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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 204, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gastrodia elata Bl. is an orchid, and its growth demands the presence of Armillaria species. The strong competitiveness of Armillaria species has always been a concern of major threat to other soil organisms, thus disrupting the equilibrium of soil biodiversity. Introducing other species to where G. elata was cultivated, could possibly alleviate the problems associated with the disequilibrium of soil microenvironment; however, their impacts on the soil microbial communities and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To reveal the changes of microbial groups associated with soil chemical properties responding to different cultivation species, the chemical property measurements coupled with the next-generation pyrosequencing analyses were applied with soil samples collected from fallow land, cultivation of G. elata and Phallus impudicus, respectively. RESULTS: The cultivation of G. elata induced significant increases (p < 0.05) in soil pH and NO3-N content compared with fallow land, whereas subsequent cultivation of P. impudicus reversed these G. elata-induced increases and was also found to significantly increase (p < 0.05) the content of soil NH4+-N and AP. The alpha diversities of soil microbial communities were significantly increased (p < 0.01) by cultivation of G. elata and P. impudicus as indicated with Chao1 estimator and Shannon index. The structure and composition of soil microbial communities differed responding to different cultivation species. In particular, the relative abundances of Bacillus, norank_o_Gaiellales, Mortierella and unclassified_k_Fungi were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the abundances of potentially beneficial genera such as Acidibacter, Acidothermus, Cryptococcus, and Penicillium etc., were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by cultivation of G. elata. It's interesting to find that cultivation of P. impudicus increased the abundances of these genera that G. elata decreased before, which contributed to the difference of composition and structure. The results of CCA and heatmap indicated that the changes of soil microbial communities had strong correlations with soil nutrients. Specifically, among 28 genera presented, 50% and 42.9% demonstrated significant correlations with soil pH and NO3-N in response to cultivation of G. elata and P. impudicus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that the cultivation of P. impudicus might have potential benefits as result of affecting soil microorganisms coupled with changes in soil nutrient profile.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biodiversidade , Gastrodia , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Solo/química , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Gastrodia/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Armillaria/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12215, 2024 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806667

RESUMO

Multi-generational asexual reproduction of Gastrodia elata Bl. will cause seedling species degeneration. Sexual reproduction of Gastrodia elata Bl. seed is an effective method to solve the problem of degeneration. The development of Gastrodia elata Bl. seeds cannot be separated from the germination fungus. However, there are few strains of germination fungus in production, and there is also the problem of species degradation in application for many years. It is very important for the sexual reproduction of Gastrodia elata Bl. to isolate more new strains of excellent germination fungus from the origin. This study used the Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds germination vegetative propagation corms capture method to isolate its symbiotic germination fungus, and comprehensively identified the species of germination fungus by colony morphology, ITS, sporocarps regeneration and germination function, and compared the growth characteristics and germination ability with other germination fungus (Mycena purpureofusca, Mycena dendrobii and Mycena osmundicola). The germination fungus was isolated from the vegetative propagation corms of Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds and named GYGL-1. After comprehensive identification, GYGL-1 was Mycetinis scorodonius. Compared with other germination fungus, GYGL-1 has fast germination speed, vigorous growth, and high germination ability for Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds. Innovated the isolation method of Gastrodia elata Bl. seeds germination fungus, obtained the regenerated sporocarps of the germination fungus, and discovered that Mycetinis scorodonius has a new function of germinating Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds, enriching the resource library of Gastrodia elata Bl. germination fungus.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Germinação , Sementes , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(6): e202400402, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573028

RESUMO

Gastrodin, a bioactive compound derived from the rhizome of the orchid Gastrodia elata, exhibits a diverse range of biological activities. With documented neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-tumor effects, gastrodin stands out as a multifaceted therapeutic agent. Notably, it has demonstrated efficacy in protecting against neuronal damage and enhancing cognitive function in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia. Additionally, gastrodin showcases immunomodulatory effects by mitigating inflammation and suppressing the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Its cytotoxic activity involves the inhibition of angiogenesis, suppression of tumor growth, and induction of apoptosis. This comprehensive review seeks to elucidate the myriad potential effects of Gastrodin, delving into the intricate molecular mechanisms underpinning its pharmacological properties. The findings underscore the therapeutic potential of gastrodin in addressing various conditions linked to neuroinflammation and cancer.


