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1.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 144(5): 2249-2256, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551783

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been increasingly adopted in orthopaedic surgery. Although not an exclusion criterion, patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with preoperative severe varus deformity may be less likely to be enrolled for ERAS. This study aimed to compare the success of ERAS TKA between patients with severe preoperative varus deformities (≥ 15° varus) and the control group (< 15° varus to 14° valgus). Our secondary aim was to compare postoperative complications and functional outcomes between the two groups. MATERIALS & METHODS: 310 TKAs performed from August 2019 to February 2021 were analyzed with a follow-up of 6 months postoperatively. The primary outcome, ERAS TKA success, was defined as length of hospital stay of < 24 h. Other parameters included 30-day postoperative complications and clinical outcomes such as the original Oxford Knee Score (OKS), the Knee Society Knee (KSKS) and Function Score (KSFS), Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS-P), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) Physical Component Summary (PCS) and SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS). RESULTS: There were 119 patients in the severe deformity group and 191 patients in the control group. There were no significant differences in ERAS success between the severe deformity group and control group, with both groups achieving similarly high rates (> 90%) of ERAS success. There were also no differences in 30-day postoperative complications and 6-month postoperative clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe preoperative varus deformity undergoing ERAS TKA achieved high ERAS success rates (> 90%). Genu varum is not a contraindication for ERAS TKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Genu Varum , Humanos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Genu Varum/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Int Orthop ; 48(6): 1411-1417, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to appraise various factors influencing the correction rate in temporary hemiepiphysiodesis (THE) around the knee joint. Specifically, the study analysed the relationship of correction rate with age, gender, aetiology, type and location of deformity. METHODS: The retrospective study included children who underwent THE for a coronal plane deformity (genu valgus or varum) around the knee joint (distal femur or proximal tibia) over a ten year period (2010-2020). The primary outcome of interest was the correction rate of the deformity. RESULTS: Thirty-three children (27 females and 6 males) with a mean age of 8.1 years involving 86 plates were included in the study. The mean correction achieved was 12.2° over a treatment period of 13.3 months. Subgroup analysis showed significant differences between the type (varus (0.8° per month), valgus (1.1° per month)) and the location of deformity femur (1.2° per month) and tibia (0.7° per month)]. On multivariate analysis, the location and the duration of treatment showed significant associations with the correction rate. CONCLUSION: The correction of coronal deformities following temporary hemiepiphysiodesis is influenced by several factors. Valgus, femoral and deformities in younger children correct at a faster rate. Location of deformity and duration of treatment emerged as potential factors affecting the correction rate.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas , Articulação do Joelho , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/anormalidades , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Tíbia/anormalidades , Fêmur/cirurgia , Fêmur/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Análise Multivariada , Resultado do Tratamento , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Adolescente , Epífises/cirurgia
3.
Knee ; 45: 198-206, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the coronal alignment of lower extremities according to age and sex in a healthy population and demonstrate the differences. METHODS: Standing full-lower limb anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of healthy volunteers (670 males and 782 females) aged 18-69 years were retrospectively analyzed. The hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), joint line convergence angle and femoral bowing angle (FBA) were measured. The radiographic parameters were compared according to groups of age and sex. The proportion of volunteers with varus or valgus alignment more than 3° were also analyzed. RESULTS: With increasing age, HKA and LDFA varus increased. With increasing age, femoral medial bowing decreased. In addition, the HKA showed more varus alignment in males than in females (178.01° vs. 178.82°, P < 0.001). The MPTA was about 1° smaller in males than in females (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with varus alignment of more than 3° increased with increasing age, with 16.9% in the 10-19 years old and 38.0% in the 60-69 years old groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that males showed more varus tibial alignments than females. Varus limb alignment, LDFA, and FBA also increases with age. In contrast, tibial alignment was constant across all age groups. Therefore, differences in lower extremity alignment according to age and sex should be considered in estimating individual prearthritic alignments.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Orthop Surg ; 15(12): 3174-3181, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37873579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: At present, the main viewpoint is that tibial varus is the main reason of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), and high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is also the main alignment correction method to correct medial knee OA. In contrast, the impact of the anatomical alignment of the femur on medial knee OA is often overlooked. We evaluated the increased risk for medial knee OA because a varus alignment could be attributed to the anatomical reasons that include hip anatomy, femoral shaft bowing (FSB) and femoral condylar dysplasia. METHODS: The present research adopted a cross-sectional study method. We selected 62 patients with HTO in the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University from June 2021 to March 2022 as the HTO group and 55 healthy volunteers as the control group. Femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA), lateral FSB, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA) and hip-knee-ankle (HKA) was radiographically examined within the two groups. The femoral neck length and offset were also measured, and the ratio is represented by the ratio of the femoral neck length to off-set (N/O). The 2-tailed Student t-test was used to compare the differences between groups when the data were in accordance with a normal distribution. Otherwise, the Mann-Whitney U tests was used to compare the differences between groups. RESULT: Compared to the control group, the HTO group had a higher offset (p < 0.05), greater femoral neck length (p < 0.05), and decreased (more varus) NSA (p < 0.05). The HKA in the HTO group was 172.20 ° (3.50°), which was significantly lower than that of the control group 177.00° (3.05°), (p < 0.001), while the medial OA was associated with more varus HKA. The mean mLDFA was 89.10 ° (2.35°) and 87.50° (2.85°) in the HTO and control groups (p < 0.005), respectively. The mean lateral FSB values of the full-length radiographs were larger (p < 0.001) in the HTO group (4.24° ± 3.25°) than that in control group (1.16° ± 2.32°). CONCLUSION: The reduction of NSA (coxa vara) and the increase of the mLDFA can lead to medial knee OA, while the lateral FSB also affects medial OA. We believe that femoral deformity is also one of the cause of the medial knee OA. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the joint deformity of the femur and tibia before surgery in order to determine whether to use HTO alone to correct the lower limb alignment.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça do Fêmur , Estudos Transversais , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(28): e34347, 2023 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37443492

