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1.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 53(6): 585-591, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825904

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of anaplastic gangliogliomas (AGGs) and to determine whether these tumors represent a distinct entity. Methods: Consecutive 667 cases of ganglioglioma (GG) diagnosed at the Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China between January 2015 and July 2023 were screened. Among these cases, 9 pathologically confirmed AGG cases were identified. Their clinical, radiological, treatment, and outcome data were analyzed retrospectively. Most of the tumor samples were subject to next-generation sequencing, while a subset of them were subject to DNA methylation profiling. Results: Among the 9 patients, there were five males and four females, with a median age of 8 years. Epileptic seizures (5/9) were the most frequently presented symptom. Radiological examinations showed three types of radiological manifestations: four cases showed abnormal MRI signals with no significant mass effects and mild enhancement; two cases demonstrated a mixed solid-cystic density lesion with peritumoral edema, which showed significant heterogeneous enhancement and obvious mass effects, and one case displayed cystic cavity formation with nodules on MRI, which showed evident enhancements. All cases exhibited mutations that were predicted to activate the MAP kinase signaling pathway, including seven with BRAF p.V600E mutation and two with NF1 mutation. Five AGGs with mutations involving the MAP kinase signaling pathway also had concurrent mutations, including three with CDKN2A homozygous deletion, one with a TERT promoter mutation, one with a H3F3A mutation, and one with a PTEN mutation. Conclusions: AGG exhibits a distinct spectrum of pathology, genetic mutations and clinical behaviors, differing from GG. Given these characteristics suggest that AGG may be a distinct tumor type, further expansion of the case series is needed. Therefore, a comprehensive integration of clinical, histological, and molecular analyses is required to correctly diagnose AGG. It will also help guide treatments and prognostication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Metilação de DNA , Ganglioglioma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Humanos , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Ganglioglioma/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Telomerase/genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Epilepsia/patologia , Epilepsia/genética
2.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 83(6): 416-424, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699943

RESUMO

Ganglioglioma (GG) with anaplasia (anaplastic ganglioglioma) is a rare and controversial diagnosis. When present, anaplasia involves the glial component of the tumor, either at presentation or at recurrence. To date, most published cases lack molecular characterization. We describe the histologic and molecular features of 3 patients presenting with BRAF p. V600E-mutant GG (CNS WHO grade 1) with high-grade glial transformation at recurrence. The tumors occurred in pediatric patients (age 9-16 years) with time to recurrence from 20 months to 7 years. At presentation, each tumor was low-grade, with a BRAFV600E-positive ganglion cell component and a glial component resembling pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) or fibrillary astrocytoma. At recurrence, tumors resembled anaplastic PXA or high-grade astrocytomas without neuronal differentiation. CDKN2A homozygous deletion (HD) was absent in all primary tumors. At recurrence, 2 cases acquired CDKN2A HD; the third case showed loss of p16 and MTAP immunoexpression, but no CDKN2A/B HD or mutation was identified. By DNA methylation profiling, all primary and recurrent tumors either grouped or definitely matched to different methylation classes. Our findings indicate that malignant progression of the glial component can occur in GG and suggest that CDKN2A/B inactivation plays a significant role in this process.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Humanos , Ganglioglioma/genética , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Masculino , Feminino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Epigênese Genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia
4.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 179, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649515

RESUMO

To analyse the imaging findings of papillary glioneuronal tumors (PGNTs), in order to improve the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of this tumor. The clinical and imaging manifestations of 36 cases of PGNT confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 17 males and 19 females, averaging 22.47 (± 11.23) years. Initial symptoms included epilepsy in ten, headache in seven, and others in 19 cases. 97.2% (35/36) of the lesions were located in the supratentorial area, and 80.5% (29/36) in the intraventricular or deep white matter adjacent to the lateral ventricles. Twenty-four of the lesions (66.7%) were mixed cystic and solid, four (11.1%) were cystic with mural nodules, four (11.1%) were cystic, and four (11.1%) were solid. Four cases of PGNT of cystic imaging showed a "T2-FLAIR mismatch" sign. 69.4% (25/36) had septations. Nine lesions (25%) were accompanied by edema, and 9 (25%) of the mixed cystic and solid lesions were accompanied by hemorrhage. Among the 18 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) or susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), nine had lesions with calcification. PGNTs mostly manifest as cystic mass with mural nodules or mixed cystic and solid mass in the white matter around the supratentorial ventricle, and the cystic part of the lesion is mostly accompanied by septations. Pure cystic lesions may exhibit the sign of "T2-FLAIR mismatch". PGNT is rarely accompanied by edema but sometimes by calcification and hemorrhage. Patients often present with seizures, headaches, and mass effect symptoms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar
6.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 93, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403664