Assuntos
Álcoois Benzílicos , Glucosídeos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacologia , Álcoois Benzílicos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Humanos , Animais , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Gastrodia/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of fermentation on the chemical constituents of Gastrodia Tuder Halimasch Powder (GTHP), to establish its fingerprinting and multicomponent content determination, and to provide a basis for the processing, handling, and clinical application of this herb. METHODS: Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was used to conduct a preliminary analysis of the chemical constituents in GTHP before and after fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine some major differential components of GTHP and establish fingerprints. Cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed for comprehensive evaluation. RESULTS: Seventy-nine compounds were identified, including flavonoids, organic acids, nucleosides, terpenoids, and others. The CA and PCA results showed that ten samples were divided into three groups. Through standard control and HPLC analysis, 10 compounds were identified from 22 peaks, namely uracil, guanosine, adenosine, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), daidzin, genistin, glycitein, daidzein, genistein, and ergosterol. After fermentation, GTHP exhibited significantly higher contents of uracil, guanosine, adenosine, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and ergosterol and significantly lower genistein and daidzein contents. CONCLUSIONS: The UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS and HPLC methods can effectively identify a variety of chemical components before and after the fermentation of GTHP. This study provides a valuable reference for further research on the rational clinical application and quality control improvement of GTHP.


Assuntos
Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Gastrodia , Genisteína , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Pós , Adenosina , Ergosterol , Guanosina , Uracila
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118064, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521425

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gastrodia elata Blume is a traditional Chinese medicine with the effects of improving the deficiency of the body and maintaining health, and polysaccharide (GEP) is one of the effective ingredients to play these activities of G. elata. Traditionally, G. elata is orally administered, so the activities of GEP are associated with digestive and intestinal metabolism. However, the digestive behavior of GEP and its effects on the human gut microbiota are unclear and need to be fully studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the changes in structural characteristics of GEP during digestion and the related impacts of its digestive product on gut microbiota in human fecal fermentation, and to explain the beneficial mechanism of GEP on human health from the perspective of digestive characteristics and "gut" axis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The changes of reducing sugars, free monosaccharides and physicochemical properties of GEP during digestion were investigated by GPC, HPLC, FT-IR, CD, NMR, SEM, and TGA. Moreover, polysaccharide consumption, pH value changes, SCFAs production, and changes in gut microbiota during fermentation were also discussed. RESULTS: During digestion of GEP, glucose was partially released causing a decrease in molecular weight, and a change in monosaccharide composition. In addition, the characteristics of GEP before and after digestion, including configuration, morphology, and stability, were different. The digestive product of GEP was polysaccharide (GEP-I), which actively participated in the fecal fermentation process. As the fermentation time increased, the utilization of GEP-I by the microbiota gradually increased. The abundance of probiotics such as Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Prevotella, and Faecalibacterium was significantly increased, and the abundance of pathogenic Shigella, Dorea, Desulfovibrio, and Blautia was significantly inhibited, thereby suggesting that GEP has the potential to maintain human health through the "gut" axis. In addition, the beneficial health effects of GEP-I have also been observed in the influence of microbial metabolites. During the fermentation of GEP-I, the pH value gradually decreased, and the contents of beneficial metabolites such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and caproic acid significantly increased. CONCLUSION: The structure of GEP changed significantly during digestion, and its digestive product had the potential to maintain human health by regulating gut microbiota, which may be one of the active mechanisms of GEP.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Gastrodia/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Fermentação , Digestão
6.
Phytomedicine ; 128: 155369, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is key to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VaD). Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), an essential member of the sirtuins family, has been proven to be a critical sirtuin in regulating mitochondrial function. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin (GAS), a bioactive ingredient from Gastrodiae Rhizome (known in Chinese as Tian ma) demonstrates significant neuroprotective properties against central nervous system disorders; however, the precise mechanisms through which GAS modulates VaD remain elusive. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate whether GAS confers a protective role against VaD, and to figure out the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: A bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO)-mediated chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) VaD rat model and a hypoxia model using HT22 cells were employed to investigate pharmacological properties of GAS in mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction. A SIRT3 agonist resveratrol (RES), a SIRT3 inhibitor 3-TYP and SIRT3-knockdown in vitro were used to explore the mechanism of GAS in association with SIRT3. The ability of SIRT3 to bind and deacetylate mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) was detected by immunoprecipitation assay, and TFAM acetylation sites were further validated using mass spectrometry. RESULTS: GAS increased SIRT3 expression and ameliorated mitochondrial structure, mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial dynamics along with upregulated TFAM, mitigating oxidative stress and senescence. Comparable results were noted with the SIRT3 agonist RES, indicating an impactful neuroprotection played by SIRT3. Specifically, the attenuation of SIRT3 expression through knockdown techniques or exposure to the SIRT3 inhibitor 3-TYP in HT22 cells markedly abrogated GAS-mediated mitochondrial rescuing function. Furthermore, our findings elucidate a novel facet: SIRT3 interacted with and deacetylated TFAM at the K5, K7, and K8 sites. Decreased SIRT3 is accompanied by hyper-acetylated TFAM. CONCLUSION: The present results were the first to demonstrate that the SIRT3/TFAM pathway is a protective target for reversing mitochondrial dysfunction in VaD. The findings suggest that GAS-mediated modulation of the SIRT3/TFAM pathway, a novel mechanism, could ameliorate CCH-induced VaD, offering a potentially beneficial therapeutic strategy for VaD.


