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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130600, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311237

RESUMO

The effect of dual-frequency sequential ultrasonic thawing (DUT) on the quality of quick-frozen small yellow croaker was studied by TMT-labeled quantitative proteomic method. A total number of 75 proteins were identified as differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) in fish meat treated by DUT, while 72 DAPs were in flow water thawing (FWT). The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that the DAPs in the significant enrichment pathway of DUT group were enzymes. Compared with FWT, DUT had a significant effect on the enzyme content. The correlation analyses indicated that 40 DAPs were related with the quality traits. The 11 highly correlated DAPs are expected to be used as potential protein markers for texture profile analyses, color, thawing loss, water-holding capacity, and pH of thawed small yellow croaker quality. These results provide a further understanding of the quality stability of quick-frozen small yellow croaker treated by the DUT.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Proteômica , Animais , Peixes , Genoma , Carne , Perciformes/genética
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 492, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596804

RESUMO

The Chino Santandereano (CHS) creole cattle breed has undergone an adaptation process of more than 500 years to the Colombian mountainous tropics. Despite its advantages, the breed has been replaced by specialized cattle that put it at risk of extinction. The aim of this work was to estimate the genomic diversity and population structure of the nucleus of conservation of the CHS breed. Thirty-seven CHS and 20 Brahman animals were genotyped due to the possible introgression of genes with the GGP Bovine LD v3 chip. Quality control was performed, and linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (Ne), ROH segments, homozygosity, and genomic inbreeding in the breed were estimated. Subsequently, 50 K genomic information of the Holstein (n = 30) and Romosinuano (n = 8) breeds were included to estimate the minor allele frequency (MAF) with common markers and constructing the graphs of the principal component analysis (PCA). Pairwise FSTs were estimated and a neighbor-joining tree was constructed using the IBS matrix. Admixture was used with k = 2 to 10 for the racial composition. LD (r2) was found up to a distance of 0.13 Mb, r2 > 0.3 at a distance of 340.3 kb, and Ne of 32 ± 1. ROH inbreeding was 5.36 ± 0.86%, with a higher contribution from recent inbreeding (4.55%). The PCA showed that the creole breeds were closer together, and the Brahman was more distant. The admixture analysis suggested k = 5 possible ancestral groups and shows that within the CHS breed, there seem to be two different groups with little Holstein and Brahman introgression. The genetic diversity parameters obtained in this work show minimal diversity in this breed and reinforce the need to protect this resource and the conservation banks.


