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1.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 17(1): 257, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intramedullary (IM) femoral alignment instrument is imprecise for the coronal alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with severe lateral bowing of the femur, while the extramedullary (EM) alignment system does not depend on the structure of the femoral medullary cavity. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the accuracy of postoperative limb alignment with the two femoral alignment techniques for patients with severe coronal femoral bowing. METHODS: From January 2017 to December 2019, patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis and coronal femoral bowing angle (cFBA) ≥ 5° who underwent total knee arthroplasty TKA at our institution were enrolled in the study. The postoperative hip-knee-ankle (HKA) alignment, femoral and tibial component alignment between the IM group and the EM group were compared on 5° ≤ cFBA < 10° and cFBA ≥ 10°. RESULTS: In patients with 5° ≤ cFBA < 10°, no significant differences were observed in the EM group and IM group, including preoperative and postoperative parameters. However, when analyzing the patients with cFBA ≥ 10°, we found a significant difference in postoperative HKA (4.51° in the IM group vs. 2.23°in the EM group, p < 0.001), femoral component alignment angle (86.84° in the IM group vs. 88.46° in the EM group, p = 0.001) and tibial component alignment angle (88.69° in the IM group vs. 89.81° in the EM group, p = 0.003) between the two groups. Compared to the EM group, the IM group presents a higher rate of outliers for the postoperative HKA and femoral components. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that severe lateral bowing of the femur has an important influence on the postoperative alignment with the IM femoral cutting system. In this case, the application of EM cutting system in TKA will perform accurate distal femoral resection and optimize the alignment of lower limb and the femoral component.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia
2.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(4): e343-e348, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiographic findings in young children with physiological bowing sometimes difficult to distinguish from early Blount disease. However, early diagnosis of the disease is critical because of the poor treatment outcomes for Blount disease. In this study, we aim to evaluate the accuracy of the metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle (MDA) compared with the medial metaphyseal beak (MMB) angle for differentiating between physiological bowing and early Blount disease and to determine which parameter to adequately screen for the subsequent development of Blount disease. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on children aged 1 to 3 years old who were brought to our outpatient clinic with bowed leg between 2000 and 2017. Data on the patients' age, sex, and affected sides were collected. Radiographic measurements of the femorotibial angle (FTA), MDA, and MMB angle were evaluated from the initial radiographs. An observer repeated the measurements on all the radiographs 2 weeks after they were first done. RESULTS: In total, 158 legs were considered from 79 children (48 males/31 females), whose average age was 26.0±6.1 months old. Eighty-seven legs were diagnosed with Blount disease and 71 legs had physiological bowing. Using single cutoff values of 16 degrees for the MDA showed low sensitivity (50.6%), very high specificity (100.0%), and a very high positive predictive value (PPV); while using MMB angle cutoff values ≥122 degrees showed very high sensitivity (92.0%), high specificity (80.3%), and a high PPV. Considering the MDA and MMB angle simultaneously showed very high sensitivity (93.1%), high specificity (80.3%), and a high PPV. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the MDA and MMB showed excellent (0.89) and outstanding (0.93) discriminative ability, respectively. When combining the MDA and MMB angles, it was also considered outstanding performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.95). CONCLUSIONS: The MMB angle represents a potential radiographic screening parameter for predicting early Blount disease in children 1 to 3 years old, offering high sensitivity and specificity. The MDA showed excellent specificity as a confirmation parameter for Blount disease patients. Applying both the MDA and MMB angles is another option to increase early recognition and confirm the diagnosis in early Blount disease patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Genu Varum , Osteocondrose , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Osteocondrose/congênito , Osteocondrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(4): e336-e342, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate factors determining postoperative courses, especially focusing on the rebound phenomenon, in adolescent patients with idiopathic genu valgum who underwent temporary hemiepiphysiodesis and implant removal. METHODS: We identified and reviewed patients with idiopathic genu valgum treated with temporary hemiepiphysiodesis [using tension-band plates (plate group, PG) or transphyseal screws (screw group, SG)] and followed-up to skeletal maturity. RESULTS: In our cohort [68 patients and their 68 limbs (randomly selected in bilateral cases)], the mean hip-knee-ankle alignment was -5.4±1.8 degrees at the time of temporary hemiepiphysiodesis (negative means valgus), 2.6±2.1 degrees at the time of implant removal, and 0.7±2.6 degrees at the last follow-up, respectively. Regarding the implants, the correction speed was not significantly different (P=0.192-0.315) between the PG (total 1.29±0.37 degrees/mo, 0.71±0.23 degrees/mo at distal femur, 0.59±0.16 degrees/mo at proximal tibia, n=19) and the SG (total 1.22±0.49 degrees/mo, 0.65±0.25 degrees/mo at distal femur, 0.57±0.23 degrees/mo at proximal tibia, n=49). The magnitude of rebound phenomenon in the PG (4.1±1.9 degrees) was greater (P<0.001) than that in the SG (1.1±3.1 degrees). The use of plates and faster correction speed, rather than more severe preoperative deformity or greater correction angle, were positively associated with the rebound phenomenon in regression analyses. Among the 68 knees, 1 showed valgus alignment ≥5 degrees and 5 showed varus alignment ≥5 degrees at the last follow-up. All the 6 cases were observed in the SG. Surgical wound dehiscence was observed in 1 patient in the PG. CONCLUSIONS: The use of plates and faster correction speed were positively associated with the rebound phenomenon. Careful attention will be needed with the corresponding conditions for optimal results. Progressive genu varum after transphyseal screw removal, which was observed in this study, should be explored in future research. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective comparative series.


