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1.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 30: 1611623, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38463143

RESUMO

Geroscience, a burgeoning discipline at the intersection of aging and disease, aims to unravel the intricate relationship between the aging process and pathogenesis of age-related diseases. This paper explores the pivotal role played by geroscience in reshaping our understanding of pathology, with a particular focus on age-related diseases. These diseases, spanning cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, malignancies, and neurodegenerative conditions, significantly contribute to the morbidity and mortality of older individuals. We delve into the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning aging, including mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular senescence, and elucidate their profound implications for the pathogenesis of various age-related diseases. Emphasis is placed on the importance of assessing key biomarkers of aging and biological age within the realm of pathology. We also scrutinize the interplay between cellular senescence and cancer biology as a central area of focus, underscoring its paramount significance in contemporary pathological research. Moreover, we shed light on the integration of anti-aging interventions that target fundamental aging processes, such as senolytics, mitochondria-targeted treatments, and interventions that influence epigenetic regulation within the domain of pathology research. In conclusion, the integration of geroscience concepts into pathological research heralds a transformative paradigm shift in our understanding of disease pathogenesis and promises breakthroughs in disease prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Gerociência , Humanos , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Senescência Celular , Biomarcadores
2.
BMC Biotechnol ; 24(1): 12, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to establish a methodology for determining carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and carboxyethyl lysine (CEL) concentrations in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The test results were also used for clinical aging research. METHODS: Human plasma samples were incubated with aqueous perfluorovaleric acid (NFPA), succeeded by precipitation utilizing trichloroacetic acid, hydrolysis facilitated by hydrochloric acid, nitrogen drying, and ultimate re-dissolution utilizing NFPA, followed by filtration. Cotinine-D3 was added as an internal standard. The separation was performed on an Agela Venusil ASB C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a 5 mmol/L NFPA and acetonitrile/water of 60:40 (v/v) containing 0.15% formic acid. The multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for detecting CML, CEL, and cotinine-D3, with ion pairs m/z 205.2 > 84.1 (for quantitative) and m/z 205.2 > m/z 130.0 for CML, m/z 219.1 > 84.1 (for quantitative) and m/z 219.1 > m/z 130.1 for CEL, and m/z 180.1 > 80.1 for cotinine-D3, respectively. RESULTS: The separation of CML and CEL was accomplished within a total analysis time of 6 minutes. The retention times of CML, CEL, and cotinine-D3 were 3.43 minutes, 3.46 minutes, and 4.50 minutes, respectively. The assay exhibited linearity in the concentration range of 0.025-1.500 µmol/L, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.025 µmol/L for both compounds. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were both below 9%, and the relative errors were both within the range of ±4%. The average recoveries were 94.24% for CML and 97.89% for CEL. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the developed methodology is fast, highly sensitive, highly specific, reproducible, and suitable for the rapid detection of CML and CEL in clinical human plasma samples. The outcomes of the clinical research project on aging underscored the important indicative significance of these two indicators for research on human aging.


Assuntos
Lisina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Lisina/análise , Lisina/química , Cotinina , Gerociência , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1293146, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505750

RESUMO

Introduction: Circulating cytokines were considered to play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of sarcopenia and frailty from observational studies. This study aimed to find the casual association between circulating cytokines and sarcopenia and frailty from a genetic perspective by two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Methods: Data for 41 circulating cytokines were extracted from the genome-wide association study dataset of 8,293 European participants. Inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method, MR-Egger, and weighted median method were applied to assess the relationship of circulating cytokines with the risk of aging-related syndromes and frailty. Furthermore, MR-Egger regression was used to indicate the directional pleiotropy, and Cochran's Q test was used to verify the potential heterogeneity. The "leave-one-out" method was applied to visualize whether there was a causal relationship affected by only one anomalous single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Results: Genetic predisposition to increasing levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was associated with the higher risk of low hand grip strength according to the IVW method [R = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10, P = 0.028, false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P = 1.000; OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00-1.07, P = 0.042, FDR-adjusted P = 0.784; OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.00-1.05, P = 0.038, FDR-adjusted P = 0.567]. Furthermore, genetically determined higher macrophage colony-stimulating factors (M-CSFs) were associated with a lower presence of appendicular lean mass (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.02, P = 0.003, FDR-adjusted P = 0.103). Monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG) and tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-ß) were associated with a higher risk of frailty (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05, P < 0.0001, FDR-adjusted P = 0.012; OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.03, P = 0.013, FDR-adjusted P = 0.259). In this study, we did not find heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy between the circulating cytokines and the risk of frailty and sarcopenia. Conclusion: Genetic predisposition to assess IL-10, IL-12, and VEGF levels was associated with a higher risk of low hand grip strength and M-CSF with the presence of appendicular lean mass. The high levels of TNF-ß and MIG were associated with a higher risk of frailty. More studies will be required to explore the molecular biological mechanisms underlying the action of inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Citocinas/genética , Interleucina-10 , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Linfotoxina-alfa , Sarcopenia/genética , Fragilidade/genética , Gerociência , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Força da Mão , Interleucina-12 , Interferon gama , Predisposição Genética para Doença
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 98(1): 287-300, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393905