RESUMO

The change in axial tibial rotation after uniplane medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (uniplane OWHTO) and its relevant influence factor is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the change in axial tibial rotation after uniplane OWHTO, and the factors affecting tibia rotational change were analyzed. Between January 2022 and April 2022, the study was retrospectively conducted on genu varum patients who underwent uniplane OWHTO. In the weight-bearing anteroposterior long leg view, the hip-knee-ankle angle and medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) were evaluated. The posterior tibial slope were measured from the lateral view. A CT scan of the knee joint was performed to evaluate the distal tibial rotation angle (TRA), femorotibial rotation angle and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance. In addition, the foot morphology was assessed by the ankle deformity angle and ankle rotation angle using an angle measuring instrument. All parameters were measured preoperatively and 14 days after surgery. The mean change in hip-knee-ankle, MPTA was 10.5°±2.9°, 8.8°±2.6°. The mean preoperative and postoperative TRA were 25.1°±6.9° and 22.2°±6.2° respectively (P = .007). Thus, the mean ∆TRA was -3.0°±3.4° (IR) with a range of -9.6° to +2.8° after surgery. No significant differences were found in the femorotibial rotation angle and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance before and after surgery (P > .05). The postoperative ankle rotation angle and ankle deformity angle changed significantly compared with preoperative values (P < .001). In the multiple regression analysis, ∆MPTA was the only predictor of distal tibial rotation (ß = 0.667, P = .003). The current study confirms an unintended internal rotation in the distal tibia following uniplane MOWHTO and the rotation in the distal tibia was influenced by the opening width. Surgeron should keep in mind to avoid the osteotomy complication leading to excessive rotation change during surgery.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia
6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 24(1): 492, 2023 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37322501