RESUMO

To describe the natural history of spinal gangliogliomas (GG) in order to determine the most appropriate neuro-oncological management. A Medline search for relevant publications up to July 2023 using the key phrase "ganglioglioma spinal" and "ganglioglioma posterior fossa" led to the retrieval of 178 studies. This corpus provided the basis for the present review. As an initial selection step, the following inclusion criteria were adopted: (i) series and case reports on spinal GG; (ii) clinical outcomes were reported specifically for GG; (iii) GG was the only pathological diagnosis for the evaluation of the tumor; (iv) papers written only in English was evaluated; and (v) papers describing each case in the series were included. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2021 grading criteria for gangliogliomas were applied. A total of 107 tumors were evaluated (63 from male patients and 44 from female patients; 1.43 male/1.0 female ratio, mean age 18.34 ± 15.84 years). The most common site was the cervical spine, accounting for 43 cases (40.18%); GTR was performed in 35 cases (32.71%) and STR in 71 cases (66.35%), while this information was not reported in 1 case (0.94%). 8 deaths were reported (7.47%) involving 2 males (25%) and 6 females (75%) aged 4-78 years (mean 34.27 ± 18.22) years. GGs located on the spine displayed the same gender ratio as these tumors in general. The most frequent symptom was pain and motor impairment, while the most prevalent location was the cervical spinal cord. GTR of the tumor posed a challenge for neurosurgeons, due to the difficulty of resecting the lesion without damaging the spinal eloquent area, explaining the lower rate of cure for this tumor type.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia
7.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 40(5): 1609-1612, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in adulthood. Patients with germline pathogenic variants in these genes have also been reported to develop brain tumors, although it is unclear whether these syndromes are associated with significant increased risk of brain tumor formation. RESULTS: Here, we report a case of a child with germline BRCA2 pathogenic variant presenting with a symptomatic ganglioglioma. To our knowledge, this is the first such patient to be reported. We discuss prior cases of brain tumors in BRCA1/2 patients and evidence for a potential role for BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in brain tumor formation. CONCLUSION: BRCA2 germline variants may increase the risk of developing some types of pediatric brain tumors, but further study is needed to determine its effect on low-grade glioma formation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
8.
Acta Radiol ; 65(1): 33-40, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37401109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRAF V600E mutation is a common genomic alteration in gangliogliomas (GGs) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs) with prognostic and therapeutic implications. PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features to predict BRAF V600E status in GGs and PXAs and their prognostic values. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort of 44 patients with histologically confirmed GGs and PXAs was reviewed retrospectively. BRAF V600E status was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographics and MRI characteristics of the two groups were evaluated and compared. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify MRI features that were prognostic for progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: T1/FLAIR ratio, enhancing margin, and mean relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADCmea) value showed significant differences between the BRAF V600E-mutant and BRAF V600E-wild groups (all P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed only rADCmea value was the independent predictive factor for BRAF V600E status (P = 0.027). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed age at diagnosis (P = 0.032), WHO grade (P = 0.020), enhancing margin (P = 0.029), and rADCmea value (P = 0.005) were significant prognostic factors for PFS. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, increasing age (P = 0.040, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.002-1.079) and lower rADCmea values (P = 0.021, HR = 0.036, 95% CI = 0.002-0.602) were associated with poor PFS in GGs and PXAs. CONCLUSION: Imaging features are potentially predictive of BRAF V600E status in GGs and PXAs. Furthermore, rADCmea value is a valuable prognostic factor for patients with GGs or PXAs.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Humanos , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ganglioglioma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mutação , Astrocitoma/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Epilepsy Res ; 199: 107258, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38086219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant epilepsy is a common condition in patients with brain neoplasms. The pathogenesis of tumor-associated seizures is poorly understood. Among the possible pathogenetic mechanisms, the increase in glutamate concentration has been proposed. Glutamate transporters, glutamine synthetase and pyruvate carboxylase are involved in maintaining the physiological concentration of glutamate in the intersynaptic spaces. In our previous research on angiocentric gliomas, we demonstrated that all tumors lacked the expression of the main glutamate transporter EAAT2, while the expression of glutamine synthetase and pyruvate carboxylase was mostly preserved. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of EAAT2, glutamine synthetase and pyruvate carboxylase in a heterogeneous series of 25 long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (10 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 7 gangliogliomas, 3 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 3 rosette forming glioneuronal tumors, 1 diffuse astrocytoma MYB- or MYBL1-altered and 1 angiocentric glioma). In order to evaluate the incidence of variants in the SLC1A2 gene, encoding EAAT2, in a large number of central nervous system tumors we also queried the PedcBioPortal. RESULTS: EAAT2 protein expression was lost in 9 tumors (36 %: 3 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 1 ganglioglioma, 3 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 1 diffuse astrocytoma MYB- or MYBL1-altered and 1 angiocentric glioma). Glutamine synthetase protein expression was completely lost in 2 tumors (8 %; 1 ganglioglioma and 1 diffuse astrocytoma MYB- or MYBL1-altered). All tumors of our series but rosette forming glioneuronal tumors (in which neurocytic cells were negative) were diffusely positive for pyruvate carboxylase. Consultation of the PedcBioPortal revealed that of 2307 pediatric brain tumors of different histotype and grade, 20 (< 1%) had variants in the SLC1A2 gene. Among the SLC1A2-mutated tumors, there were no angiocentric gliomas or other LEATs CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, unlike angiocentric gliomas where the EAAT2 loss is typical and constant, the current study shows the loss of EAAT2 expression only in a fraction of the LEATs. In these cases, we may hypothesize some possible epileptogenic role of the EAAT2 loss. The retained expression of pyruvate carboxylase may contribute to determining a pathological glutamate excess unopposed by glutamine synthetase that resulted expressed to a variable extent in the majority of the tumors. Furthermore, we can assume that the EAAT2 loss in brain tumors in general and in LEATs in particular is more conceivably epigenetic.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Epilepsia , Ganglioglioma , Glioma , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas , Criança , Humanos , Astrocitoma/complicações , Astrocitoma/metabolismo , Astrocitoma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Epilepsia/etiologia , Ganglioglioma/metabolismo , Glioma/genética , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Glutamatos , Piruvato Carboxilase , Convulsões/complicações
10.
Acad Radiol ; 31(3): 1069-1081, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37741731