Assuntos
Álcoois Benzílicos , Demência Vascular , Glucosídeos , Mitocôndrias , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuína 3 , Sirtuínas , Animais , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Demência Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Masculino , Acetilação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Ratos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Linhagem Celular , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Gastrodia/química
7.
Phytomedicine ; 128: 155518, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata (Orchidaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. The rhizomes contain numerous active components, of which Gastrodin (p-hydroxymethylphenyl-B-D-glucopyranoside) forms the basis of the traditional medicine Gastrodiae Rhizoma. Gastrodin is also found in other medicinal plants and has neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in neurodegeneration. Research indicates that consuming meals and drinks containing Gastrodiaelata can enhance cognitive functioning and memory in elderly patients. The mechanisms relevant to the problem have not been completely understood. PURPOSE: The aim was to examine the in vivo and in vitro anti-neuroinflammatory effects of Gastrodin. STUDY DESIGN: The neuroprotective effects of Gastrodin on the TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB pathway and Stat3 phosphorylation in LPS-treated C57BL/6 mice and BV-2 cells were investigated. METHODS: 1. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to model, gastrodin, donepezil, and control groups (n = 10 per group). The Gastrodin group received 100 mg/kg/d for five days, and the Dopenezil group 1.3 mg/kg/d. A neuroinflammation model was established by administering intraperitoneal injections of 2 mg/kg LPS to all groups, excluding the control. To induce microglial activation in Gastrodin-treated mouse microglial BV-2 cells, 1 µg/ml LPS was introduced for 24 h Morris water mazes were utilized to evaluate learning and spatial memory. Expression and subcellular localization of TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB axis-related proteins and p-Stat3, Iba-1, GFAP, iNOS, and CD206 were assessed by immunofluorescence, western blots, and ELISA. qRT-PCR was performed to determine and measure IL-1ß, TNF-α, cell migration, and phagocytosis. Overexpression of TRAF6 was induced by transfection, and the effect of Gastrodin on IL-1ß and p-NF-κB p65 levels was assessed. RESULTS: 1. In mice, gastrodin treatment mitigated LPS-induced deficits in learning and spatial memory, as well as reducing neuroinflammation in the hippocampus, expression of TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB pathway proteins, activation of microglia and astrocytes, and phosphorylation of Stat3. 2. Gastrodin pretreatment improved LPS-induced inflammation in vitro, reducing expression of TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB-associated proteins and p-Stat3, inducing microglial transformation from M1 to M2, and inhibiting migration and phagocytosis. Overexpression of TRAF6 inhibited the Gastrodin-induced effects. CONCLUSION: Gastrodin suppresses neuroinflammation and microglial activation by modifying the TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB pathway and Stat3 phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Álcoois Benzílicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucosídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia , NF-kappa B , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Gastrodia/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 1): 130207, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365156