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the ankle alignment alterations after the correction of knee varus deformity in MAKO robot-assisted total knee arthroplasty (MA-TKA). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for 108 patients with TKA from February 2021 to February 2022. Patients were divided into two groups based on MAKO robot involvement during the procedure: the MA-TKA group (n = 36) and the conventional manual total knee arthroplasty (CM-TKA) group (n = 72). The patients were divided into four subgroups according to the degree of surgical correction of the knee varus deformity. Seven radiological measurements were evaluated pre and post-surgery: mechanical tibiofemoral angle (mTFA), mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA), tibial plafond inclination angle (TPIA), talar inclination angle (TIA), and tibiotalar tilt angle (TTTA). TTTA is a quantitative representation of the extent of ankle incongruence. RESULTS: The number of mTFA, mLDFA, and MPTA outliers in the MA-TKA group was significantly lower compared to the CM-TKA group (P<0.05). Knee varus deformity was properly corrected and the mechanical axis was restored in all patients, regardless of the treatment group. Only for varus corrections ≥ 10° did TTTA change significantly (p < 0.01) and ankle varus incongruence aggravate post-operation. The ΔTTTA correlated negatively with ΔTFA (r=-0.310,P = 0.001) and correlated positively with ΔTPIA (r = 0.490,P = 0.000). When the varus correction was ≥ 7.55°, the probability of ankle varus incongruence exacerbation increased 4.86-fold. CONCLUSION: Compared with CM-TKA, MA-TKA osteotomy showed more precision but was unable to reduce post-operation ankle varus incongruence. When the varus correction ≥ 10°, ankle varus incongruence aggravated, while when the varus correction ≥ 7.55°, the probability of ankle varus incongruence increased 4.86-fold. This may occasion the pathogenesis of ankle pain following TKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Robótica , Humanos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Tornozelo/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia
7.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 421, 2023 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37301957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the early results of using the Ilizarov technique in performing medial wedge opening high tibial osteotomy (MWOHTO) combined with gradual tensioning of the posterolateral corner in adult patients presenting with genu varum (GV) and lateral thrust. METHODS: A prospective case series study included 12 adult patients with a mean age of 25.2 ± 8.1 years who presented with GV deformity associated with lateral thrust. They were evaluated clinically using the "hospital for special surgery" (HSS) knee scoring system. Radiological evaluation was performed using long film from hip to knee to ankle (HKA) radiographs; the overall mechanical alignment was measured as the HKA angle, the upper tibial deformity was measured as the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), and the joint line convergence angle (JLCA) was measured. Surgical technique included using Ilizarov for MWOHTO below the level of the tibial tubercle, acute correction of the GV deformity, fibular osteotomy, and gradual distalization of the proximal fibula. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 26.3 ± 6.4 months, all osteotomies were united. All patients achieved fibular osteotomy site bony union except two with a fibrous union. The HSS score showed improvement from a mean preoperative score of 88.7 ± 7.6 to a postoperative 97.3 ± 3.9 (P < 0.05). The overall mechanical lower limb alignment improved significantly from a mean preoperative HKA of 164.5 ± 3.2 to a postoperative 178.9 ± 1.6 (P < 0.05). The MPTA improved significantly from 74.6 ± 4.1 to 88.9 ± 2.3, as well as the JLCA from 12.17 ± 1.9 to 2.3 ± 1.7 (P < 0.05). Grade 1 pin tract infection was developed in four patients and was treated conservatively. In two patients, mild pain over the fibular osteotomy site was relieved over time. The lateral thrust reoccurred at the last follow-up evaluation in the two poliomyelitis patients. CONCLUSION: MWOHTO, concomitant with tensioning the knee lateral soft tissue structure at the same setting through applying an Ilizarov apparatus, showed promising functional and radiological outcomes.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Técnica de Ilizarov , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Genu Varum/complicações , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Joelho , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Ligamentos Articulares , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 43(8): e639-e642, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37253708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is the most prevalent form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250,000 individuals. Lower extremity angular deformities, particularly genu varum, are common in children with achondroplasia, often resulting in pain and limitation of function. The authors aim to determine the utility of lower extremity growth modulation with hemiepiphysiodesis in children with achondroplasia for correction of coronal plane deformities about the knee. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective chart review of a single center from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2020 to identify pediatric patients with achondroplasia treated with hemiepiphysiodesis as their initial procedure at the distal femur and/or proximal tibia. Patients with adequate records and who had completed their treatment were included. Data collected included duration of treatment, complications, need for osteotomy, and radiographic measurements including initial and final mechanical axis deviation, knee mechanical axis zone, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle and medial proximal tibia angle. RESULTS: Ten patients with 17 limbs met our criteria. Nine patients (15 limbs) were treated for genu varum and 1 patient (2 limbs) was treated for genu valgum. Prior to treatment, the mechanical axis fell in zone 3 in 59% of limbs and zone 2 in 41%. Average correction in mechanical axis deviation was 26.1 mm. Average change in mechanical lateral distal femoral angle was 10.3 degrees per limb, and average change in medial proximal tibia angle was 7.1 degrees per limb. Average treatment duration was 909 days. At final follow up, 81% (14/17) of limbs had the mechanical axis in zone 1, with the remaining 18% (3/17) in zone 2. No patient/limb underwent subsequent distal femur or proximal tibia osteotomy for coronal plane alignment. CONCLUSIONS: Children with achondroplasia can successfully be treated with hemiepiphysiodesis to correct coronal plane deformities at the distal femur and proximal tibia. Using this technique, no patient in our series required an osteotomy for genu varum/valgum. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic level IV, Case series.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia , Geno Valgo , Genu Varum , Humanos , Criança , Tíbia/cirurgia , Tíbia/anormalidades , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Extremidade Inferior , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Fêmur/anormalidades , Acondroplasia/complicações , Acondroplasia/cirurgia , Geno Valgo/cirurgia , Geno Valgo/complicações
9.
Rev. Soc. Andal. Traumatol. Ortop. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(1): 8-19, ene.-mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229877