Assuntos
Genoma , Melhoramento Vegetal , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Genômica , Endogamia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 13): 353, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the genome, with all of its components and intrinsic relationships, is a great challenge. Conceptual modeling techniques have been used as a means to face this challenge. The heterogeneity and idiosyncrasy of genomic use cases mean that conceptual modeling techniques are used to generate conceptual schemes that focus on too specific scenarios (i.e., they are species-specific conceptual schemes). Our research group developed two different conceptual schemes. The first one is the Conceptual Schema of the Human Genome, which is intended to improve Precision Medicine and genetic diagnosis. The second one is the Conceptual Schema of the Citrus Genome, which is intended to identify the genetic cause of relevant phenotypes in the agri-food field. METHODS: Our two conceptual schemes have been ontologically compared to identify their similarities and differences. Based on this comparison, several changes have been performed in the Conceptual Schema of the Human Genome in order to obtain the first version of a species-independent Conceptual Schema of the Genome. Identifying the different genome information items used in each genomic case study has been essential in achieving our goal. The changes needed to provide an expanded, more generic version of the Conceptual Schema of the Human Genome are analyzed and discussed. RESULTS: This work presents a new CS called the Conceptual Schema of the Genome that is ready to be adapted to any specific working genome-based context (i.e., species-independent). CONCLUSION: The generated Conceptual Schema of the Genome works as a global, generic element from which conceptual views can be created in order to work with any specific species. This first working version can be used in the human use case, in the citrus use case, and, potentially, in more use cases of other species.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 488, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population genetic studies of humans make increasing use of high-throughput sequencing in order to capture diversity in an unbiased way. There is an abundance of sequencing technologies, bioinformatic tools and the available genomes are increasing in number. Studies have evaluated and compared some of these technologies and tools, such as the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) and its "Best Practices" bioinformatic pipelines. However, studies often focus on a few genomes of Eurasian origin in order to detect technical issues. We instead surveyed the use of the GATK tools and established a pipeline for processing high coverage full genomes from a diverse set of populations, including Sub-Saharan African groups, in order to reveal challenges from human diversity and stratification. RESULTS: We surveyed 29 studies using high-throughput sequencing data, and compared their strategies for data pre-processing and variant calling. We found that processing of data is very variable across studies and that the GATK "Best Practices" are seldom followed strictly. We then compared three versions of a GATK pipeline, differing in the inclusion of an indel realignment step and with a modification of the base quality score recalibration step. We applied the pipelines on a diverse set of 28 individuals. We compared the pipelines in terms of count of called variants and overlap of the callsets. We found that the pipelines resulted in similar callsets, in particular after callset filtering. We also ran one of the pipelines on a larger dataset of 179 individuals. We noted that including more individuals at the joint genotyping step resulted in different counts of variants. At the individual level, we observed that the average genome coverage was correlated to the number of variants called. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that applying the GATK "Best Practices" pipeline, including their recommended reference datasets, to underrepresented populations does not lead to a decrease in the number of called variants compared to alternative pipelines. We recommend to aim for coverage of > 30X if identifying most variants is important, and to work with large sample sizes at the variant calling stage, also for underrepresented individuals and populations.


Assuntos
Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 487, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alignment-free methods are a popular approach for comparing biological sequences, including complete genomes. The methods range from probability distributions of sequence composition to first and higher-order Markov chains, where a k-th order Markov chain over DNA has [Formula: see text] formal parameters. To circumvent this exponential growth in parameters, variable-length Markov chains (VLMCs) have gained popularity for applications in molecular biology and other areas. VLMCs adapt the depth depending on sequence context and thus curtail excesses in the number of parameters. The scarcity of available fast, or even parallel software tools, prompted the development of a parallel implementation using lazy suffix trees and a hash-based alternative. RESULTS: An extensive evaluation was performed on genomes ranging from 12Mbp to 22Gbp. Relevant learning parameters were chosen guided by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to avoid over-fitting. Our implementation greatly improves upon the state-of-the-art even in serial execution. It exhibits very good parallel scaling with speed-ups for long sequences close to the optimum indicated by Amdahl's law of 3 for 4 threads and about 6 for 16 threads, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our parallel implementation released as open-source under the GPLv3 license provides a practically useful alternative to the state-of-the-art which allows the construction of VLMCs even for very large genomes significantly faster than previously possible. Additionally, our parameter selection based on BIC gives guidance to end-users comparing genomes.


Assuntos
Genoma , Software , Teorema de Bayes , DNA , Cadeias de Markov
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 387, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The mangrove cricket, Apteronemobius asahinai, shows endogenous activity rhythms that synchronize with the tidal cycle (i.e., a free-running rhythm with a period of ~ 12.4 h [the circatidal rhythm]). Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the circatidal rhythm. We present the draft genome of the mangrove cricket to facilitate future molecular studies of the molecular mechanisms behind this rhythm. DATA DESCRIPTION: The draft genome contains 151,060 scaffolds with a total length of 1.68 Gb (N50: 27 kb) and 92% BUSCO completeness. We obtained 28,831 predicted genes, of which 19,896 (69%) were successfully annotated using at least one of two databases (UniProtKB/SwissProt database and Pfam database).