Assuntos
Geno Valgo , Genu Varum , Adolescente , Placas Ósseas , Geno Valgo/etiologia , Geno Valgo/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 32(4): 675-682, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086135

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the fact that osteotomies around the knee represent well-established treatment options for the redistribution of loads and forces within and around the knee joint, unforeseen effects of these osteotomies on the ankle are still to be better understood. It was therefore the aim of this study to determine the influence of osteotomies around the knee on the coronal alignment of the ankle. We hypothesize that osteotomies around the knee for correction of genu varum or valgum lead to a change of the ankle orientation in the frontal plane by valgisation or varisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Long-leg standing radiographs of 154 consecutive patients undergoing valgisation or varisation osteotomy around the knee in 2017 were obtained and utilized for the purpose of this study. Postoperative radiographs were obtained after union at the osteotomy site. The hip knee ankle angle (HKA), the mechanical lateral distal femur angle (mLDFA), the mechanical medial proximal tibia angle (mMPTA) and five angles around the ankle were measured. Comparison between means was performed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four patients (96 males, 58 females) underwent osteotomies around the knee for coronal realignment. The mean age was 51 ± 11 years. Correction osteotomies consisted of 73 HTO, 54 DFOs, and 27 double level osteotomies. Of all osteotomies, 118 were for valgisation and 36 for varisation. For valgisation osteotomies, the mean HKA changed from 5.8° ± 2.9° preoperatively to - 0.9° ± 2.5° postoperatively, whereas the mMPTA changed from 85.9° ± 2.7° to 90.7° ± 3.1° and the malleolar-horizontal-orientation-angle (MHA) changed from 16.4° ± 4.2° to 10.9° ± 4.2°. For varisation osteotomies, the mean HKA changed from - 4.3° ± 3.7° to 1.1° ± 2.2° postoperatively, whereas the mLDFA changed from 85.7° ± 2.2° to 89.3° ± 2.3° and the MHA changed from 8.8° ± 5.1° to 11.2° ± 3.2°. CONCLUSION: Osteotomies around the knee for correction of coronal limb alignment not only lead to lateralization or medialization of the weight-bearing line at the knee but also lead to a coronal reorientation of the ankle. This can be measured at the ankle using the MHA. When planning an osteotomy around the knee for correction of genu varum or valgum, the ankle should also be appreciated-especially in patients with preexisting deformities, ligament instabilities, or joint degeneration around the ankle.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Adulto , Tornozelo , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia
6.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 32(1): 175-181, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, the best and simplest way that used to select the distal femoral valgus cut (DFVC) angle in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is standing long leg radiograph. However, this kind of film is still not available in all hospitals. The purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of different empirical DFVC angles in the restoration of the neutral mechanical alignment of the femoral component after TKA. METHOD: 125 patients who diagnosed primary osteoarthritic knee and underwent unilateral TKA were randomly assigned into three groups: A, B, and C, according to the use of an intramedullary guide with the DFVC angle of 4°, 5°, and 6°, respectively. At three months after surgery, anteroposterior hip-to-ankle computed tomography (CT) scanograms were evaluated. Mechanical axis angle (MAA), mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA), femoral bowing, femoral neck-shaft angle (FNSA), and outliers of femoral component position were measured and compared among three groups. Independent influencing factors for the outliers > ±3° were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Group B was older than group A. There were no significant differences of postoperative MAA, LDFA, femoral bowing, and FNSA among three groups. Outliers > ±3° of femoral component position in each group were 14.6%, 19.0%, and 16.7%, respectively (p = 0.865). When considering the outliers > ±2°, group C (35.7%) had a trend to have fewer outliers than groups A and B (41.5 and 42.9%). However, this finding was not reached the statistical significance (p = 0.778). Femoral bowing was only significantly influencing factors that related to the outliers > ±3° (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that there are no significant differences in coronal femoral component alignment among using the DFVC angle of 4°, 5°, and 6°. The use of the DFVC angle of 6° had a trend to reduce the outliers. Nevertheless, femoral bowing is the crucial influencing factor for selecting the degree of DFVC angle.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Pediatr Orthop B ; 31(2): 105-113, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406160