RESUMO

Background: A growing body of evidence points to potential risks associated with polypharmacy (using ≥5 medications) in older adults, but most evidence is derived from studies where racial and ethnic minorities remain underrepresented among research participants. Objective: Investigate the association between polypharmacy and cognitive function, subjective health state, frailty, and falls in Hispanic older adults. Methods: Panama Aging Research Initiative-Health Disparities (PARI-HD) is a community-based cohort study of older adults free of dementia at baseline. Cognitive function was measured with a neuropsychological test battery. Frailty assessment was based on the Fried criteria. Subjective health state and falls were self-reported. Linear and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine association. Results: Baseline evaluations of 468 individuals with a mean age of 69.9 years (SD = 6.8) were included. The median number of medications was 2 (IQR: 1-4); the rate of polypharmacy was 19.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.1-23.3). Polypharmacy was inversely associated with self-rated overall health (b =-5.89, p < 0.01). Polypharmacy users had 2.3 times higher odds of reporting two or more falls in the previous 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.06-5.04). Polypharmacy was independently associated with Fried's criteria for pre-frailty (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.36-5.96) and frailty (OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 1.83-14.42). Polypharmacy was not associated with cognitive impairment. Conclusions: These findings illustrate the potential risks associated with polypharmacy among older adults in Panama and may inform interventions to improve health outcomes in this population.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Humanos , Idoso , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Polimedicação , Gerociência , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso Fragilizado
5.
Aging Cell ; 23(3): e14070, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180277

RESUMO

Recent advances in microphysiological systems (MPS), also known as organs-on-a-chip (OoC), enable the recapitulation of more complex organ and tissue functions on a smaller scale in vitro. MPS therefore provide the potential to better understand human diseases and physiology. To date, numerous MPS platforms have been developed for various tissues and organs, including the heart, liver, kidney, blood vessels, muscle, and adipose tissue. However, only a few studies have explored using MPS platforms to unravel the effects of aging on human physiology and the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Age is one of the risk factors for many diseases, and enormous interest has been devoted to aging research. As such, a human MPS aging model could provide a more predictive tool to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying human aging and age-related diseases. These models can also be used to evaluate preclinical drugs for age-related diseases and translate them into clinical settings. Here, we provide a review on the application of MPS in aging research. First, we offer an overview of the molecular, cellular, and physiological changes with age in several tissues or organs. Next, we discuss previous aging models and the current state of MPS for studying human aging and age-related conditions. Lastly, we address the limitations of current MPS and present future directions on the potential of MPS platforms for human aging research.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Sistemas Microfisiológicos , Humanos , Gerociência , Fígado
6.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 28(2): 92-96, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280836

RESUMO

An absence of population-representative participant samples has limited research in healthy brain aging. We highlight examples of what can be gained by enrolling more diverse participant cohorts, and propose recommendations for specific reforms, both in terms of how researchers accomplish this goal and how institutions support and benchmark these efforts.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Envelhecimento , Gerociência , Encéfalo
7.
Nat Methods ; 21(1): 11-15, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167657

Assuntos
Gerociência
8.
Aging Cell ; 23(1): e14034, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38038340