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Animais , Genoma , Gryllidae/genética
7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 489, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data visualization, especially the genome track plots, is crucial for genomics researchers to discover patterns in large-scale sequencing dataset. Although existing tools works well for producing a normal view of the input data, they are not convenient when users want to create customized data representations. Such gap between the visualization and data processing, prevents the users to uncover more hidden structure of the dataset. RESULTS: We developed CoolBox-an open-source toolkit for visual analysis of genomics data. This user-friendly toolkit is highly compatible with the Python ecosystem and customizable with a well-designed user interface. It can be used in various visualization situations like a Swiss army knife. For example, to produce high-quality genome track plots or fetch commonly used genomic data files with a Python script or command line, to explore genomic data interactively within Jupyter environment or web browser. Moreover, owing to the highly extensible Application Programming Interface design, users can customize their own tracks without difficulty, which greatly facilitate analytical, comparative genomic data visualization tasks. CONCLUSIONS: CoolBox allows users to produce high-quality visualization plots and explore their data in a flexible, programmable and user-friendly way.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Genômica , Genoma , Software , Navegador
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 740, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mollusca, a phylum of highly rich species, possess vivid shell colours, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. DNA methylation, one of the most common epigenetic modifications in eukaryotes, is believed to play a vital role in various biological processes. However, analysis of the effects of DNA methylation on shell colouration has rarely been performed in molluscs, limiting the current knowledge of the molecular mechanism of shell colour formation. RESULTS: In the present study, to reveal the role of epigenetic regulation in shell colouration, WGBS, the "gold standard" of DNA methylation analysis, was first performed on the mantle tissues of Yesso scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) with different shell colours (brown and white), and DNA methylomes at single-base resolution were generated. About 3% of cytosines were methylated in the genome of the Yesso scallop. A slight increase in mCG percentage and methylation level was found in brown scallops. Sequence preference of nearby methylated cytosines differed between high and low methylation level sites and between the brown- and white-shelled scallops. DNA methylation levels varied among the different genomic regions; all the detected regions in the brown group exhibited higher methylation levels than the white group. A total of 41,175 DMRs (differentially methylated regions) were detected between brown and white scallops. GO functions and pathways associated with the biosynthesis of melanin and porphyrins were significantly enriched for DMRs, among which several key shell colour-related genes were identified. Further, different correlations between mRNA expression levels and DNA methylation status were found in these genes, suggesting that DNA methylation regulates shell colouration in the Yesso scallop. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides genome-wide DNA methylation landscapes of Yesso scallops with different shell colours, offering new insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanism underlying shell colour.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Pectinidae , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Genoma , Pectinidae/genética , Sulfitos
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 737, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The detection of signatures of selection in genomic regions provides insights into the evolutionary process, enabling discoveries regarding complex phenotypic traits. In this research, we focused on identifying genomic regions affected by different selection pressures, mainly highlighting the recent positive selection, as well as understanding the candidate genes and functional pathways associated with the signatures of selection in the Mangalarga Marchador genome. Besides, we seek to direct the discussion about genes and traits of importance in this breed, especially traits related to the type and quality of gait, temperament, conformation, and locomotor system. RESULTS: Three different methods were used to search for signals of selection: Tajima's D (TD), the integrated haplotype score (iHS), and runs of homozygosity (ROH). The samples were composed of males (n = 62) and females (n = 130) that were initially chosen considering well-defined phenotypes for gait: picada (n = 86) and batida (n = 106). All horses were genotyped using a 670 k Axiom® Equine Genotyping Array​ (Axiom MNEC670). In total, 27, 104 (chosen), and 38 candidate genes were observed within the signatures of selection identified in TD, iHS, and ROH analyses, respectively. The genes are acting in essential biological processes. The enrichment analysis highlighted the following functions: anterior/posterior pattern for the set of genes (GLI3, HOXC9, HOXC6, HOXC5, HOXC4, HOXC13, HOXC11, and HOXC10); limb morphogenesis, skeletal system, proximal/distal pattern formation, JUN kinase activity (CCL19 and MAP3K6); and muscle stretch response (MAPK14). Other candidate genes were associated with energy metabolism, bronchodilator response, NADH regeneration, reproduction, keratinization, and the immunological system. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed evidence of signatures of selection in the MM breed that encompass genes acting on athletic performance, limb development, and energy to muscle activity, with the particular involvement of the HOX family genes. The genome of MM is marked by recent positive selection. However, Tajima's D and iHS results point also to the presence of balancing selection in specific regions of the genome.