RESUMO

Polysaccharides have been widely used in the development of natural drugs and health food. However, polysaccharide characterization lags due to inherently complicated features and the limitations of existing detection approaches. We aimed to provide new insight into the fine structure and conformational visualization of polysaccharides from Gastrodia elata Blume, a medicinal and edible plant. A water-soluble polysaccharide (GEP2-6) with the high molecular weight of 2.7 × 106 Da was first obtained, and its purity reached 99.2 %. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses jointly revealed that GEP2-6 was a glucan linked by α-(1 â†’ 4) and α-(1 â†’ 6) glycosidic bonds. After enzymolysis, the local structure of GEP2-6 included α-1,4-Glcp, α-1,6-Glcp, α-1,4,6-Glcp, and α-1-Glcp at a molar ratio of 31.27∶1.32∶1.08∶0.93. The glycosidic linkage pattern of repeating units was further simulated by a glycan database and spatial examination software. The good dissolution performance was interpreted by dynamics simulation and practical molecular characteristics. Spherical flexible chains and the porous stable conformation were corroborated using atomic force microscopy. In addition, GEP2-6 could effectively scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as a promising natural antioxidant. These efforts will contribute to the expansion of clinical applications of this G. elata polysaccharide and the structural elucidation for macromolecular polysaccharides combined with traditional and modern analysis techniques.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Extratos Vegetais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Glucanos , Gastrodia/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peso Molecular , Água , Polissacarídeos/química
9.
J Insect Sci ; 24(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387434

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata Blume, a valuable traditional Chinese medicine with significant clinical and nutritional importance, is a fungal heterotrophic orchid. We present the first report of the mitochondrial genome structure and characteristics of 3 Scarabaeidae pests affecting G. elata: Sophrops peronosporus Gu & Zhang, Anomala rufiventris Kollar & Redtenbacher, and Callistethus plagiicollis Fairmaire. Each mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region, with no gene rearrangements observed. All 21 tRNAs, except trnS1 that lacks a dihydrouridine, had a stable cloverleaf secondary structure. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on the 13 PCGs produced 2 topologically similar phylogenetic trees, both of with high nodal support. Larvae of these Scarabaeidae pests cause substantial damage by gnawing on the tubers and roots of G. elata, leading to reduced yield and compromised quality. These findings contribute to phylogenetic studies of Scarabaeidae, expand knowledge of G. elata pests, and offer valuable reference materials for their identification and control.


Assuntos
Asparagales , Besouros , Gastrodia , Genoma Mitocondrial , Orchidaceae , Animais , Besouros/genética , Gastrodia/química , Gastrodia/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Asparagales/genética , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes
10.
Food Funct ; 15(6): 2920-2938, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385354

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, chronic, and progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system for which there is no effective treatment. Gastrodia elata is a well-known food and medicine homologous resource with neuroprotective potential. Gastrodia elata polysaccharide (GEP), which is a highly active and safe component in Gastrodia elata, is an important ingredient in the development of functional products. In this study, GEP was administered to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice over 3 weeks to investigate its neuroprotective effects. The results showed that GEP significantly alleviated the motor dysfunction of PD mice, inhibited the accumulation of α-synuclein, and reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Moreover, GEP increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreased the cleaved-caspase-3 level, suggesting that GEP may ameliorate PD by preventing MPTP-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. GEP also significantly inhibited the increase of GFAP and decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in the brain of PD mice, which may be the result of the inhibition of neuroinflammation by the inactivation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of GEP involve the gut-brain axis, as it has been shown that GEP regulated the dysbiosis of PD-related gut microbiota such as Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Faecalibacterium, increased the content of microbial metabolites SCFAs in the colon and increased the level of occludin that repairs the intestinal barrier of PD mice. In conclusion, this study is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the development and application of functional products with GEP from the perspective of neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Doença de Parkinson , Camundongos , Animais , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
11.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 397(6): 3781-3802, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165423