RESUMO

Geroscience poses that core biological mechanisms of aging contribute to chronic diseases and disabilities in late life and that health span and longevity can be modulated by pharmacological and behavioral interventions. Despite strong evidence from studies in model organisms and great potentials for translation, most geriatricians remain skeptical that geroscience will help them in the day-by-day battle with the consequences of aging in their patients. We believe that a closer collaboration between gerontologists and geriatricians is the key to overcome this impasse. There is evidence that trajectories of health with aging are rooted in intrinsic and extrinsic exposures that occur early in life and affect the pace of molecular and cellular damage accumulation with aging, also referred to as the "pace" of biological aging. Tools that measure the pace of aging currently allow for the identification of individuals experiencing accelerated aging and at higher risk of multimorbidity and disability. What we term "Translational Geroscience", i.e., the merger of fundamental and translational science with clinical practice, is thus poised to extend the action of geriatric care to a life course perspective. By targeting core mechanisms of aging, gerotherapeutics should be effective in treating patients with multimorbidity and disability, phenotypes that are all too common among geriatric patients nowadays. We call for initiatives that enhance the flow of ideas between gerontologists and geriatricians to facilitate the growth of translational geroscience. This approach can widen the scope of geriatric care, including a new role for geroscience in the promotion and operationalization of healthy longevity.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Humanos , Idoso , Gerociência , Envelhecimento , Longevidade , Nível de Saúde
9.
Ageing Res Rev ; 93: 102158, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056503

RESUMO

Disentangling the impact of aging on health and disease has become critical as population aging progresses rapidly. Studying aging at the molecular level is complicated by the diverse aging profiles and dynamics. However, the examination of cellular states within aging tissues in situ is hampered by the lack of high-resolution spatial data. Emerging spatial omics technologies facilitate molecular and spatial analysis of tissues, providing direct access to precise information on various functional regions and serving as a favorable tool for unraveling the heterogeneity of aging. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in spatial omics application in multi-organ aging research, which has enhanced the understanding of aging mechanisms from multiple standpoints. We also discuss the main challenges in spatial omics research to date, the opportunities for further developing the technology, and the potential applications of spatial omics in aging and aging-related diseases.


Assuntos
Gerociência , Humanos
10.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 114(1): 3-8, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37594505

RESUMO

Initial definitions of sarcopenia included the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass that was presumed to be associated with late-life reduced functional capacity, disability and loss of independence. Because no method for determination of muscle mass was available for large cohort studies of aging men and women, lean body mass determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance was used as a surrogate measure of muscle mass. The data from these studies showed either no or a poor relationship between LBM and functional capacity and health related outcomes, leading to the conclusion of many that the amount of muscle may not be associated with these age-associated outcomes. It was assumed that some undefined index of muscle quality is the critical contributor. These studies also consistently showed that muscle strength is lost more quickly than lean mass. Total body muscle mass can now be measured directly, accurately and non-invasively using the D3creatine (D3Cr) dilution method. D3Cr muscle mass, but not DXA derived LBM, is strongly associated with functional capacity, falls and insulin resistance in older men and women. In addition, D3Cr muscle mass is associated with risk of disability, hip fracture and mortality. New and emerging data demonstrate that low muscle mass may serve as a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Sarcopenia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Músculo Esquelético , Creatina , Gerociência , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Composição Corporal , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações
11.
Behav Res Methods ; 56(2): 513-528, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703003

RESUMO

In recent years, cross-cultural research on the modulation of basic cognitive processes by culture has intensified - also from an aging perspective. Despite this increased research interest, only a few cross-culturally normed non-verbal stimulus sets are available to support cross-cultural cognitive research in younger and older adults. Here we present the ORCA (Official Rating of Complex Arrangements) picture database, which includes a total of 720 object-scene compositions sorted into 180 quadruples (e.g., two different helmets placed in two different deserts). Each quadruple contains visually and semantically matched pairs of objects and pairs of scenes with varying degrees of semantic fit between objects and scenes. A total of 95 younger and older German and Chinese adults rated every object-scene pair on object familiarity and semantic fit between object and scene. While the ratings were significantly correlated between cultures and age groups, small but significant culture and age differences emerged. Object familiarity was higher for older adults than younger adults and for German participants than for Chinese participants. Semantic fit was rated lower by German older adults and Chinese younger adults as compared to German younger adults and Chinese older adults. Due to the large number of stimuli, our database is particularly well suited for cognitive and neuroscientific research on cross-cultural and age-related differences in perception, attention, and memory.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Gerociência , Humanos , Idoso , Atenção , Semântica , Envelhecimento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804247