Assuntos
Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Cavalos/genética , Masculino , Seleção Genética
10.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 499, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparisons of the molecular framework among organisms can be done on both structural and functional levels. One of the most common top-down approaches for functional comparisons is RNA sequencing. This estimation of organismal transcriptional responses is of interest for understanding evolution of molecular activity, which is used for answering a diversity of questions ranging from basic biology to pre-clinical species selection and translation. However, direct comparison between species is often hindered by evolutionary divergence in structure of molecular framework, as well as large difference in the depth of our understanding of the genetic background between humans and other species. Here, we focus on the latter. We attempt to understand how differences in transcriptome annotation affect direct gene abundance comparisons between species. RESULTS: We examine and suggest some straightforward approaches for direct comparison given the current available tools and using a sample dataset from human, cynomolgus monkey, dog, rat and mouse with a common quantitation and normalization approach. In addition, we examine how variation in genome annotation depth and quality across species may affect these direct comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that further efforts for better genome annotation or computational normalization tools may be of strong interest.


Assuntos
Genoma , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cães , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 747, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over several decades, a wide range of natural and artificial selection events in response to subtropical environments, intensive pasture and intensive feedlot systems have greatly changed the customary behaviour, appearance, and important economic traits of Shanghai Holstein cattle. In particular, the longevity of the Shanghai Holstein cattle population is generally short, approximately the 2nd to 3rd lactation. In this study, two complementary approaches, integrated haplotype score (iHS) and runs of homozygosity (ROH), were applied for the detection of selection signatures within the genome using genotyping by genome-reduced sequence data from 1092 cows. RESULTS: In total, 101 significant iHS genomic regions containing selection signatures encompassing a total of 256 candidate genes were detected. There were 27 significant |iHS| genomic regions with a mean |iHS| score > 2. The average number of ROH per individual was 42.15 ± 25.47, with an average size of 2.95 Mb. The length of 78 % of the detected ROH was within the range of 1-2 MB and 2-4 MB, and 99 % were shorter than 8 Mb. A total of 168 genes were detected in 18 ROH islands (top 1 %) across 16 autosomes, in which each SNP showed a percentage of occurrence > 30 %. There were 160 and 167 genes associated with the 52 candidate regions within health-related QTL intervals and 59 candidate regions within reproduction-related QTL intervals, respectively. Annotation of the regions harbouring clustered |iHS| signals and candidate regions for ROH revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes associated with adaptation and economic traits, such as IL22RA1, CALHM3, ITGA9, NDUFB3, RGS3, SOD2, SNRPA1, ST3GAL4, ALAD, EXOSC10, and MASP2. In a further step, a total of 1472 SNPs in 256 genes were matched with 352 cis-eQTLs in 21 tissues and 27 trans-eQTLs in 6 tissues. For SNPs located in candidate regions for ROH, a total of 108 cis-eQTLs in 13 tissues and 4 trans-eQTLs were found for 1092 SNPs. Eighty-one eGenes were significantly expressed in at least one tissue relevant to a trait (P value < 0.05) and matched the 256 genes detected by iHS. For the 168 significant genes detected by ROH, 47 gene-tissue pairs were significantly associated with at least one of the 37 traits. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a comprehensive overview of selection signatures in Shanghai Holstein cattle genomes by combining iHS and ROH. Our study provides a list of genes associated with immunity, reproduction and adaptation. For functional annotation, the cGTEx resource was used to interpret SNP-trait associations. The results may facilitate the identification of genes relevant to important economic traits and can help us better understand the biological processes and mechanisms affected by strong ongoing natural or artificial selection in livestock populations.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , China , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Fenótipo , Reprodução/genética
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 502, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pan-genome of a species is the union of the genes and non-coding sequences present in all individuals (cultivar, accessions, or strains) within that species. RESULTS: Here we introduce PGV, a reference-agnostic representation of the pan-genome of a species based on the notion of consensus ordering. Our experimental results demonstrate that PGV enables an intuitive, effective and interactive visualization of a pan-genome by providing a genome browser that can elucidate complex structural genomic variations. CONCLUSIONS: The PGV software can be installed via conda or downloaded from https://github.com/ucrbioinfo/PGV . The companion PGV browser at http://pgv.cs.ucr.edu can be tested using example bed tracks available from the GitHub page.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Software
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 501, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patterns of multi-locus differentiation (i.e., genomic clines) often extend broadly across hybrid zones and their quantification can help diagnose how species boundaries are shaped by adaptive processes, both intrinsic and extrinsic. In this sense, the transitioning of loci across admixed individuals can be contrasted as a function of the genome-wide trend, in turn allowing an expansion of clinal theory across a much wider array of biodiversity. However, computational tools that serve to interpret and consequently visualize 'genomic clines' are limited, and users must often write custom, relatively complex code to do so. RESULTS: Here, we introduce the ClineHelpR R-package for visualizing genomic clines and detecting outlier loci using output generated by two popular software packages, bgc and Introgress. ClineHelpR bundles both input generation (i.e., filtering datasets and creating specialized file formats) and output processing (e.g., MCMC thinning and burn-in) with functions that directly facilitate interpretation and hypothesis testing. Tools are also provided for post-hoc analyses that interface with external packages such as ENMeval and RIdeogram. CONCLUSIONS: Our package increases the reproducibility and accessibility of genomic cline methods, thus allowing an expanded user base and promoting these methods as mechanisms to address diverse evolutionary questions in both model and non-model organisms. Furthermore, the ClineHelpR extended functionality can evaluate genomic clines in the context of spatial and environmental features, allowing users to explore underlying processes potentially contributing to the observed patterns and helping facilitate effective conservation management strategies.