RESUMO

Distinguishing physiologic and pathologic genu varus is challenging among children below age 3. They can be assessed by measuring intercondylar distance (ICD), clinical tibiofemoral angle (cTFA) or radiologic TFA (rTFA). We aim to determine the knee measurement values among three groups of children. Medline (1946-) and EMBase (1947-) were searched until 31 July 2020 using a search strategy. Studies with original data which reported knee measurements among children with normal alignment, physiologic and pathologic bowing between the ages of 0-3 years were included. In total 1897 studies were identified, and 16 studies included after title and abstract screening. These studies involved 1335 patients with normal alignment, 286 with physiologic and 184 with pathologic bowing. Five studies provided data on ICD, seven on cTFA and eight on rTFA which were pooled for meta-analyses. Normal children had neither measurable ICD nor demonstrable varus on cTFA after 19 months old. The mean (95% confidence interval) ICD for children with pathologic genu varus at 18 months was 4.41 (4.19-4.63). The rTFA for children with pathologic compared to the physiologic bowing by age groups was; 11-20 months: 24.74°(23.22°-26.26°) vs. 19.44°(17.05°-21.84°), 21-30 months: 20.35°(18.13°-22.56°) vs. 14.72°(12.32°-17.12°) and 12-36 months: 32.60°(26.40°-38.80°) vs. 19.14°(17.78°-20.50°). Children above the age of 18 months with genu varus should be closely monitored clinically using ICD or cTFA. An ICD of more than 4 cm may warrant further investigation for pathologic cause. rTFA has limited use in the detection of pathologic varus.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Joelho , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior , Programas de Rastreamento
8.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 142(1): 105-113, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric coronal plane knee deformities can be treated surgically using hemiepiphysiodesis. The two leading techniques used for hemiepiphysiodesis are: tension-band plates (TBP) and percutaneous transphyseal screws (PETS). We hypothesized that PETS would lead to faster guided correction of angular knee deformities than TBP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 35 patients treated with either TBP or PETS in one medical institution was established. The cohort included both genu varum and genu valgum of both primary and secondary etiologies. We first compared the treatment groups for differences in demographic and malalignment characteristics. Then, we compared the treatment groups for differences in operation-related outcomes, radiological mechanical correction and complication rates. RESULTS: We found that the use of PETS, compared to TBP, was associated with a faster implantation surgery and a shorter interval between implantation and removal, i.e., faster correction. Furthermore, PETS were associated with faster correction rates of the mechanical axis deviation, lateral distal femoral angle and medial proximal tibial angle. No significant differences in complication rates were found between the two treatments. CONCLUSION: PETS provided a faster correction of angular knee deformities compared to TBP at similar complication rates. Hence, PETS could be considered a superior technique for hemiepiphysiodesis.