RESUMO

La osteoartrosis en el compartimento medial de la rodilla es una causa frecuente de dolor cróni-co e impotencia funcional en nuestro medio. Los tratamientos clínicamente efectivos incluyen el tratamiento conservador, la artroplastia unicom-partimental y la osteotomía. Si bien la prótesis unicompartimental puede ser una buena elección en determinados casos, para pacientes jóvenes con una mala alineación de los miembros inferiores se prefieren las osteotomías alrededor de la rodilla con el propósito de redistribuir el eje de carga. Las osteotomías son variadas dependiendo del grado de deformidad y su localización. La más utilizada en la actualidad es la osteotomía tibial valguizan-te, debido a que la mayoría de genu varo artrósico está causada por una deformidad en tibia. Dentro de las osteotomías valguizantes de tibia podemos encontrar: la osteotomía de adición medial, la de sustracción lateral y la osteotomía tridimensional. (AU)


Medial comparment osteoarthritis of the knee is a frequent cause of chronic pain and disability in our environment. Clinically effective treatments include conservative treatment, unicompartmental arthroplasty and osteotomy. Although the unicom-partmental arthroplasty may be a good choice in certain cases, for young patients with lower limb malalingment, osteotomies around the knee are preferred, for the purpose of redistributing the me-chanical axis. Osteotomies are varied depending on the degree of deformity and its location. Valgus tibial osteotomy is the most commonly used, due to the mayority of genu varus arthritis is caused by a tibial deformity. Within the valgus tibial osteoto-mies, we can find: medial opening wedge, lateral closing wedge and tridimensional osteotomy. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos
10.
Rev. Soc. Andal. Traumatol. Ortop. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(1): 8-19, ene.-mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-495

RESUMO

La osteoartrosis en el compartimento medial de la rodilla es una causa frecuente de dolor cróni-co e impotencia funcional en nuestro medio. Los tratamientos clínicamente efectivos incluyen el tratamiento conservador, la artroplastia unicom-partimental y la osteotomía. Si bien la prótesis unicompartimental puede ser una buena elección en determinados casos, para pacientes jóvenes con una mala alineación de los miembros inferiores se prefieren las osteotomías alrededor de la rodilla con el propósito de redistribuir el eje de carga. Las osteotomías son variadas dependiendo del grado de deformidad y su localización. La más utilizada en la actualidad es la osteotomía tibial valguizan-te, debido a que la mayoría de genu varo artrósico está causada por una deformidad en tibia. Dentro de las osteotomías valguizantes de tibia podemos encontrar: la osteotomía de adición medial, la de sustracción lateral y la osteotomía tridimensional. (AU)