Assuntos
Genoma , Hibridização Genética , Evolução Biológica , Genômica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 474, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sequence Alignment/Map Format Specification (SAM) is one of the most widely adopted file formats in bioinformatics and many researchers use it daily. Several tools, including most high-throughput sequencing read aligners, use it as their primary output and many more tools have been developed to process it. However, despite its flexibility, SAM encoded files can often be difficult to query and understand even for experienced bioinformaticians. As genomic data are rapidly growing, structured, and efficient queries on data that are encoded in SAM/BAM files are becoming increasingly important. Existing tools are very limited in their query capabilities or are not efficient. Critically, new tools that address these shortcomings, should not be able to support existing large datasets but should also do so without requiring massive data transformations and file infrastructure reorganizations. RESULTS: Here we introduce SamQL, an SQL-like query language for the SAM format with intuitive syntax that supports complex and efficient queries on top of SAM/BAM files and that can replace commonly used Bash one-liners employed by many bioinformaticians. SamQL has high expressive power with no upper limit on query size and when parallelized, outperforms other substantially less expressive software. CONCLUSIONS: SamQL is a complete query language that we envision as a step to a structured database engine for genomics. SamQL is written in Go, and is freely available as standalone program and as an open-source library under an MIT license, https://github.com/maragkakislab/samql/ .