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the value of nomograms based on MRI radiomics and clinical semantic features in identifying pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and ganglioglioma (GG) as well as predicting BRAFV600E expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 265 patients histologically diagnosed with PXA (n = 113) and GG (n = 152). T1WI, T2WI, and CET1 sequences were utilized to extract radiomics features. Univariate analysis, Spearman correlation analysis, and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator were used for dimensionality reduction and feature selection. Following this, logistic regression was utilized to establish the radiomics model. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical semantic features were applied, and clinical models were constructed. The nomograms were established by merging radiomics and clinical features. Furthermore, ROC curve analysis was used for examining the model performance, whereas the decision curve analysis (DCA) examined the clinical utility of the nomograms. RESULTS: Nomograms achieved the best predictive efficacy compared to clinical and radiomics models alone. Concerning the differentiation between PXA and GG, the area under the curve (AUC) values of the nomogram were 0.879 (0.828-0.930) and 0.887 (0.805-0.969) for the training and testing cohorts, respectively. For predicting BRAFV600E expression, the AUC values of the nomogram were 0.873 (0.811-0.936) and 0.851 (0.740-0.963) for the training and testing cohorts, respectively. DCA confirmed the clinical utility of the nomograms. CONCLUSION: Nomograms based on radiomics and clinical semantic features were noninvasive tools for differential diagnosis of PXA and GG and predicting BRAFV600E expression, which may be helpful for assessing patient prognosis and developing individualized treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Humanos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Nomogramas , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ganglioglioma/genética , Radiômica , Astrocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Astrocitoma/genética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 41(1): 160-161, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37888732