RESUMO

Tianma is the dried tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata), which is frequently utilized in clinical practice as a traditional Chinese medicine. Gastrodin (GAS) is the main active ingredient of Tianma, which has good pharmacological activity. Therefore, for the first time, this review focused on the extraction, synthesis, pharmacological effects, and derivatives of GAS and to investigate additional development options for GAS. The use of microorganisms to create GAS is a promising method. GAS has good efficacy in the treatment of neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, and liver diseases. GAS has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, vascular protective, blood sugar lowering, lipid-regulating, analgesic, anticancer, and antiviral effects. The mechanism involves various signaling pathways such as Nrf2, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and AMPK. In addition, the derivatives of GAS and biomaterials synthesized by GAS and PU suggested a broader application of GAS. The research on GAS is thoroughly summarized in this paper, which has useful applications for tackling a variety of disorders and exhibits good development value.


Assuntos
Álcoois Benzílicos , Glucosídeos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacologia , Álcoois Benzílicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Animais , Gastrodia/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Food Chem ; 439: 138148, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064826

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata (GE) is traditionally subjected to steaming, and steaming duration plays a crucially important role in determining GE quality. This study examined the variations in bioactive components during the steaming process and proposed the utilization of electronic eye and Fourier Transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy for quality assessment. The findings revealed that the levels of parishin E parishin B, parishin A, and gastrodin initially rose and subsequently declined, while 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol exhibited a rapid decrease followed by stabilization. With prolonged steaming, the brightness of GE decreased, while the red and yellow tones became more pronounced and the color saturation increased. FT-NIR divided the steaming process into three stages: 0 min (raw GE), 0-9 min (partially steamed GE), and 9-30 min (fully steamed GE), and the partial least squares regression models effectively predicted the levels of five components. Overall, this study provided valuable insights into quality control in food processing.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Gastrodia/química , Análise de Fourier , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vapor
13.
Phytomedicine ; 123: 155251, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insomnia and depressive disorder are two common symptoms with a reciprocal causal relationship in clinical practice, which are usually manifested in comorbid form. Several medications have been widely used in the treatment of insomnia and depression, but most of these drugs show non-negligible side effects. Currently, many treatments are indicated for insomnia and depressive symptom, including Chinese herbal medicine such as Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata), which has excellent sedative-hypnotic and antidepressant effects in clinical and animal studies. PURPOSE: To summarize the mechanisms of insomnia and depression and the structure-activity mechanism for G. elata to alleviate these symptoms, particularly by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and intestinal flora, aiming to discover new approaches for the treatment of insomnia and depression. METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched from the beginning to November 2023: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Wanfang Database, and CNKI. The following keywords of G. elata were used truncated with other relevant topic terms, such as depression, insomnia, antidepressant, sedative-hypnotic, neuroprotection, application, safety, and toxicity. RESULTS: Natural compounds derived from G. elata could alleviate insomnia and depressive disorder, which is involved in monoamine neurotransmitters, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and gut microbes, etc. Several clinical trials showed that G. elata-derived natural compounds that treat depression and insomnia have significant and safe therapeutic effects, but further well-designed clinical and toxicological studies are needed. CONCLUSION: G. elata exerts a critical role in treating depression and insomnia due to its multi-targeting properties and fewer side effects. However, more clinical and toxicological studies should be performed to further explore the sedative-hypnotic and antidepressant mechanisms of G. elata and provide more evidence and recommendations for its clinical application. Our review provides an overview of G. elata treating insomnia with depression for future research direction.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
14.
Talanta ; 269: 125461, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056416