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Software , Genoma , Genômica , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 719, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing interest in γδ T cells and their non-classical behaviour, most studies focus on animals with low numbers of circulating γδ T cells, such as mice and humans. Arguably, γδ T cell functions might be more prominent in chickens where these cells form a higher proportion of the circulatory T cell compartment. The TCR repertoire defines different subsets of γδ T cells, and such analysis is facilitated by well-annotated TCR loci. γδ T cells are considered at the cusp of innate and adaptive immunity but most functions have been identified in γδ low species. A deeper understanding of TCR repertoire biology in γδ high and γδ low animals is critical for defining the evolution of the function of γδ T cells. Repertoire dynamics will reveal populations that can be classified as innate-like or adaptive-like as well as those that straddle this definition. RESULTS: Here, a recent discrepancy in the structure of the chicken TCR gamma locus is resolved, demonstrating that tandem duplication events have shaped the evolution of this locus. Importantly, repertoire sequencing revealed large differences in the usage of individual TRGV genes, a pattern conserved across multiple tissues, including thymus, spleen and the gut. A single TRGV gene, TRGV3.3, with a highly diverse private CDR3 repertoire dominated every tissue in all birds. TRGV usage patterns were partly explained by the TRGV-associated recombination signal sequences. Public CDR3 clonotypes represented varying proportions of the repertoire of TCRs utilising different TRGVs, with one TRGV dominated by super-public clones present in all birds. CONCLUSIONS: The application of repertoire analysis enabled functional annotation of the TCRG locus in a species with a high circulating γδ phenotype. This revealed variable usage of TCRGV genes across multiple tissues, a pattern quite different to that found in γδ low species (human and mouse). Defining the repertoire biology of avian γδ T cells will be key to understanding the evolution and functional diversity of these enigmatic lymphocytes in an animal that is numerically more reliant on them. Practically, this will reveal novel ways in which these cells can be exploited to improve health in medical and veterinary contexts.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Genoma , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Genômica , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Linfócitos T
16.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210293, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520681

RESUMO

Fuelled by the ongoing genomic revolution, broadscale RNA expression surveys are fast replacing studies targeting one or a few genes to understand the molecular basis of behaviour. Yet, the timescale of RNA-sequencing experiments and the dynamics of neural gene activation are insufficient to drive real-time switches between behavioural states. Moreover, the spatial, functional and transcriptional complexity of the brain (the most commonly targeted tissue in studies of behaviour) further complicates inference. We argue that a Central Dogma-like 'back-to-basics' assumption that gene expression changes cause behaviour leaves some of the most important aspects of gene-behaviour relationships unexplored, including the roles of environmental influences, timing and feedback from behaviour-and the environmental shifts it causes-to neural gene expression. No perfect experimental solutions exist but we advocate that explicit consideration, exploration and discussion of these factors will pave the way toward a richer understanding of the complicated relationships between genes, environments, brain gene expression and behaviour over developmental and evolutionary timescales.


Assuntos
Genômica , Transcriptoma , Evolução Biológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma
17.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 671-674, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490760

RESUMO

All extant species in the rodent family Spalacidae are subterranean and have evolved various traits for underground life. However, the phylogenomic relationships among its three subfamilies (Myospalacinae, Spalacinae, and Rhizomyinae) and the molecular basis underlying their adaptations to underground life remain poorly understood. Here, we inferred the phylogenomic relationships among these subfamilies based on de novo sequencing the genome of the hoary bamboo rat ( Rhizomys pruinosus). Analyses showed that ~50% of the identified 11 028 one-to-one orthologous protein-coding genes and the concatenated sequences of these orthologous genes strongly supported a sister relationship between Myospalacinae and Rhizomyinae. The three subfamilies diversified from each other within ~2 million years. Compared with the non-subterranean controls with similar divergence dates, the spalacids shared more convergent genes with the African subterranean mole-rats at the genomic scale due to more rapid protein sequence evolution. Furthermore, these convergent genes were enriched in the functional categories of carboxylic acid transport, vascular morphogenesis, and response to oxidative stress, which are closely associated with adaptations to the hypoxic-hypercapnic underground environment. Our study presents a well-supported phylogenomic relationship among the three subfamilies of Spalacidae and offers new insights into the molecular adaptations of spalacids living underground.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Roedores/genética , Animais , Genoma , Filogenia , Roedores/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 673, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meiotic recombination is a fundamental genetic process that shuffles allele combinations and promotes accurate segregation of chromosomes. Analyses of the ubiquitous variation of recombination rates within and across species suggest that recombination is evolving adaptively. All studied insects with advanced eusociality have shown exceptionally high recombination rates, which may represent a prominent case of adaptive evolution of recombination. However, our understanding of the relationship between social evolution and recombination rates is incomplete, partly due to lacking empirical data. Here, we present a linkage map of the monandrous, advanced eusocial Brazilian stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, providing the first recombination analysis in the diverse Meliponini (Hymenoptera, Apidae). RESULTS: Our linkage map includes 1417 markers in 19 linkage groups. This map spans approximately 2580 centimorgans, and comparisons to the physical genome assembly indicate that it covers more than 75 % of the 275 Megabasepairs (Mbp) F. varia genome. Thus, our study results in a genome-wide recombination rate estimate of 9.3-12.5 centimorgan per Mbp. This value is higher than estimates from nonsocial insects and comparable to other highly social species, although it does not support our prediction that monandry and strong queen-worker caste divergence of F. varia lead to even higher recombination rates than other advanced eusocial species. CONCLUSIONS: Our study expands the association between elevated recombination and sociality in the order Hymenoptera and strengthens the support for the hypothesis that advanced social evolution in hymenopteran insects invariably selects for high genomic recombination rates.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Ligação Genética , Genoma , Recombinação Genética , Comportamento Social
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5285, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489442