Medial comparment osteoarthritis of the knee is a frequent cause of chronic pain and disability in our environment. Clinically effective treatments include conservative treatment, unicompartmental arthroplasty and osteotomy. Although the unicom-partmental arthroplasty may be a good choice in certain cases, for young patients with lower limb malalingment, osteotomies around the knee are preferred, for the purpose of redistributing the me-chanical axis. Osteotomies are varied depending on the degree of deformity and its location. Valgus tibial osteotomy is the most commonly used, due to the mayority of genu varus arthritis is caused by a tibial deformity. Within the valgus tibial osteoto-mies, we can find: medial opening wedge, lateral closing wedge and tridimensional osteotomy. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos
11.
Bone Joint J ; 105-B(3): 331-340, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36854319

RESUMO

Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis (HED) is applied to children and adolescents to correct angular deformities (ADs) in long bones through guided growth. Traditional Blount staples or two-hole plates are mainly used for this indication. Despite precise surgical techniques and attentive postoperative follow-up, implant-associated complications are frequently described. To address these pitfalls, a flexible staple was developed to combine the advantages of the established implants. This study provides the first results of guided growth using the new implant and compares these with the established two-hole plates and Blount staples. Between January 2013 and December 2016, 138 patients (22 children, 116 adolescents) with genu valgum or genu varum were treated with 285 flexible staples. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. These results were compared with 98 patients treated with 205 two-hole plates and 92 patients treated with 535 Blount staples. In long-standing anteroposterior radiographs, mechanical axis deviations (MADs) were measured before and during treatment to analyze treatment efficiency. The evaluation of the new flexible staple was performed according to the idea, development, evaluation, assessment, long-term (IDEAL) study framework (Stage 2a). Overall, 79% (109/138) of patients treated with flexible staples achieved sufficient deformity correction. The median treatment duration was 16 months (interquartile range (IQR) 8 to 21). The flexible staples achieved a median MAD correction of 1.2 mm/month/HED site (IQR 0.6 to 2.0) in valgus deformities and 0.6 mm/month/HED site (IQR 0.2 to 1.5) in varus deformities. Wound infections occurred in 1%, haematomas and joint effusions in 4%, and implant-associated complications in 1% of patients treated with flexible staples. Valgus AD were corrected faster using flexible staples than two-hole plates and Blount staples. Furthermore, the median MAD after treatment was lower in varus and valgus AD, fewer implant-associated complications were detected, and reduced implantation times were recorded using flexible staples. The flexible staple seems to be a viable option for guided growth, showing comparable or possibly better results regarding correction speed and reducing implant-associated complications. Further comparative studies are required to substantiate these findings.


Assuntos
Geno Valgo , Genu Varum , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório
12.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 82, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether femoral bowing or its direction has a mechanical effect on the proximal femur is unclear. This study aimed to define the changes in stress distribution in the proximal femur associated with femoral bowing using finite element analysis. METHODS: We created four femoral models: original, entire lateral bowing, entire anterior bowing, and the middle of both (50% anterolateral bowing) from computed tomography data of women with standard bowing. Each model's stress distribution was compared by two-layering the stress distribution under loading conditions during walking. We also evaluated displacement vectors. RESULTS: In all directions of femoral bowing, the stress increased in the femoral neck and the femoral trochanter in the 50% anterolateral bowing. The direction of deformation of the vector for the femoral head increased anteroinferiorly in the 50% anterolateral bowing. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the stress distribution at the proximal femur shifted laterally. The high-stress area increased at the femoral neck or trochanter due to increasing femoral bowing. Femoral bowing also increases the anteroinferior vector in the femoral head. This study provides valuable insights into the mechanism of proximal femoral fractures in older adults.