RESUMO

An 18-month-old child presented with persistent pruritus and excoriation involving the right T9 and T10 dermatomes. She did not exhibit any other dermatological or neurological anomalies. Based on magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the spine, T8 ganglioglioma was diagnosed and surgically removed resulting in resolution of the pruritus within a few days. This observation underlines the importance of neuroimaging in patients presenting with metameric pruritus without specific skin lesions, especially in young children.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Prurido/etiologia , Pele/patologia , Ganglioglioma/complicações , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
12.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 40(3): 839-854, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The utility of intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)-guided resective surgery for pediatric long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) with antiseizure medication (ASM) resistant epilepsy is not supported by robust evidence. As epilepsy networks and their ramifications are different in children from those in adults, the impact of intraoperative ECoG-based tailored resections in predicting prognosis and influencing outcomes may also differ. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing the outcomes of resections with and without the use of ECoG in children and adults by a randomized study. METHODS: From June 2020 to January 2022, 42 patients (17 children and 25 adults) with LEATs and antiseizure medication (ASM)-resistant epilepsy were randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups (ECoG or no ECoG), prior to surgical resection. The 'no ECoG' arm underwent gross total lesion resection (GTR) without ECoG guidance and the ECoG arm underwent GTR with ECoG guidance and further additional tailored resections, as necessary. Factors evaluated were tumor location, size, lateralization, seizure duration, preoperative antiepileptic drug therapy, pre- and postresection ECoG patterns and tumor histology. Postoperative Engel score and adverse event rates were compared in the pediatric and adult groups of both arms. Eloquent cortex lesions and re-explorations were excluded to avoid confounders. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included in the study of which 17 patients were in the pediatric cohort (age < 18 years) and 25 in the adult cohort. The mean age in the pediatric group was 11.11 years (SD 4.72) and in the adult group was 29.56 years (SD 9.29). The mean duration of epilepsy was 9.7 years (SD 4.8) in the pediatric group and 10.96 (SD 8.8) in the adult group. The ECoG arm of LEAT resections had 23 patients (9 children and 14 adults) and the non-ECoG arm had 19 patients (8 children and 11 adults). Three children and 3 adults from the ECoG group further underwent ECoG-guided tailored resections (average 1.33 additional tailored resections/per patient.).The histology of the tailored resection specimen was unremarkable in 3/6 (50%).Overall, the commonest histology in both groups was ganglioglioma and the temporal lobe, the commonest site of the lesion. 88.23% of pediatric cases (n = 15/17) had an excellent outcome (Engel Ia) following resection, compared to 84% of adult cases (n = 21/25) at a mean duration of follow-up of 25.76 months in children and 26.72 months in adults (p = 0.405).There was no significant difference in seizure outcomes between the ECoG and no ECoG groups both in children and adults, respectively (p > 0.05). Additional tailored resection did not offer any seizure outcome benefit when compared to the non-tailored resections. CONCLUSIONS: The use of intraoperative electrocorticography in LEATs did not contribute to postoperative seizure outcome benefit in children and adults. No additional advantage or utility was offered by ECoG in children when compared to its use in adults. ECoG-guided additional tailored resections did not offer any additional seizure outcome benefit both in children and adults.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Ganglioglioma , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Eletrocorticografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Convulsões/cirurgia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia
13.
Neurobiol Dis ; 190: 106364, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38008342