Assuntos
Geno Valgo , Genu Varum , Placas Ósseas , Parafusos Ósseos , Criança , Geno Valgo/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 701, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of sagittal femoral bowing on sagittal femoral component alignment, and whether there was correlation between sagittal femoral component alignment and coronal femoral component alignment. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 77 knees in 71 patients who had undergone primary TKA for advanced osteoarthritis. All surgeries were performed by using a standard medial parapatellar approach. The osteotomy was performed with a conventional technique using an intramedullary rod for the femur and a mechanical extramedullary guiding system for the tibia. All patients enrolled in the study were evaluated with full-length lower extremity load-bearing standing scanograms, and the patients had preoperative and postoperative radiographs of the knees. Coronal femoral bowing angle (cFBA), sagittal femoral bowing angle (sFBA), and postoperatively, mechanical tibiofemoral angle of the knee (mTFA), ß angle (femoral component flexion angle) were measured. The radiographic results of both groups were compared using Student's t test. A two-sided Pearson correlation coefficient was obtained to identify the correlations between FBA in the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as FBA and age or BMI, sFBA and ß angle, cFBA and mTFA. Comparison of FSB incidence between different genders was made using Chi-square test. The p value < 0.05 indicates a statistically significant difference. RESULTS: The mean sFBA, cFBA, ß angle, mTFA were 9.34° ± 3.56°(range 1°-16°), 3.25° ± 3.79°(range - 7° to -17°), 3.91° ± 3.15°(range - 1° to -13°), 0.60° ± 1.95°(range - 3° to -6°), respectively. There was no correlation between age and sFBA (CC = 0.192, p = 0.194) or cFBA (CC = 0.192, p = 0.194); similarly, there was no correlation between age and sFBA (CC = 0.067, p = 0.565) or cFBA (CC = 0.069, p = 0.549). The sFBA was correlated with cFBA and ß angle (CC = 0.540, p < 0.01; CC = 0.543, p < 0.01, respectively), and the cFBA was correlated with mTFA (CC = 0.430, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference (p = 0.247) of cFBA between the patients with sFSB and the patients without sFSB. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that the sFBA was correlated with cFBA in the patients undergoing TKA and the patients with sFSB usually presented non-cFSB. We also found that sFSB could affect the femoral component alignment in the sagittal plane and cFSB could affect the femoral component alignment in the coronal plane. The sFBA or cFBA was not correlated with age, BMI, or gender.


Assuntos
Fêmur , Genu Varum , Artroplastia do Joelho , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Gait Posture ; 89: 74-79, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shoe mileage may influence the risk of sustaining injuries during walking. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the effects of shoe mileage on knee and ankle muscle co-contraction during walking in females with genu varus? METHODS: Fifteen healthy and 15 women diagnosed with genu varus received a new pair of running shoes. They were asked to wear these shoes over 6 months. Pre and post intervention, muscle activities of the dominant limb were recorded during a walking test at preferred gait speed. Two dependent variables were assessed to examine muscle co-contraction: (1) directed co-contraction ratios of agonists and antagonists, and (2) general joint muscle co-contraction. FINDINGS: Results demonstrated significant main effects of the "shoe" factor for general ankle co-contraction during the push-off phase (p = 0.013, d = 1.503). Irrespective of experimental group, paired comparisons revealed significantly lower general ankle co-contraction during the push-off phase after the intervention. A significant main effects of "shoe" for general knee co-contraction during loading phase (p = 0.025, d = 0.895) was also observed. In both groups, paired comparison revealed significantly lower general knee co-contraction during the push-off phase in the post condition. We did not find any significant main effect of group nor group-by-shoe interaction for general ankle co-contraction during the stance phase. Likewise, we did not observe any significant main effect of "shoe", "group" and "group-by-shoe" interaction for mediolateral directed knee co-contraction during stance phase of walking (p > 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings showed that the shoe mileage but not the genu varus condition affects the general and directed co-contraction of the muscles stabilizing the knee and ankle joints. Together with the observed findings on ankle and knee muscle co-contraction, it is essential to change running shoes after a long wearing time in both healthy and genu varus females.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Sapatos , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Músculo Esquelético , Caminhada
11.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 107(7): 102989, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144255

