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3.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 20(8): 733-739, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacist-led medication regimen simplification using a structured approach can reduce unnecessary medication regimen complexity in residential aged care facilities (RACFs), but no studies have investigated simplification by different health professionals, nor the extent to which simplification is recommended during comprehensive medication reviews. OBJECTIVES: To compare medication regimen simplification opportunities identified by pharmacists, general medical practitioners (GPs), and geriatricians and to determine if pharmacists identified simplification opportunities during routinely conducted comprehensive medication reviews in RACFs for these same residents. METHODS: Three pharmacists, three GPs and three geriatricians independently applied the Medication Regimen Simplification Guide for Residential Aged CarE (MRS GRACE) to medication data for 83 residents taking medications at least twice daily. Interrater agreement was calculated using Fleiss's kappa. Pharmacist medication review reports for the same 83 residents were then examined to identify if the pharmacists conducting these reviews had recommended any of the simplification strategies. RESULTS: Overall, 77 residents (92.8 %) taking medications at least twice daily could have their medication regimen simplified by at least one health professional. Pharmacists independently simplified 53.0-77.1 % of medication regimens (Κ = 0.60, 95%CI 0.46-0.75, indicating substantial agreement), while GPs simplified 74.7-89.2 % (Κ = 0.44, 95%CI 0.24-0.64, moderate agreement) and geriatricians simplified 41.0-66.3 % (Κ = 0.30, 95%CI 0.16-0.44, fair agreement). No simplification recommendations were included in the reports previously prepared by pharmacists as part of the comprehensive medication reviews undertaken for these residents. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists, GPs, and geriatricians can all identify medication regimen simplification opportunities, although these opportunities differ within and between professional groups. Although opportunities to simplify medication regimens during comprehensive medication reviews exist, simplification is not currently routinely recommended by pharmacists performing these reviews in Australian RACFs.


Assuntos
Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clínicos Gerais , Geriatras , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Médicos , Papel Profissional
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(2): 604-605, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37503878
8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(1): 37-47, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37350649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults are often prescribed medications that are potentially dangerous and geriatricians have specialized training in treating polypharmacy that may benefit these patients. To examine this, we compared potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prescribing rates between geriatricians and similar general internists in the United States. METHODS: Using national cross-sectional data from 2013 to 2019, we compared annual PIM prescribing rates between 2815 outpatient geriatricians certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine in 1994-2018 and general internists matched 1:1 on IM certification exam score and year, residency exam pass rate, gender, and US birth and/or US medical school. PIM prescribing was based on the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) PIM physician annual prescribing measures which consider medications flagged as potentially inappropriate in the American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria® guideline. We also examined prescribing of appropriate alternative medications. Prescribing rates were calculated as the percentage a physician's patients with Medicare fee-for-service part D enrollment seen in the outpatient setting in a given year (mean: 150 patients per physician) with a PIM prescription they prescribed. RESULTS: Across 30,677 physician-year observations, geriatricians were 16.7% less likely (95% confidence interval (CI): -19.8 to -13.7, p < 0.001) to prescribe a PIM (7.2% versus 8.7% of patients respectively) and 2.7% more likely (95% CI: 0.8 to 4.5, p = 0.004) to prescribe an appropriate alternative medication (52.0% versus 50.7% of patients respectively). Lower PIM prescribing was observed for most medication sub-types including central nervous system, anticholinergic, pain, and endocrine medications. In sensitivity analyses, differences in prescribing were similar when comparing recently trained physicians with more experienced physicians. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest geriatricians in the United States prescribe PIMs at lower rates than general internists. This highlights the value geriatricians provide as well as opportunities to embed key principles of geriatric care into internal medicine training and health care delivery systems.


Assuntos
Médicos , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Prescrição Inadequada , Geriatras , Estudos Transversais , Medicare , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(1): 8-9, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943713

