density functional theory (DFT). After applying molecular docking of the isatin derivatives with sterol 14-alpha demethylase enzyme of black fungus, a far higher docking affinity score has been observed for the isatin sulfonamide-34 (derivative 1) than the standard fluconazole. Lastly, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation has been performed for 100 ns to examine the stability of the proposed drug complex by estimating Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD), Radius of gyration (Rg), Solvent accessible surface area (SASA), Root Mean Square Fluctuation (RMSF), as well as hydrogen bond. Listed ligands have precisely satisfied every pharmacokinetics requirement for a qualified drug candidate and they are non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, and have high stability. This natural molecule known as isatin derivative 1 has shown the potential of being a drug for fungal treatment. However, the impact of the chemicals on living cells requires more investigation and research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Isatina , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antifúngicos , Fungos
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0293377, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451997

RESUMO

Myrmecochory-seed dispersal by ants-is a mutualistic interaction in which ants attracted by seed appendices take them away from the parental plant location, where seeds usually have better development odds. Not all ant species benefit plants, and the mechanisms of those divergent outcomes are still unclear, especially from the perspective of microbial third parties. Here, we explore the effects of seed manipulation on fungi communities promoted by two ant species with contrasting effects on seed germination and antimicrobial cleaning strategies. We hypothesize that: i) fungi richness is higher in seeds manipulated by Acromyrmex subterraneus (species that negatively affect seed germination), followed by unmanipulated seeds and seeds manipulated by Atta sexdens (ant species that increase seed germination) and ii) seeds manipulated by A. sexdens, Ac. subterraneus and unmanipulated seeds present dissimilar fungi compositions. We identified fungal morphotypes in three groups of seeds: i) manipulated by A. sexdens; ii) manipulated by Ac. subterraneus; iii) unmanipulated. Seeds manipulated by Ac. subterraneus exhibited higher fungal richness than those manipulated by A. sexdens and unmanipulated seeds, indicating that the ant species known to impair germination increases the fungal load on seeds. Additionally, we found that A. sexdens ants were unable to reduce fungal richness compared to unmanipulated seeds. Furthermore, fungal composition differed among all three treatments. Our results underscore the significance of ant species identity in shaping the fungal communities associated with myrmecochorous seeds. Given the potential influence of microbial infection on seed fate, we suggest considering manipulation strategies when evaluating the overall quality of an ant as a seed disperser.


Assuntos
Formigas , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Sementes , Plantas , Germinação , Fungos
20.
Sci Prog ; 107(1): 368504241239447, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511725

RESUMO

Since the environmentally friendly reuse of corn stalks attracts more and more attention, it is an efficient and feasible way to reuse corn stalks as forage. However, whether the cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose within corn stalks can be effectively decomposed becomes a key to reusing corn stalks as forage. Orthogonal test was designed by five different degradation temperatures (22°C, 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, 30°C), five different pH values (4, 5, 6, 8, 10), and five different degradation time durations (5, 15, 25, 30, and 35 days) to examine 25 kinds of different degradation conditions. It was found that the decomposition effect of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, of group 25 (26°C, pH = 5, 25 days) was stronger compared with other groups, with the contents calculated as 8.22%, 31.55%, and 22.55% individually (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). Group 19 (22°C, pH = 4, 5 days) revealed the worst degradation effect of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose compared to other groups, with contents calculated as 15.48%, 38.85%, and 29.57%, individually (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). The research data deliver a basis for ideal degradation conditions for corn stalks degradation in combination with the digestive enzymes of P. chrysosporium and O. furnacalis larva. Aiming to explore a highly efficient and environmentally friendly corn stalk degradation method.


Assuntos
Lignina , Zea mays , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...