RESUMO

Gangliogliomas (GGs) represent the most frequent glioneuronal tumor entity associated with chronic recurrent seizures; rare anaplastic GGs variants retain the glioneuronal character. So far, key mechanisms triggering chronic hyperexcitability in the peritumoral area are unresolved. Based on a recent mouse model for anaplastic GG (BRAFV600E, mTOR activation and Trp53KO) we here assessed the influence of GG-secreted factors on non-neoplastic cells in-vitro. We generated conditioned medium (CM) from primary GG cell cultures to developing primary cortical neurons cultured on multielectrode-arrays and assessed their electrical activity in comparison to neurons incubated with naïve and neuronal CMs. Our results showed that the GG CM, while not affecting the mean firing rates of networks, strongly accelerated the formation of functional networks as indicated increased synchrony of firing and burst activity. Washing out the GG CM did not reverse these effects indicating an irreversible effect on the neuronal network. Mass spectrometry analysis of GG CM detected several enriched proteins associated with neurogenesis as well as gliogenesis, including Gap43, App, Apoe, S100a8, Tnc and Sod1. Concomitantly, immunocytochemical analysis of the neuronal cultures exposed to GG CM revealed abundant astrocytes suggesting that the GG-secreted factors induce astroglial proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of astrocyte proliferation only partially reversed the accelerated network maturation in neuronal cultures exposed to GG CM indicating that the GG CM exerts a direct effect on the neuronal component. Taken together, we demonstrate that GG-derived paracrine signaling alone is sufficient to induce accelerated neuronal network development accompanied by astrocytic proliferation. Perspectively, a deeper understanding of factors involved may serve as the basis for future therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Ganglioglioma/complicações , Ganglioglioma/metabolismo , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Alta do Paciente , Convulsões/complicações , Neurônios/metabolismo
14.
Neuropathology ; 44(2): 126-134, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37641451

RESUMO

Neuropil-like islands (NIs) are a histologic hallmark of glioneuronal tumors with neuropil-like islands (GTNIs), but GTNIs are presently not considered a homogeneous entity. The essence of GTNI is likely its glial component, and NIs are now considered aberrant neuronal differentiation or metaplasia. The case we report herein is a 41-year-old woman who was synchronously affected by two brain tumors: one was a glioblastoma (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM), of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wild type, with NIs in the left parietal lobe, and the other was histologically a composite gangliocytoma (GC)/anaplastic ganglioglioma (GG) with NIs in the right medial temporal lobe. While both tumors were genetically wild type for IDH, histone H3, and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), the former tumor, but not the latter, was mutated for telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter gene (TERT). A recent systematic study using DNA methylation profiling and next-generation sequencing showed that anaplastic GG separate into other WHO tumor types, including IDH-wild-type GBM. It suggested a diagnostic scheme where an anaplastic GG is likely an IDH-wild-type GBM if it is a BRAF wild type, IDH wild type, and TERT promoter mutant tumor. The likely scenario in this patient is that the GBM results from the progression of GC/anaplastic GG due to the superimposed TERT promoter mutation and the propagation of newly generated GBM cells in the contralateral hemisphere. A systematic analysis using DNA methylation profiling and next-generation sequencing was not available in this study, but the common presence of NIs histologically noted in the two tumors could support this scenario. Although a sufficient volume of molecular and genetic testing is sine qua non for the accurate understanding of brain tumors, the importance of histologic observation cannot be overemphasized.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Ganglioneuroma , Glioblastoma , Telomerase , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Adulto , Glioblastoma/complicações , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Ganglioneuroma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neurópilo/patologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Mutação , Telomerase/genética
15.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 81(12): 1146-1151, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157880

RESUMO

Long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) include a series of neoplasms that commonly occur in children, adolescents, or young adults, have an astrocytic or glioneuronal lineage, are histologically benign (WHO grade1) with a neocortical localization predominantly situated in the temporal lobes. Clinically, chronic refractory epilepsy is usually the unique symptom. Gangliogliomas (GG) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) are the most common representative entities besides pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and angiocentric gliomas (AG). Recent molecular studies have defined new clinicopathological entities, which are recognized by the WHO 2021 classification of brain tumors. Some of them such as diffuse astrocytoma MIB or MYBL1 altered, polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY), and multilocular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) are currently considered LEATs. The relationship between LEATs and epilepsy is still a matter of debate, and there is a general agreement about the beneficial effects of an early neurosurgical intervention on the clinical outcome.