Assuntos
Geriatras , Geriatria , Humanos
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(1): 48-58, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geriatrics-surgery co-management (GSCM) programs have improved patient outcomes, but little is known about how they change care and whether their value varies by surgical specialty. We aimed to assess GSCM's effects as perceived by Orthopedic Trauma, Trauma, and Neurosurgery clinicians. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study utilizing electronic survey and virtual interviews at Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, an academic trauma center, in Philadelphia, PA. Participants included physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, social workers, and case managers in the aforementioned specialties. Key measures were perspectives on value of GSCM, its facilitators, specialty most appropriate to manage specified medical issues, and factors affecting use. RESULTS: Of 71 eligible clinicians, 45 (63%) completed the survey and 12 (21%) of 56 purposefully sampled for specialty-role diversity were interviewed. Clinicians across specialties valued GSCM highly and similarly for impact on personal management of older adults (grand mean [standard error, SE] = 4.33 [0.24] out of 5; p = 0.80 for specialty means comparisons), patient care (mean [SE] = 4.47 [0.21]; p = 0.27), patient outcomes (mean [SE] = 4.26 [0.22]; p = 0.51), and specialty overall (mean [SE] = 4.55 [0.23]; p = 0.25) but less so for knowledge growth (mean [SE] = 3.47 [0.29]; p = 0.11). Interviewees across specialties reported that value derived from improved understanding of patient history, management of complex medical conditions, goals of care support, communication with families, and patient discharge facilitation. Interviewees also agreed on program facilitators: aligned stakeholders, shared data-driven goals, champion/administrative support, continuity and availability of geriatricians, and thorough communication. Specialties differed on three issues: (1) who should manage some medical concerns; (2) whether GSCM makes their job easier (significantly easier for Orthopedic Trauma: mean [SE] = 4.75 [0.29] vs. Trauma: mean [SE] = 4.01 [0.19]; p = 0.05); and (3) whether GSCM increases coordination difficulty (more for Neurosurgery: mean [SE] = 2.18 [0.0.58] vs. Orthopedic Trauma: mean [SE] = 0.51 [0.42]; p = 0.03 and Trauma: mean [SE] = 0.89 [0.28]; p = 0.07). Orthopedic Trauma had the most positive impression of GSCM overall. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians across diverse surgical specialties valued GSCM. Hospitals considering implementation or expansion of GSCM should attend to identified facilitators and may need to tailor to specialty.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Médicos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas , Humanos , Idoso , Geriatras , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
World Neurosurg ; 181: e291-e293, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37832641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) affects elderly individuals and is characterized by a progressive deterioration of gait, urinary continence, and cognition. In most cases, it is reversible with treatment. INPH is not uncommonly an unrecognized cause of dementia. We wish to raise awareness of iNPH among primary care providers who are seeing these patients first. METHODS: We reviewed the current epidemiological data regarding iNPH as well as epidemiological data regarding Alzheimer disease. We searched for the most sensitive radiological screening test for iNPH. RESULTS: Alzheimer disease comprises 60%-70% of all dementia cases, in 2023 is affecting 6.7 million Americans, about 10.7% of people 65 and older. Epidemiological data from the Scandinavian countries confirmed that 3.7% of people older than 65 have iNPH. Surgical studies confirmed the presence of early Alzheimer's pathology in about 25% of operated patients with iNPH. Useful radiological findings of iNPH include an Evans Index greater than 0.30, and a disproportionally enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus (DESH). However, the callosal angle is thought to represent the best tool to discriminate iNPH from its mimics. CONCLUSIONS: According to the available epidemiological data iNPH is underdiagnosed. We strongly encourage the primary care physicians and geriatricians to ask the radiologist to measure the callosal angle on the initial brain computed tomography (or magnetic resonance) image. If the callosal angle is ≤71°, it is appropriate to refer the patient to neurosurgery for further diagnostic work-up.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal , Humanos , Idoso , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/epidemiologia , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/cirurgia , Geriatras , Cognição , Radiologistas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(1): 321-322, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792883
16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(2): 346-348, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37982332
17.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 87(2): 148-150, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051043

RESUMO

Generative pre-trained transformer 4 (GPT-4) is an artificial intelligence (AI) system with a chat interface. The number of studies testing GPT-4 in clinical applications has been increasing. We hypothesized that GPT-4 would be able to suggest management strategies for medical issues in elderly oncology patients, similar to those provided by geriatricians. We compared the responses of GPT-4 to those of a geriatrician for four oncological patients. After these case conferences, none of the patients required admission for medical consultation. In three out of four scenarios, GPT-4 was able to offer a multidisciplinary approach in the first prompt. In all three scenarios, GPT-4 identified medication-related side effects and suggested appropriate medications in the first prompt. However, GPT-4 was unable to suggest initial dosages of medications to be used in the first prompt and was unable to suggest a more humanistic and non-pharmacological approach to anorexia, even with a follow-up prompt. In conclusion, GPT-4 may be used as a screening tool to provide potential rudimentary directions for management, which can then be reviewed by medical professionals before considering a formal consultation for more tailored and refined opinions from specialists.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias , Idoso , Humanos , Geriatras , Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 24 Suppl 1: 215-220, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131637