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata Bl. is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine known for its medicinal properties. However, during the drying process, G. elata is often fumigated with sulfur to prevent corrosion and improve its appearance. Sulfur-fumigation can result in a reduction in the effective components of the herb and can also be hazardous to human health due to the remaining sulfur dioxide. Sulfur-fumigation of G. elata poses a significant challenge to both end-users and researchers. The detection of p-hydroxybenzyl hydrogen sulfite (p-HS) is a useful tool in determining whether G. elata has been fumigated with sulfur. Unfortunately, the current method for detecting p-HS is costly and requires sophisticated instruments. Therefore, there is a need to develop a more cost-effective and user-friendly method for the detection of p-HS. This study utilized the Capture-SELEX technique to screen high-affinity aptamers for p-HS, which were subsequently characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). An aptamer sequence (seq 6) with a high affinity of Kd = 26.5 µM was obtained following 8 rounds of selection against p-HS. With the aptamer serving as the recognition element and gold nanoparticles as the colorimetric indicator, a simple and efficient colorimetric sensor was developed for the specific detection of p-HS. This detection method exhibited a limit of detection of 1 µg/ml, while the p-HS recoveries demonstrated a range of between 88.5 % and 105 % for samples of G. elata obtained in the market. In summary, the aptamer exhibited a high affinity for p-HS, and the sensor developed through the use of a colloidal gold detector based on nucleic acid aptamer can be utilized for rapid detection of sulfur-fumigated G. elata. With these findings, this research paper provides valuable scientific insights and highlights significant potential for future studies in this area.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Gastrodia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Gastrodia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ouro , Enxofre/química
15.
Plant Dis ; 108(2): 382-397, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37552163

RESUMO

Black rot is a common disease of Gastrodia elata, causing serious threats to G. elata production. In this study, a total of 17 Cylindrocarpon-like strains were isolated from G. elata black rot tissues. Multilocus sequence analyses based on ITS, HIS, TEF, and TUB combined with morphological characterizations were performed to identify six Ilyonectria species, including four new species, Ilyonectria longispora, I. sinensis, I. xiaocaobaensis, and I. yunnanensis, and two known species, I. changbaiensis and I. robusta. The pathogenicity of 11 isolates comprising type strains of the four new species and representative isolates from each of the six species was tested on healthy tissues of G. elata. All isolates were pathogenic to G. elata tissues, and symptoms were identical to black rot disease, confirming that our isolates were the causal agents of black rot disease of G. elata.


Assuntos
Gastrodia
16.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(3): e14456, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752806

RESUMO

AIMS: The crosstalk between ferroptosis and neuroinflammation considerably impacts the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Neutral polysaccharide from Gastrodia elata (NPGE) has shown significant effects against oxidative stress and inflammation. This study investigated the potential effects of NPGE on CIRI neuropathology. METHODS: The effects of NPGE were studied in a mouse model of ischemic stroke (IS) and in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced HT22 cells. RESULTS: NPGE treatment decreased neurological deficits, reduced infarct volume, and alleviated cerebral edema in IS mice, and promoted the survival of OGD/R-induced HT22 cells. Mechanistically, NPGE treatment alleviated neuronal ferroptosis by upregulating GPX4 levels, lowering reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and Fe2+ excessive hoarding, and meliorating GSH levels and SOD activity. Additionally, it inhibited neuroinflammation by down-regulating the level of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, NLRP3, and HMGB1. Meanwhile, NPGE treatment alleviated ferroptosis and inflammation in erastin-stimulated HT22 cells. Furthermore, NPGE up-regulated the expression of NRF2 and HO-1 and promoted the translocation of NRF2 into the nucleus. Using the NRF2 inhibitor brusatol, we verified that NRF2/HO-1 signaling mediated the anti-ferroptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of NPGE. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results demonstrate the protective effects of NPGE and highlight its therapeutic potential as a drug component for CIRI treatment.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Gastrodia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Camundongos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Transdução de Sinais , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral , Glucose , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Fitoterapia ; 173: 105793, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158161

RESUMO

Two novel fungal polyketides, phometides A (1) and B (2), together with four known compounds (3-6), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. YUD17001 obtained from Gastrodia elata Blume. The structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystal diffraction, and time-dependent density functional theory/electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT/ECD) calculations. Structurally, phometide A (1) represented the first example of C12 polyketide characterized by an unusual tetrahydrobenzofuran-3(2H)-one core with an α,ß-unsaturated ketone functionality, while phometide B (2) was an unprecedented molecule containing a 2-pentylcycloheptan-1-one scaffold. In an antimicrobial activity assay, phometide A (1) exhibited significant inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value of 4 µg/mL. Phometide B (2) showed moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 16 µg/mL. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Policetídeos , Estrutura Molecular , Phoma , Acetilcolinesterase , Dicroísmo Circular
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(24)2023 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38139125