RESUMO

The distal femoral valgisation osteotomy has a variety of indications due to enhanced understanding of segmental deformities of the lower limb. Historically, an overall varus deformity was corrected at the tibia, and a valgus deformity at the femur. This approach of performing an "all in the tibia" correction for an overall varus can nevertheless lead to abnormal postoperative morphology because it is non-anatomical; creating joint line obliquity, and potentially shear stress on the cartilage. An original lateral femoral closing wedge osteotomy technique is described, allowing the correction of a genu varum of femoral or mixed origin, in the event of an associated tibial valgisation osteotomy. The detailed technique minimizes the risk of a hinge fracture while improving post-operative outcomes.


Assuntos
Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia
12.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 437, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may be associated with genu varum. There are a few indications in which the varus deformity can be corrected at the time of ACL reconstruction. However, as the genu varum originates mostly from the tibia and the simultaneous presence of ACL deficiency and femur originated genu varum is uncommon, only a few papers have described their management for ACL deficient patients with femur originated genu varum. CASE PRESENTATION: A young patient visited our clinic with a complaint of right knee pain and giving way. Further work up revealed a full mid substance ACL tear, mild medial knee osteoarthritis and femur originated genu varum of his right knee. He was managed with simultaneous ACL reconstruction and distal femoral valgus osteotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Any corrective osteotomy for genu varum should be performed at center of rotation angle. Isolated ACL reconstruction in patients with simultaneous ACL deficiency and genu varum may hasten the knee degeneration. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Genu Varum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia
13.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6 Supple A): 59-66, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053299