Tumores associados a epilepsia de longa duração constituem uma série de neoplasias asatrocitárias ou glioneuronais que comumente incidem em crianças, adolescentes e jovens adultos e que são histologicamente benignos (OMS grau 1), de localização neocortical e predominantemente situados nos lobos temporais. Clinicamente, a epilepsia crônica refratária é, de modo geral, o único sintoma. Gangliogliomas (GG) e tumores neuroepiteliais disembrioplásticos (DNT) são as entidades mais representativas associadas a astrocitomas pilocíticos (AP) e gliomas angiocêntricos (GA). Estudos moleculares recentes permitiram a definição de novas entidades clínico-patológicas reconhecidas pela classificação de tumores cerebrais da OMS 2021. Algumas delas, como o astrocitoma difuso MIB ou MIBL1 alterados, o tumor neuroepitelial polimorfo do jovem (PLNTY) e o tumor neuronal multilocular e vacuolizado (MVNT) são atualmente considerados tumores associados a epilepsia de longa duração. A relação entre este grupo de tumores e epilepsia é ainda debatida e há um consenso geral sobre o benefício prognóstico de intervenção cirúrgica precoce.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Epilepsia , Ganglioglioma , Glioma , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Criança , Epilepsia/etiologia , Glioma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Astrocitoma/patologia , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/patologia
16.
Pediatr Neurol ; 149: 127-133, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The postoperative epilepsy outcome and clinicopathological features in children with ganglioglioma (GG) are not well understood. METHODS: Data from 51 consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with GGs who underwent surgery were collected. The correlations between the expression of CD34 and BRAF V600E mutations and clinical features were analyzed. The related factors affecting the outcome of epilepsy were analyzed. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 44.2 months, and 48 patients were seizure-free. A high proportion of BRAF V600E mutation (78.8%) and CD34 expression (77.8%) was detected in GG. The onset age of epilepsy with the BRAF V600E mutation was earlier than that without. The expression of CD34 increased with the age of onset, the duration of epilepsy, and the age of operation. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) I was found in 62.7% of patients, and FCD II was found in 11.8% of patients approximately in the cortex surrounding GG. There was no significant correlation between the outcome of epilepsy and BRAF V600E mutation, CD34 expression, and combination with FCD. CONCLUSIONS: The overall outcome of GG and epilepsy in children is optimistic, and the outcome is not closely related to the presence of BRAF V600E mutation and CD34 (+). The FCD surrounding GG could be type I or type II. Incomplete resection of the surrounding FCD has the risk of unsatisfactory control of epilepsy. Children with the BRAF V600E mutation may be prone to early-onset epilepsy. The expression of CD34 is more likely to be detected in children with older age and a long duration of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Epilepsia , Displasia Cortical Focal , Ganglioglioma , Humanos , Criança , Ganglioglioma/complicações , Ganglioglioma/genética , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Córtex Cerebral , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia
17.
Turk Neurosurg ; 33(5): 887-897, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37528720

RESUMO

AIM: To report a series of patients diagnosed with gangliogliomas (GG) in unusual locations; and to review the clinical and imaging features as well as surgical treatment and outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A series of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for GGs at unusual locations, such as intraventricular region and posterior fossa, from 2010 to 2022 were included in the study. RESULTS: Nine patients with GGs located in unusual areas, one in the intraventricular region and 8 in the posterior fossa, were included. There were 5 males and 4 females, with a mean age 31±8.5 years. We performed GTR in 6 cases and STR in 3 cases. Seven tumors were grade I WHO while the remaining two were anaplastic. Five patients also had preoperative hydrocephalus. We found a positive correlation between midline GG of the posterior fossa and solid aspect of the tumor (p=0.05). Univariate analysis found no other statistically significant associations, but this was due to the small patient sample. Recurrence was seen in 2 cases with STR, after 1 and 10 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: GG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with tumors in the intraventricular region or posterior fossa. Maximal tumor resection and restoration of CSF flow pathways ensure a good outcome. Growth patterns correlate with resection and can help choose the best candidates for surgery. However, further studies on large patient samples are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Hidrocefalia , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia
18.
Brain Pathol ; 33(5): e13185, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37399073