RESUMO

The geroscience hypothesis suggests that addressing the fundamental mechanisms driving aging biology will prevent or mitigate the onset of multiple chronic diseases, for which the largest risk factor is advanced age. Research that investigates the root causes of aging is therefore of critical importance given the rising healthcare burden attributable to age-related diseases. The third annual Midwest Aging Consortium symposium was convened as a showcase of such research performed by investigators from institutions across the Midwestern United States. This report summarizes the work presented during a virtual conference across topics in aging biology, including immune function in the lung-particularly timely given the Corona Virus Immune Disease-2019 pandemic-along with the role of metabolism and nutrient-regulated pathways in cellular function with age, the influence of senescence on stem cell function and inflammation, and our evolving understanding of the mechanisms underlying observation of sex dimorphism in aging-related outcomes. The symposium focused on early-stage and emerging investigators, while including keynote presentations from leaders in the biology of aging field, highlighting the diversity and strength of aging research in the Midwest.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas , Humanos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Inflamação , Pulmão , Gerociência
13.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 32(1): 1-16, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37845116

RESUMO

The geroscience hypothesis asserts that physiological aging is caused by a small number of biological pathways. Despite the explosion of geroscience research over the past couple of decades, the research on how serious mental illnesses (SMI) affects the biological aging processes is still in its infancy. In this review, we aim to provide a critical appraisal of the emerging literature focusing on how we measure biological aging systematically, and in the brain and how SMIs affect biological aging measures in older adults. We will also review recent developments in the field of cellular senescence and potential targets for interventions for SMIs in older adults, based on the geroscience hypothesis.


Assuntos
Gerociência , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Idoso , Psiquiatria Geriátrica , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biologia
14.
Fam Community Health ; 47(1): 32-40, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37831622

RESUMO

Participation of Black American older adults in community-engaged research remains challenging in health sciences. The objectives of this study were to describe the specific efforts, successes, and challenges in recruiting Black American older adults in research led by the Health and Wellness in Aging Across the Lifespan core, part of the Virginia Commonwealth University Institute for Inclusion, Inquiry, and Innovation (iCubed). We conducted a cross-case analysis of 6 community-engaged research projects using the community-engaged research continuum model. Successful recruitment strategies comprised a multifaceted approach to community-based collaboration, including a wellness program with a long standing relationship with the community, engaging key stakeholders and a community advisory board, and building a community-based coalition of stakeholders. Posting flyers and modest monetary compensation remain standard recruitment strategies. The cross-case analysis offered critical lessons on the community's nature and level of engagement in research. Relationship building based on trust and respect is essential to solving complex aging issues in the community.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Gerociência , Humanos , Idoso , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Confiança , Envelhecimento
15.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 851, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040715

RESUMO

Human aging is a natural and inevitable biological process that leads to an increased risk of aging-related diseases. Developing anti-aging therapies for aging-related diseases requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms and effects of aging and longevity from a multi-modal and multi-faceted perspective. However, most of the relevant knowledge is scattered in the biomedical literature, the volume of which reached 36 million in PubMed. Here, we presented HALD, a text mining-based human aging and longevity dataset of the biomedical knowledge graph from all published literature related to human aging and longevity in PubMed. HALD integrated multiple state-of-the-art natural language processing (NLP) techniques to improve the accuracy and coverage of the knowledge graph for precision gerontology and geroscience analyses. Up to September 2023, HALD had contained 12,227 entities in 10 types (gene, RNA, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, peptide, pharmaceutical preparations, toxin, mutation, and disease), 115,522 relations, 1,855 aging biomarkers, and 525 longevity biomarkers from 339,918 biomedical articles in PubMed. HALD is available at https://bis.zju.edu.cn/hald .