Assuntos
Fêmur , Genu Varum , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior , Cabeça do Fêmur , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(1): 144-150, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the incidence of adductor tubercle tendinitis (ATT) and demonstrate the effects of intraoperative steroid injections on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing high tibial osteotomy (HTO) due to genu varum (GV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 738 patients who underwent HTO due to GV between 2014-2021, 454 patients had accompanying preoperative ATT. Of these patients, 324 patients who presented to follow-ups and had adequate medical records were evaluated. Mean patient age was 52.6 years. Patients who received steroid injections to the adductor tubercle during HTO (Group I, n=182) and patients who did not receive injections (Group II, n=142) were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed by evaluating preoperative and postoperative VAS scores and presence of ATT. RESULTS: Preoperative ATT sensitivity was present in 61% of the patients. ATT findings were significantly less in Group I compared to Group II in the early-term (1-3 months) (p=0.0001), while there was no significant difference in the late-term (6-12 months) (p=0.880). There was no statistically significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative VAS scores of the groups (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Stress and tendinitis often develop in the adductor muscle groups due to increased adductor moment in GV. We believe that tendinitis contributes to increased knee pain. HTO reduces the symptoms of tendinitis in the long term by decreasing the adductor moment, while intra-operative steroid injections contribute to relieving complaints related to tendinitis in the early term.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Tendinopatia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Genu Varum/complicações , Incidência , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Osteotomia/métodos , Tendinopatia/epidemiologia , Tendinopatia/cirurgia , Tendinopatia/complicações , Esteroides , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 33(1): 89-96, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether patients with particular lower limb morphological factors have femoral and tibial component malpositioning during mechanically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and lower postoperative satisfaction. METHODS: This study included 146 knees in 117 Asian patients undergoing TKA for medial osteoarthritis. Preoperative bony morphological factors such as the angle between the femoral mechanical and anatomical axes (MA-AA angle), angle between the anatomical axes of the proximal and distal femur (lateral bowing femoral angle, LBFA), mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, medial proximal tibial angle, and % anatomical axis of the tibia were evaluated, as well as preoperative and 1-year postoperative 2011 Knee Society scores (KSSs). RESULTS: MA-AA angle and LBFA were significantly larger in knees with varus femoral component alignment versus neutral alignment. Preoperative MA-AA angle was underestimated in patients with larger MA-AA angle or LBFA, especially by inexperienced surgeons. Tibial morphological factors did not affect tibial component alignment. Changes in 2011 KSSs were similar among groups by lower limb alignment or femoral and tibial component alignment. CONCLUSION: Femoral bowing affects varus femoral component alignment by obscuring preoperative planning, but it had little impact on patient satisfaction when mechanical alignment is targeted during TKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 31(4): 1524-1532, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Femoral bowing influences the genesis and management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the femoral torsion angle (FTA) and femoral bowing angle (FBA) in a southern Chinese population. It was hypothesized that a greater FTA would lead to a greater lateral FBA. METHODS: A total of 381 lower extremities from 381 osteoarthritic patients (298 women, 83 men; 201 left, 180 right; mean age 66.5 ± 8.9 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), side, height, femoral length (FL), hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) and FTA were set as FBA-related factors. The three-dimensional (3D) FBA, the angle between the anatomical axis of the proximal femur and the anatomical axis of the distal femur in the plane they form, and its projection on the coronal (lateral FBA) and sagittal (anterior FBA) planes were measured on 3D computed tomography (CT) models. The correlation of the 3D, lateral and anterior FBAs with each of the FBA-related factors was explored using multiple linear regression analysis. The correlation between the FBA and FTA was explored and verified after using propensity score matching to control for the other FBA-related factors. RESULTS: The mean lateral and anterior FBAs were 5.5°, with 53.5% greater than 5°, and 12.7°, with 70.3% greater than 11°, respectively. 3D FBA was positively correlated with age (Std.Co = 0.113, P < 0.05) and HKA (Std.Co = 0.129, P < 0.05). Lateral FBA was positively correlated with age (Std.Co = 0.118, P < 0.05), female sex (Std.Co = 0.206, P < 0.05), HKA (Std.Co = 0.184, P < 0.05) and FL (Std.Co = 0.220, P < 0.05). Anterior FBA was positively correlated with age (Std.Co = 0.108, P < 0.05) and male sex (Std.Co = 0.108, P < 0.05). When the related factors were balanced between the two groups (NS), FTA did not significantly affect 3D FBA or anterior FBA (NS), while FTA was positively correlated with lateral FBA (Std.Co = 0.165, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: External torsion of the proximal femur increases the lateral FBA by twisting a partial anterior FBA into a lateral FBA, especially in the female population. If a patient is found to have a large lateral FBA preoperatively, one should be alert to the possibility of a concomitant large FTA, as there are implications for femoral orthopedics, TKA and patellofemoral pressure distribution. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 109(3): 103187, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) rickets mainly causes leg deformities in children that can worsen as they grow. We hypothesized that quantifying the bone parameters will help to document and monitor these deformities in children with XLH. METHODS: Thirty-five growing children affected by XLH were included in this cross-sectional study. Biplanar radiographs were taken with an EOS system allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the pelvis and legs. Sixteen geometric parameters were calculated for the legs and pelvis. A control group of 40 age-matched patients was used to define the reference values for these geometric parameters. RESULTS: For the legs, significant differences (p<0.05) appeared between the XLH patients and the control group in the neck-shaft angle, femur/tibia length ratio and HKS. Among the 70 legs in the XLH group, 23 were in genu varum, 25 were in genu valgum and 22 were straight. There were significant differences between the genu varum and genu valgum subgroups in the femoral mechanical angle and the HKS. A strong correlation was found between the femoral mechanical angle and femorotibial angle (r2=0.73) and between the femoral mechanical angle and HKS (r2=0.69) The sacral slope and acetabular anteversion were significant different from the reference values. DISCUSSION: Quantitative radiological parameters derived from 3D reconstructions show that the deformities in XLH patients are (1) mainly in - but not limited to - the femoral shaft; (2) highly variable from one person to another. Some of these radiological parameters may be useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of XLH patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III; case control study.