RESUMO

AIMS: Alternative alignment concepts, including kinematic and restricted kinematic, have been introduced to help improve clinical outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results, along with patient satisfaction, following TKA using the concept of restricted kinematic alignment. METHODS: A total of 121 consecutive TKAs performed between 11 February 2018 to 11 June 2019 with preoperative varus deformity were reviewed at minimum one-year follow-up. Three knees were excluded due to severe preoperative varus deformity greater than 15°, and a further three due to requiring revision surgery, leaving 109 patients and 115 knees to undergo primary TKA using the concept of restricted kinematic alignment with advanced technology. Patients were stratified into three groups based on the preoperative limb varus deformity: Group A with 1° to 5° varus (43 knees); Group B between 6° and 10° varus (56 knees); and Group C with varus greater than 10° (16 knees). This study group was compared with a matched cohort of 115 TKAs and 115 patients using a neutral mechanical alignment target with manual instruments performed from 24 October 2016 to 14 January 2019. RESULTS: Mean overall patient satisfaction for the entire cohort was 4.7 (SE 0.1) on a 5-point Likert scale, with 93% being either very satisfied or satisfied compared with a Likert of 4.3 and patient satisfaction of 81% in the mechanical alignment group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.006 respectively). At mean follow-up of 17 months (11 to 27), the mean overall Likert, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Forgotten Joint Score, and Knee Society Knee and Function Scores were significantly better in the kinematic group than in the neutral mechanical alignment group. The most common complication in both groups was contracture requiring manipulation under anaesthesia, involving seven knees (6.1%) in the kinematic group and nine knees (7.8%) in the mechanical alignment group. CONCLUSION: With the advent of advanced technology, and the ability to obtain accurate bone cuts, the target limb alignment, and soft-tissue balance within millimetres, using a restricted kinematic alignment concept demonstrated excellent patient satisfaction following primary TKA. Longer-term analysis is required as to the durability of this method. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):59-66.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Prótese do Joelho , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 321, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) proponents have suggested the benefits of improved component alignment and reduced outliers. In this randomized controlled trial, we attempted to assess the advantage of using PSI over conventional intermedullary (IM) guides for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with bilateral severe femoral bowing (> 5°). A parallel trial design was used with 1:1 allocation. We hypothesize that PSI would support more accurate alignment of components and the lower-limb axis during TKA with severe femoral bowing in comparison with conventional IM guides. METHODS: Among 336 patients undergoing bilateral TKAs due to knee osteoarthritis, 29 patients with bilateral lateral femoral bowing of more than 5° were included in this study. Every patient was assigned randomly to PSI on one side and to conventional instrumentation lateralization of the entry point of the femoral IM guide was applied on the other with a goal of neutral mechanical alignment. The assessment of coronal alignment was completed by measuring the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle on preoperative and postoperative long film standing radiographs. Coronal and sagittal orientations of femoral and tibial components were assessed on weight-bearing radiographs. The rotational alignment of the femoral component was evaluated using computed tomography. RESULTS: The postoperative mean ± standard deviation (SD) HKA angle was varus 4.0° (± 2.7°) for conventional technique and varus 4.1° (± 3.1°) for PSI, with no differences between the two groups (p = 0.459). The component orientation showed no significant differences except with respect to the sagittal alignment of the femoral component (p = 0.001), with a PSI mean ± SD flexion of 5.8° (± 3.7°) and a conventional method mean ± SD flexion of 3.2° (± 2.5°), due to the intentional 3° flexion incorporated in the sagittal plane to prevent femoral notching in PSI planning. Computed tomography assessment for rotational alignment of the femoral components showed no difference between the two groups concerning the transepicondylar axis (p = 0.485) with a PSI mean ± SD external rotation of 1.5° (± 1.3°) and conventional mean ± SD external rotation of 1.5° (± 1.6°). CONCLUSION: PSI showed no advantage over lateralization of the femoral entry for IM guidance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on US national library of medicine ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02993016 ) on December 12th 2016.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Genu Varum , Prótese do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(2): 175-180, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251344

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To evaluate knee alignment in the frontal plane and pelvic balance during the step-down test in female and male soccer players. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out with male and female soccer players from under-15 and under-17 teams of a professional club in Southern Brazil. The step-down test was performed, filmed with a video camera, and evaluated according to the angular measurements obtained during movement using the Kinovea software (open source), version 0.8.24. Results The sample consisted of 38 individuals, 19 males and 19 females. Female athletes had a greater varus angle (9.42º ± 1.65º) compared to male athletes (3.91º ± 2.0º; p = 0.04). There was no difference regarding the unilateral pelvic drop between the groups. In addition, the association between the hip-related pelvic drop and the projection angle on the frontal plane of the knee was weak in both genders. Conclusion Even though the pelvic drop was observed in both genders, young female athletes had greater varus knee angles on the step-down test, which require greater attention to minimize the risk of injury.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o alinhamento do joelho no plano frontal e o equilíbrio pélvico durante a descida de um degrau comparando atletas de futebol feminino e masculino. Métodos Estudo transversal, realizado com atletas de futebol das categorias sub-15 e sub-17, de ambos os sexos, de um clube profissional do Sul do Brasil. Foi realizado o teste de descida de um degrau, o qual foi filmado por uma câmera de vídeo, e, em sua avaliação, traçaram-se as medidas angulares durante o movimento por meio do software Kinovea (código aberto), versão 0.8.24. Resultados A amostra foi composta por 38 indivíduos, 19 do sexo masculino e 19 do sexo feminino. As atletas do sexo feminino apresentaram maior ângulo em varo (9,42º ± 1,65º) quando comparadas com os atletas masculinos (3,91º ± 2,0º; p = 0,04). Não houve diferença em relação à queda unilateral da pelve (drop pélvico) entre os grupos, e a associação entre o drop pélvico do quadril e o ângulo de projeção no plano frontal do joelho foi fraca em ambos os sexos. Conclusão Apesar de ambos os sexos terem apresentado queda pélvica, as atletas de base do sexo feminino apresentaram maior angulação do joelho em varo no teste de descida do degrau, e necessitam maior atenção para minimizar o risco de lesão.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pelve , Futebol , Pesos e Medidas , Medidas, Métodos e Teorias , Genu Varum , Atletas , Quadril , Joelho
16.
Endocr J ; 68(7): 807-815, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762518