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Geriatria , Longevidade , Humanos , Biomarcadores , Gerociência , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão
18.
Adv Dent Res ; 31(1): 2-15, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37933846

RESUMO

Research in aging has significantly advanced; scientists are now able to identify interventions that slow the biologic aging processes (i.e., the "hallmarks of aging"), thus delaying the onset and progression of multiple diseases, including oral conditions. Presentations given during the 3-part session "Geroscience: Aging and Oral Health Research," held during the 2023 American Association for Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Research meeting, are summarized in this publication. Speakers' topics spanned the translational research spectrum. Session 1 provided an overview of the geroscience and health span (disease-free and functional health throughout life) concepts. The common molecular mechanisms between oral cancer and aging were discussed, and research was presented that showed periodontal microflora as a potential factor in Alzheimer's disease progression. Session 2 focused on behavioral and social science aspects of aging and their oral health significance. The keynote provided evidence that loneliness and isolation can have major health effects. These social conditions, along with poor oral health, tooth loss, and cognitive decline, could potentially affect healthy eating ability and systemic health in older adults. Research could help elucidate the directions and pathways connecting these seemingly disparate conditions. Session 3 focused on the delivery of oral care in different settings and the many barriers to access care faced by older adults. Research is needed to identify and implement effective technology and strategies to improve access to dental care, including new delivery and financing mechanisms, workforce models, interprofessional provider education and practice, and use of big data from medical-dental integration of electronic health records. Research to improve the "oral health span," reduce oral health disparities, and increase health equity must be tackled at all levels from biologic pathways to social determinants of health and health policies.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Doenças da Boca , Idoso , Humanos , Envelhecimento , Gerociência , Saúde Bucal , Estados Unidos
19.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 52(12): 289-314, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38017182

RESUMO

The exponential scientific and technological progress during the past 30 years has favored the comprehensive characterization of aging processes with their multivariate nature, leading to the advent of Big Data in preclinical aging research. Spanning from molecular omics to organism-level deep phenotyping, Big Data demands large computational resources for storage and analysis, as well as new analytical tools and conceptual frameworks to gain novel insights leading to discovery. Systems biology has emerged as a paradigm that utilizes Big Data to gain insightful information enabling a better understanding of living organisms, visualized as multilayered networks of interacting molecules, cells, tissues and organs at different spatiotemporal scales. In this framework, where aging, health and disease represent emergent states from an evolving dynamic complex system, context given by, for example, strain, sex and feeding times, becomes paramount for defining the biological trajectory of an organism. Using bioinformatics and artificial intelligence, the systems biology approach is leading to remarkable advances in our understanding of the underlying mechanism of aging biology and assisting in creative experimental study designs in animal models. Future in-depth knowledge acquisition will depend on the ability to fully integrate information from different spatiotemporal scales in organisms, which will probably require the adoption of theories and methods from the field of complex systems. Here we review state-of-the-art approaches in preclinical research, with a focus on rodent models, that are leading to conceptual and/or technical advances in leveraging Big Data to understand basic aging biology and its full translational potential.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Animais , Gerociência , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Modelos Animais
20.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 10(4): 620-632, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874083

RESUMO

Age is the most important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The acceptable age range for participation in AD clinical trials is 50 to 90, and this 40-year span incorporates enormous age-related change. Clinical trial participants tend to be younger and healthier than the general population. They are also younger than the general population of AD patients. Drug development from a geroscience perspective would take greater account of effects of aging on clinical trial outcomes. The AD clinical trial pipeline has diversified beyond the canonical targets of amyloid beta protein and tau. Many of these interventions apply to age-related disorders. Anti-inflammatory agents and bioenergetic and metabolic therapies are among the well represented classes in the pipeline and are applicable to AD and non-AD age-related conditions. Drug development strategies can be adjusted to better inform outcomes of trials regarding aged individuals. Inclusion of older individuals in the multiple ascending dose trials of Phase 1, use of geriatric-related clinical outcomes and biomarkers in Phase 2, and extension of these Phase 2 learnings to Phase 3 will result in a more comprehensive understanding of AD therapies and their relationship to aging. Clinical trials can employ a more comprehensive geriatric assessment approach and biomarkers more relevant to aging at baseline and as exploratory outcomes. Greater attention to the role of aging and its influence in AD clinical trials can result in better understanding of the generalizability of clinical trial findings to the older AD population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Gerociência , Biomarcadores , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
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