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently the most common neurodegenerative disease. Glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß) is a pivotal factor in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated that plant miRNAs exert cross-kingdom regulation on the target genes in animals. Gastrodia elata (G. elata) is a valuable traditional Chinese medicine that has significant pharmacological activity against diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Our previous studies have indicated that G. elata-specific miRNA plays a cross-kingdom regulatory role for the NF-κB signaling pathway in mice. In this study, further bioinformatics analysis suggested that Gas-miR36-5p targets GSK-3ß. Through western blot, RT-qPCR, and assessments of T-AOC, SOD, and MDA levels, Gas-miR36-5p demonstrated its neuroprotective effects in an AD cell model. Furthermore, Gas-miR36-5p was detected in the murine brain tissues. The results of the Morris water maze test and western blot analysis provided positive evidence for reversing the learning deficits and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in AD mice, elucidating significant neuroprotective effects in an AD model following G. elata RNA administration. Our research emphasizes Gas-miR36-5p as a novel G. elata-specific miRNA with neuroprotective properties in Alzheimer's disease by targeting GSK-3ß. Consequently, our findings provide valuable insights into the cross-kingdom regulatory mechanisms underlying G. elata-specific miRNA, presenting a novel perspective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças dos Animais , Gastrodia , MicroRNAs , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Camundongos , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Gastrodia/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/farmacologia , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
19.
Food Res Int ; 172: 113136, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689900

RESUMO

This study aimed to fabricate a novel codelivery system to simultaneously load ß-carotene and curcumin in a controlled and synergistic manner. We hypothesized that the aggregates of octenylsuccinated Gastrodia elata starch (OSGES) could efficiently load and control the release of ß-carotene and curcumin in combination. Mechanisms underlying the self-assembly of OSGES, coloading, and corelease of ß-carotene and curcumin by relevant aggregates were studied. The OSGES could form aggregates with a size of 120.2 nm containing hydrophobic domains surrounded by hydrophilic domains. For coloading, the increased solubilities were attributed to favorable interactions between ß-carotene and curcumin as well as interactions with octenyl and starch moieties via hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions, respectively. The ß-carotene and curcumin molecules occupied the interior and periphery of hydrophobic domains of OSGES aggregates, respectively, and they did not exist in isolation but interacted with each other. The ß-carotene and curcumin combination-loaded OSGES aggregates with a size of 310.5 nm presented a more compact structure than ß-carotene-only and curcumin-only loaded OSGES aggregates with sizes of 463.5 and 202.9 nm respectively, suggesting that a transition from a loose cluster to a compact cluster was accompanied by coloading. During in vitro digestion, the joint effect of ß-carotene and curcumin prolonged their release and increased their bioaccessibility due to competition between favorable hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions and the unfavorable structure erosion and relaxation of the loaded aggregates. Therefore, OSGES aggregates were designed for the codelivery of ß-carotene and curcumin, indicating their potential to be applied in functional foods and dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Gastrodia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , beta Caroteno , Amido , Hidrogênio
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 14(9): 594, 2023 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37673867

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is pathologically manifested by the aggregation of α-synuclein, which has been envisioned as a promising disease-modifying target for PD. Here, we identified 20C, a bibenzyl compound derived from Gastrodia elata, able to inhibit the aggregation of A53T variants of α-synuclein directly in vitro. Computational analysis revealed that 20C binds to cavities in mature α-synuclein fibrils, and it indeed displays a strong interaction with α-synuclein and reduced their ß-sheet structure by microscale thermophoresis and circular dichroism, respectively. Moreover, incubating neural cells with 20C reduced the amounts of α-synuclein inclusions significantly. The treatment of A53T α-Syn transgenic mice with 20C significantly reduces the toxic α-synuclein levels, improves behavioral performance, rescues dopaminergic neuron, and enhances functional connections between SNc and PD associated brain areas. The transcriptome analysis of SNc demonstrated that 20C improves mitochondrial dynamics, which protects mitochondrial morphology and function against α-synuclein induced degeneration. Overall, 20C appears to be a promising candidate for the treatment of PD.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Camundongos , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Camundongos Transgênicos
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