RESUMO

Fusions involving CRAF (RAF1) are infrequent oncogenic drivers in pediatric low-grade gliomas, rarely identified in tumors bearing features of pilocytic astrocytoma, and involving a limited number of known fusion partners. We describe recurrent TRAK1::RAF1 fusions, previously unreported in brain tumors, in three pediatric patients with low-grade glial-glioneuronal tumors. We present the associated clinical, histopathologic and molecular features. Patients were all female, aged 8 years, 15 months, and 10 months at diagnosis. All tumors were located in the cerebral hemispheres and predominantly cortical, with leptomeningeal involvement in 2/3 patients. Similar to previously described activating RAF1 fusions, the breakpoints in RAF1 all occurred 5' of the kinase domain, while the breakpoints in the 3' partner preserved the N-terminal kinesin-interacting domain and coiled-coil motifs of TRAK1. Two of the three cases demonstrated methylation profiles (v12.5) compatible with desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG)/desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and have remained clinically stable and without disease progression/recurrence after resection. The remaining tumor was non-classifiable; with focal recurrence 14 months after initial resection; the patient remains symptom free and without further recurrence/progression (5 months post re-resection and 19 months from initial diagnosis). Our report expands the landscape of oncogenic RAF1 fusions in pediatric gliomas, which will help to further refine tumor classification and guide management of patients with these alterations.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Glioma , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular , Astrocitoma/genética , Astrocitoma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Fusão Oncogênica
19.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 39(12): 3621-3626, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37432397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gangliogliomas are rare mixed neuronal-glial tumors of the central nervous system, accounting for less than 2% of intracranial tumors. CASE DESCRIPTION: This report presents a rare case of ganglioglioma in the sellar region of a 3-year-old and 5-month-old pediatric patient. The patient underwent surgical intervention initially through a transnasal transsphenoidal approach and subsequently through a transcranial pterional craniotomy approach. Subsequently, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were administered for residual tumor tissue. The purpose of this report is to highlight the presence of ganglioglioma as a distinct diagnosis in sellar region tumors, discuss the surgical, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy treatment options for sellar region gangliogliomas based on the literature, and contribute the patient's follow-up and treatment outcomes to the existing literature. CONCLUSION: Complete tumor resection may not be feasible in sellar region gangliogliomas, especially in pediatric cases, due to endocrinological and vision-related complications. In cases where complete resection is not possible, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may be considered. However, the optimal treatment approach has not yet been established, and further research is needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ganglioglioma , Criança , Humanos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Craniotomia , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 278, 2023 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37488495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-grade gangliogliomas (GGs) are typically epileptogenic intracranial neoplasms. Yet, the presentation of simplex vertiginous experience and spontaneous downbeat nystagmus (DBN) has not been reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 26-year-old male with focal onset impaired awareness seizures, characterized by vertigo due to right temporal lobe epilepsy caused by ganglioglioma. As rare presentations, a spontaneous, consistent DBN in the absence of vertiginous experience was noticed. MRI suggested lesion in the right temporal pole. Twenty-four-hour continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring recorded periodic sharp and slow waves, originating from the right temporal lobe. The patient was completely relieved of the symptoms after surgical removal of the tumor, which was histologically confirmed as Grade I Ganglioglioma. CONCLUSIONS: Asides from the cortical pathogenesis of epileptic vertigo, this case also provides insight into the DBN secondary to tumor of the temporal lobe. Moreover, the 24-h EEG is advantageous to recognize vestibular seizures and localize the ictal onset areas.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Epilepsia , Ganglioglioma , Nistagmo Patológico , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/complicações , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/complicações , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vertigem/complicações , Nistagmo Patológico/etiologia
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