RESUMO

An elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is one of the markers for the presence of rickets in children, but it is also associated with bone formation. However, its role in diagnosing genu varum in pediatric patients with vitamin D-deficient rickets is still unknown. To clarify the role of the serum ALP level in assessing the severity of genu varum, we retrospectively investigated this issue statistically using data on rickets such as serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, ALP, the level of creatinine as the percentage of the median according to age (%Cr), and the metaphyseal diaphyseal angle (MDA) in the lower extremities as an index of the severity of genu varum. A multiple regression analysis revealed that log ALP and %Cr values were negatively associated with MDA values. The former association was also confirmed by a linear mixed model, while iPTH was positively associated with MDA by path model analysis. To elucidate the association of ALP with MDA in the presence of iPTH, we investigated three-dimensional figures by neural network analysis. This indicated the presence of a biphasic association of ALP with MDA: the first phase increases while the second decreases MDA. The latter phenomenon is considered to be associated with the increase in bone formation due to the mechanical stress loaded on the lower extremities. These findings are important and informative for pediatricians to understand the significance of the serum ALP level in pediatric patients with genu varum caused by vitamin D deficiency.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Genu Varum/sangue , Raquitismo/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Cálcio/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genu Varum/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Raquitismo/complicações , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
17.
Sci Prog ; 104(1): 368504211002612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749395

RESUMO

The rate of angular correction (ROAC) is very unpredictable and may be affected by various factors in the treatment of genu valgum and varum by means of guided growth. The purpose of this study was to assess the ROAC in cases from our institution and to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of lower ROAC.We retrospectively reviewed the chart records of 68 patients undergoing guided growth with figure-eight plate for the correction of genu valgum and varum. Based on the data from these patients, the annual increment of physeal growth was calculated and compared with data from the Anderson chart. The associations between patient characteristics and ROAC were evaluated with the use of univariate logistic regression.The mean rate of femoral angular correction was 10.29 degrees/year, while the mean rate of tibial angular correction was 7.92 degrees/year. In a univariate logistic regression analysis, the variables associated with a higher risk of lower ROAC included non-idiopathic coronal deformity of the knee (odds ratio = 13.58, p < 0.001) and body weight at or above the 95th percentile for children (odds ratio = 2.69, p = 0.020).Obesity and non-idiopathic coronal deformity of the knee are risk factors for lower ROAC. It is still uncertain whether severity of deformity, race, and operative procedure have a substantial effect on the rate of correction.Level III evidence.


Assuntos
Geno Valgo , Genu Varum , Criança , Geno Valgo/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Knee Surg ; 34(2): 142-146, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394583