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Geno Valgo , Genu Varum , Humanos , Criança , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Extremidade Inferior
17.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 143(5): 2395-2400, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488920

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: When performing a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for genu varum deformity, it is not always easy to obtain the correct amount of overcorrection. The aims of this study were to review the results of a simple and reproducible method of correction that we have called "1 mm equals 1°". We have applied this technique to the medial opening wedge osteotomy. Our hypothesis was that one degree of correction corresponded with one degree of opening. METHODS: 97 proximal medial opening wedge osteotomies were measured intraoperatively with a navigation system and at 3 months with long-leg X-rays. The hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle preoperatively was on average 173.8 ± 2.3° (170°-177°). In most cases, an opening of 4° greater than the initial varus was performed using our formula that one degree varus was equal to 1 mm of opening. In other words, when the varus was 6°, an opening of 10 mm was performed. The void left by the opening wedge was filled with a calcium triphosphate wedge and the construct fixed and held with a locking plate. RESULTS: Aiming for a knee axis of 184 ± 2°, which corresponds to 2°-6° of overcorrection, we obtained the following results: HKA intraoperatively measured angle with navigation was on average 183.5 ± 0.9° (182°-184°) and HKA radiologically postoperatively angle was 182.5° ± 1.6° (179°-189°). We therefore achieved the desired overcorrection of 2°-6° in 92% of cases based on our postoperative radiographs and in 100% cases based on intraoperative measurements with computer navigation. CONCLUSION: The method of "1 mm equals 1°" is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to achieve in 92% of cases the desired overcorrection (i.e., 184 ± 2°) with valgising proximal medial opening wedge osteotomy in genu varum.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos
18.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 109(2): 103492, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ulnar fractures associated with long-term bisphosphonate (BPs) therapy are rare, and the nature and extent of this potential risk remains unknown. Although ulna is generally considered a "straight bone", it actually features a bow anatomically. For this reason, we speculated that ulnar bow may have a role in the development of atypical ulnar fractures (AUFs). Therefore, we compared the location and depth of ulnar bow between AUF patients and patients with atypical fractures other than the ulna. We aimed to answer: (1) whether a correlation exists between the location of the ulna bow and the location of AUFs, (2) whether the degree of ulnar bow affects the occurrence of AUFs. HYPOTHESIS: Ulnar bowing could play a critical role in the location and occurrence of AUFs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the radiographs and medical records of 64 patients with atypical fractures admitted to our department between May 2010 to July 2020. The bow of the ulna was measured using anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs. Bone angulation was described as apex of deformity, with apex lateral bow designated as AP plane bowing and apex posterior bow marked as lateral plane bowing. RESULTS: In all patients with atypical fractures, bow locations were measured at the proximal third level to the index line in 68% of AP plane and 72% of lateral plane. In patients with AUFs, fracture sites occurred in the range of 20% to<40%, except in one patient. Fracture site versus apex lateral bow location and fracture site versus apex posterior bow location showed a statistically significant correlation coefficient of 0.81 (p<0.001) and 0.69 (p=0.003), respectively. In lateral plane, there was a significant difference between AUF patients and patients with atypical fractures other than the ulna in ulnar bow depth (p=0.014). However, no statistically significant differences were found in AP plane (p=0.110). DISCUSSION: In AUFs, fracture site was highly correlated with ulnar bowing location, and, as the degree of apex posterior bow increased, occurrence of AUFs increased. These findings are helpful in understanding the role of bowing as the ulnar geometry in the development of AUF and early identification of the location of suspicious AUF. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Fraturas da Ulna , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ulna/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Ulna/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Superior , Difosfonatos