RESUMO

The mammalian DNA methylome is formed by two antagonizing processes, methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and demethylation by ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases. Although the dynamics of either methylation or demethylation have been intensively studied in the past decade, the direct effects of their interaction on gene expression remain elusive. Here, we quantify the concurrence of DNA methylation and demethylation by the percentage of unmethylated CpGs within a partially methylated read from bisulfite sequencing. After verifying 'methylation concurrence' by its strong association with the co-localization of DNMT and TET enzymes, we observe that methylation concurrence is strongly correlated with gene expression. Notably, elevated methylation concurrence in tumors is associated with the repression of 40~60% of tumor suppressor genes, which cannot be explained by promoter hypermethylation alone. Furthermore, methylation concurrence can be used to stratify large undermethylated regions with negligible differences in average methylation into two subgroups with distinct chromatin accessibility and gene regulation patterns. Together, methylation concurrence represents a unique methylation metric important for transcription regulation and is distinct from conventional metrics, such as average methylation and methylation variation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Genoma , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 683, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of "γδ-high" species, chicken is an excellent model for the study of γδ T cells in non-mammalian animals. However, a comprehensive characterization of the TCRγδ repertoire is still missing in chicken. The objective of this study was to characterize the expressed TCRγ repertoire in chicken thymus using high-throughput sequencing. METHODS: In this study, we first obtained the detailed genomic organization of the TCRγ locus of chicken based on the latest assembly of the red jungle fowl genome sequences (GRCg6a) and then characterized the TCRγ repertoire in the thymus of four chickens by using 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5' RACE) along with high-throughput sequencing (HTS). RESULTS: The chicken TCRγ locus contains a single Cγ gene, three functional Jγ segments and 44 Vγ segments that could be classified into six subgroups, each containing six, nineteen, nine, four, three and three members. Dot-plot analysis of the chicken TCRγ locus against itself showed that almost all the entire zone containing Vγ segments had arisen through tandem duplication events, and the main homology unit, containing 9 or 10 Vγ gene segments, has tandemly duplicated for four times. For the analysis of chicken TCRγ repertoire, more than 100,000 unique Vγ-region nucleotide sequences were obtained from the thymus of each chicken. After alignment to the germline Vγ and Jγ segments identified above, we found that the four chickens had similar repertoire profile of TCRγ. In brief, four Vγ segments (including Vγ3.7, Vγ2.13, Vγ1.6 and Vγ1.3) and six Vγ-Jγ pairs (including Vγ3.7-Jγ3, Vγ2.13-Jγ1, Vγ2.13-Jγ3, Vγ1.6-Jγ3, Vγ3.7-Jγ1 and Vγ1.6-Jγ1) were preferentially utilized by all four individuals, and vast majority of the unique CDR3γ sequences encoded 4 to 22 amino acids with mean 12.90 amino acids, which exhibits a wider length distribution and/or a longer mean length than CDR3γ of human, mice and other animal species. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we present the first in-depth characterization of the TCRγ repertoire in chicken thymus. We believe that these data will facilitate the studies of adaptive immunology in birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Galinhas/genética , Genoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Camundongos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética
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