RESUMO

Total knee arthroplasty is a challenging task in patients with severe varus deformity. In most of these patients, an extensive medial release is needed that may lead to instability. Medial epicondylar osteotomy may be a better substitute for complete medial collateral release. Fourteen patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis and severe varus deformity were enrolled in this study. In one side, the patients underwent medial epicondylar osteotomy for mediolateral imbalance if the only option was superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) release. In contralateral side, the extensive medial release was performed and MCL was released either by pie-crusting technique or by subperiosteally release. The results of the two sides were compared. Patients were followed up for 12 months after the operation. Physical examination, clinical questionnaires, and radiography findings were recorded. Union of the osteotomies fragment and complications was evaluated. The mean varus angle before surgery was 21.6 ± 4.7 degrees, which was corrected to 8.6 ± 2.9 degrees after operation with an extensive medial release. The mean varus angle of contralateral side was 22.6 ± 1.7 degrees, which was corrected to 7.5 ± 2.3 degrees following medial femoral epicondyle osteotomy. There was no significant difference in varus correction (p = 0.1). Medial joint line opening in valgus stress test was 2.7 ± 0.4 mm in the osteotomized side and 3.5 ± 0.9 mm in contralateral side. Mean range of motion for the osteotomized side was 97.8 ± 4.3 degrees and 100.7 ± 2.7 degrees for contralateral side (p = 0.6). Nonunion occurred in a case in the osteotomized side and no medial instability was observed in medial release or osteotomies sides. No statistical difference was recorded based on clinical questionnaires (Oxford and WOMAC [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index] scores). Medial epicondylar osteotomy is a safe technique with the well-controlled medial extensive release in the patients with severe varus deformity during total knee arthroplasty.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Genu Varum/complicações , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Colateral Médio do Joelho/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteotomia/métodos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia
19.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 29(3): 814-819, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335698

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between femoral shaft bowing and the orientation of the surgical transepicondylar axis (TEA) in the coronal plane in varus knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A total of 82 knees scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for the treatment of varus knee OA were enrolled. The hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) was measured preoperatively on anteroposterior whole-leg standing radiographs. The lateral angle between the TEA and the mechanical axis of the femur (MA-TEA) was measured in the coronal plane from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images. Femoral shaft bowing was measured on CT images. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation of the MA-TEA with the HKA and femoral shaft bowing. RESULTS: The MA-TEA correlated negatively with the HKA (r = - 0.321, P < 0.01) and positively with femoral shaft bowing (r = 0.415, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The TEA changed to varus as femoral shaft bowing increased in patients with varus knee OA. This suggests that the TEA is not always the centre of the rotational axis of the femur after TKA. In addition, the TEA may not be useful as a consistent parameter in the coronal plane in patients with increasing femoral shaft bowing. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Fêmur/cirurgia , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
20.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 29(3): 975-981, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To (1) compare the weight-bearing line (WBL) ratios of the knee joints measured using the conventional (hip-to-talus radiographs, HTRs) and novel (hip-to-calcaneus radiographs, HCRs) orthoradiograms, (2) compare the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle between cases with < 5% and > 5% differences in WBL ratios between two orthoradiograms, and (3) investigate the optimal cutoff value (COV) of the HKA angle causing inconsistency in the orthoradiograms. METHODS: Sixty limbs of 31 patients with HTR and HCR records were retrospectively reviewed. After drawing the mechanical axis on each radiograph, the WBL ratios of the knees were calculated and compared between the conventional and novel orthoradiograms. In subgroup analysis, cases with < 5% and > 5% differences in WBL ratios between two orthoradiograms were classified as consistent and inconsistent groups, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve based on the HKA angles of the lower limbs was used to identify the COV causing the inconsistency between the orthoradiograms. RESULTS: Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of all radiologic measurements were > 0.75. The WBL ratios showed no significant difference between the two orthoradiograms. However, the HKA angle was significantly larger in the inconsistent group than in the consistent group (7.0° ± 1.8° vs. 4.4° ± 2.5°; P < 0.001). The COV of the HKA angle that caused inconsistency in the two orthoradiograms was 4.0° (area under the curve, 0.774). CONCLUSION: The hip-to-calcaneus alignment differed significantly from the hip-to-talus alignment in patients with genu varum deformity. HCR measurement can be a complementary method for planning corrective osteotomy for patients with genu varum deformity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Calcâneo/patologia , Genu Varum/patologia , Quadril/patologia , Tálus/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Genu Varum/diagnóstico por imagem , Genu Varum/cirurgia , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tálus/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálus/cirurgia , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
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