19.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 43(3): 168-173, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists concerning growth modulation by tension band plate (TBP) to correct varus deformity in patients with achondroplasia with limited growth due to FGFR3 gene mutation. We evaluated the efficacy of TBP in children with achondroplasia with genu varum and reported the static radiographic and dynamic motion data to determine parameters that impact the rate of deformity correction. METHODS: Patients with achondroplasia with genu varum who underwent TBP surgery for growth modulation were studied. Those with at least 1 year of follow-up with TBP were included. Radiographic parameters were measured. Growth velocity of femoral/tibial length was calculated separately. Patients were deemed successful or unsuccessful. Spearman correlation analysis and Student t test were used to describe statistical results. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (41 limbs; 12 girls) fulfilled our criteria. Mean age at TBP surgery was 7.6±2.4 years. Thirty-six femoral TBP and 41 tibial TBP were in place for 24.5±9.7 months. Mean mechanical axis deviation, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, and medial proximal tibial angle preoperatively were 30.1±7.6 mm, 97.2±6.4, and 80.3±4.3 degrees, and 11±15.6 mm, 87.4±5.9, and 84.7±5.3 degrees at last follow-up ( P <0.001). Fifteen limbs were successfully straightened; 4 limbs were in more varus than the initial deformity. Twenty-four limbs with TBP were still undergoing correction. In successful limbs, mean age at surgery was 6.5±1.7 years and duration of TBP was 29.9±7.8 months. In 4 unsuccessful limbs, mean age at surgery was 11.7±1.2 years. Analysis in the gait laboratory included physical examination with the measurement of knee varus and kinematic varus based on a posterior view static standing photograph. Photographic measurement of varus was higher than the radiographic measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Growth modulation by TBP surgery is a reliable and simple technique to correct genu varum in achondroplasia. An early age at TBP implementation (mean: 6.5 y) is crucial to successfully correct the varus knee deformity. Furthermore, we recommend early and regular surveillance of achondroplasia for progressive varus knee deformity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-cohort study.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia , Genu Varum , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise da Marcha , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia , Acondroplasia/complicações , Acondroplasia/cirurgia , Marcha
20.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 109(4): 103397, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A double level osteotomy (DLO) may be indicated in patients with genu varum when the deformity involves both the tibia and femur. These patients, who are often young and active, have a high functional demand and hope for a rapid return to sport. The purpose of our study was to assess return to sport and functional outcomes following DLO for symptomatic genu varum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients (mean age 45.5±2 years) who underwent a DLO between 2018 and 2020, performed in 2 different hospitals, were reviewed after a minimum follow-up of 1-year. The mean initial varus was 11±2°. The type of sport and frequency of participation (UCLA activity score) as well as time to return to sport and level of activity recovered were defined as the primary endpoints. Functional scores were also assessed with the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). RESULTS: At the last follow-up, 87.5% (n=35) of patients reported that they had returned to sport. The mean time to return to sport was 6±1 months with a significant difference (p<0.001) between the pre- and postoperative UCLA activity scores. There was a strong correlation between the presence of a joint line obliquity >3° and decreased functional outcomes (p<0.0001). The overall KOOS score improved (p<0.001) by a mean of 38.6 points after the correction. The 8 lateral cortical fractures (Takeuchi type I and II) and the 2 medial cortical fractures (Nakayama type 1) that were found had no impact on functional outcomes (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that DLO provided rapid return to sport, thus making it possible to meet the functional demands and expectations of patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV; Retrospective study.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volta ao Esporte , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia
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