RESUMO

AIM: This study investigated work impairment and its associated factors among geriatricians during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out using an anonymous online survey questionnaire administered to members of the Japanese Geriatric Society between October and December 2022. The questionnaire included questions regarding psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale) and work impairment (Work Functioning Impairment Scale). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the factors associated with work impairment. Causal mediation analyses were performed to delineate the relationship between work impairment, psychological distress and fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: The analytic sample included 386 geriatricians, and work impairment was observed in 24.8% of them. Work impairment was associated with age, prefecture where the institution was located and fear of COVID-19. Mediation analysis showed that the effect of fear of COVID-19 on work impairment was almost completely mediated by psychological distress. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, work impairment was commonly observed among geriatricians. We found that fear of COVID-19 might cause work impairment; however, this effect was exerted entirely through psychological distress. This implies that interventions to prevent or reduce work impairment among doctors should mainly target psychological distress; however, the fear of COVID-19, if it causes psychological distress, should also be addressed. Managers of hospitals and long-term care facilities must take steps to protect healthcare workers' mental well-being and maintain work productivity. Therefore, understanding the factors related to work impairment might help them devise effective measures. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2024; 24: 215-220.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Geriatras , Humanos , Idoso , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias
19.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 58(6): [e101408], nov.- dic. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-228045

RESUMO

Background and objective Symptom control at the end of life is essential, and palliative sedation is a viable intervention option for the care of terminally ill patients. This study aims to characterize the elderly population receiving end-of-life care plans and their management with palliative sedation in a geriatric unit at a high complexity hospital. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a descriptive analysis was performed. Medical records of 163 patients admitted to a high complexity hospital in Bogota, Colombia between January 2016 and December 2019 were reviewed. Results From 163, 141 patients received an end-of-life care plan, and 22 were managed with palliative sedation. The mean age was 84 years, the most frequent cause of death was respiratory infections and 44% of patients had a history of cancer. Prior to admission, functional decline and the presence of moderate to severe dementia were frequently found. About one in ten persons required palliative sedation, which lasted an average of 2.22±5 days. The most common refractory symptom was dyspnea (45.45%), followed by pain (36.36%). Conclusions Palliative sedation is prevalent in the elderly population and characterizing this population can provide increased knowledge to improve end-of-life care (AU)


Antecedentes y objetivos El control de síntomas al final de la vida es fundamental, y la sedación paliativa resulta una opción de intervención en el cuidado de pacientes con enfermedades terminales. El objetivo es caracterizar una población de personas mayores que recibieron un plan de atención del final de la vida, incluyendo sedación paliativa en una unidad de geriatría de un hospital de alta complejidad. Materiales y métodos Estudio de corte transversal, se realizaron análisis descriptivos y se utilizaron métodos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 163 pacientes entre enero de 2016 y diciembre de 2019 de un hospital de alta complejidad en Bogotá, Colombia. Resultados Sobre 163 pacientes, 141 recibieron plan de atención de final de vida y 22 fueron manejados con sedación paliativa. La edad promedio fue de 84 años y el 58% eran mujeres. La causa de muerte más frecuente fue respiratoria infecciosa; el 44% tenían antecedente oncológico. La declinación funcional previa al ingreso y la presencia de demencia moderada o severa fueron condiciones que frecuentemente se encontraron en quienes se reorientó el esfuerzo terapéutico. Una de cada 10 personas requirió sedación paliativa, cuya duración fue de 2,22±5 días, el síntoma refractario más frecuente fue la disnea (45,45%), seguido de dolor (36,36%). Conclusiones La sedación paliativa resulta frecuente en la población mayor con enfermedades no oncológicas. La caracterización de estas personas promueve el aumento del conocimiento y la preparación para mejorar el manejo del final de la vida (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medicina Paliativa , Assistência Terminal , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Geriatras , Estudos Transversais
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(47): e36336, 2023 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38013259

RESUMO

To assess the correlation of orthopedic surgery residents compared with expert geriatricians in the assessment of frailty stage using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) in patients with hip fractures. A retrospective chart review was performed from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019. Patients admitted with a diagnosis of hip fracture were identified. Those patients with a CFS score completed by orthopedic residents with subsequent CFS score completed by a geriatrician during their admission were extracted. Six hundred and forty-eight patients over age 60 (mean 80.5 years, 73.5% female) were admitted during the study period. Orthopaedic residents completed 286 assessments in 44% of admissions. Geriatric medicine consultation was available for 215 patients such that 93 patients were assessed by both teams. Paired CFS data were extracted from the charts and tested for agreement between the 2 groups of raters. CFS assessments by orthopedic residents and geriatrician experts were significantly different at P < .05; orthopedic residents typically assessed patients to be one CFS grade less frail than geriatricians. Despite this, the CFS assessments showed good agreement between residents and geriatricians. Orthopaedic surgery residents are reliable assessors of frailty but tend to underestimate frailty level compared with specialist geriatricians. Given the evidence to support models such as orthogeriatrics to improve outcomes for frail patients, our findings suggest that orthopedic residents may be well positioned to identify patients who could benefit from such early interventions. Our findings also support recent evidence that frailty assessments by orthopedic surgeons may have predictive validity. Low rates of initial frailty assessment by orthopedic residents suggests that further work is required to integrate more global comprehensive care.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Fraturas do Quadril , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Geriatras , Idoso Fragilizado , Avaliação Geriátrica
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