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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589044

RESUMO

National public health institutes (NPHIs) are crucial to the effectiveness of public health systems, including delivering essential public health functions and generating evidence for national health policies, strategies and plans. Currently, there is a significant lack of information regarding NPHI or NPHI-like organisations in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries, including how they fit into their broader health systems governance landscape. NPHIs exist in 12 out of 22 EMR countries, yet there is no official International Association of National Public Health Institutes (IANPHI) regional network for the EMR, despite established IANPHI networks in four other regions. In 2022, the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office led a study comprising an online survey and key informant interviews, which synthesised expert insights and summarised recommendations to strengthen the health systems governance-related role of NPHIs in EMR countries. Study participants included current and former high-level representatives of NPHIs, the government (eg, Ministries of Health, health regulatory authorities), multilateral organisations or non-governmental organisations focusing on health, and others identified as senior health systems governance experts from EMR. Insights and recommendations from experts varied widely, but there were also many common elements and overlaps. These included the need for enhancing NPHI functionalities and collaborative efforts with the public health sector (eg, Ministry of Health, Health Council) in health policy and decision-making formulation and implementation. This, in turn, requires advancing NPHI's fit-for-purpose and sustainable governance and financing arrangements, improving the accessibility and transparency of health data for NPHIs, strengthening engagement and collaboration between NPHIs and other health system actors (including the private sector), and promoting a more prominent role for NPHIs in the development and implementation of public health-related policies and legislation. While many excellent insights and thoughtful strategic guidance are provided, further adaptation may be needed to implement the proposed recommendations in different EMR country contexts going forward.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Governo , Região do Mediterrâneo , Programas Governamentais
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(12): e116, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing necessity for government-led policy changes on clinical research ethics during pandemic, the scope of previous literature is limited to Korean government's pandemic response strategies or reflections of research ethics at the level of institutions and academic societies. This paper examines the proactive policy changes and responses by the South Korean government in addressing the challenges and issues of research ethics against the backdrop of the urgency of rapid development and emergency supply of medical products during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We conducted searches of various government documents, using predetermined keywords related to research ethics and integrity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only documents issued by governments or public institutions were included. A total of 24 documents were selected for analysis. They were divided into two phases: the first phase for urgent response (January 2020-February 2021) and the second phase (March 2021-February 2023) for long-term preparedness. RESULTS: The Korean government recommended several measures of research governance to accelerate the ethical review of COVID-related research to be shortened less than one week: the joint operation of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), exempted or expedited review by a special review committee, guidelines for urgent reviews, and designation of the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences as the supervising agency for the Clinical Trial Safety Support Institution as well as the Central IRB. It allowed temporary non-face-to-face methods for informed consent process (telephone explanations and a photo of the original signed consent) and clinical trials (telephone counselling and prescription, proxy prescription, and drug delivery and supply to clinical trial participants, and online ethics training). CONCLUSION: As a result of South Korea's commitment to ethical principles in their pandemic response, the medical system did not experience collapses due to the pandemic, and pandemic research was conducted with careful ethical considerations. The pandemic ethics immunization during the Middle East respiratory syndrome epidemic in 2015 laid the foundation for prompt government initiatives that ensured both pandemic research ethics and pandemic response ethics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Ética em Pesquisa , Governo
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301187, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568913

RESUMO

The literature has confirmed that when managers increase profits through earnings management, the readability of annual reports may be reduced Lo (2017), Ye (2018). Whether this conclusion is suitable for Chinese corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports, however, is still unclear. Based on the panel data of 5083 Chinese non-financial listed companies from 2010 to 2019, this paper adopts multiple linear regression to investigate the impact of earnings management on the readability of Chinese CSR reports. The results show that: (1) There is a significant negative correlation between earnings management and the readability of Chinese CSR reports, with the readability of Chinese annual reports as a mediating variable. (2) The negative effect is more significant when companies are not punished for violations, when the internal control index is low, when companies lack ISO14001 certification and when companies do not have independent third-party authentication for Chinese CSR reports. (3) When earnings management just exceeds zero, the readability of Chinese CSR reports decreases. (4) The economic consequences of reducing the readability of Chinese CSR reports are that financing costs are increased and environmental performance is decreased. To improve the quality of information disclosure of listed companies, the recommendations are as follows: First, the government should issue CSR reporting standards to reduce the manipulation of Chinese CSR reports. Second, Chinese CSR reports disclosed by listed companies must be audited by independent third parties to enhance the credibility of the information. Third, the company needs to strengthen its external and internal supervision to reduce the manipulation space for the readability of Chinese CSR reports. This study extends the negative relationship between earnings management and the readability from annual reports to Chinese CSR reports. To prevent investors from detecting earnings management, the readability of Chinese CSR reports may be reduced. At the same time, the study has definitely added value to the existing literature in the domain of CSR.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Responsabilidade Social , China , Governo , Revelação
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(6): 1595-1612, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557721

RESUMO

The construction and operational costs of drainage projects are high. Traditional construction management models impose significant financial pressure on the government and reduce stakeholder motivation. Within the market-oriented development context, reforming the construction management model is crucial for breaking the current predicament. This research establishes a framework for the market-oriented construction management model for drainage projects and constructs a behavioral strategy evolutionary game model involving government, drainage management companies, and pollution discharge subjects. Through theoretical analyses and simulations, this research presents recommendations for the implementation of the market-oriented model. The research findings indicate that: (1) the market-oriented model is feasible both theoretically and practically. Pollution rights trading aids pollution discharge subjects in adapting to the market-oriented model. (2) Ensuring sewage charges remain within the interval [P1, P1 + L2 - L1] is crucial for trilateral cooperation. (3) Simulation analysis shows that intensifying policy support, reducing the cost of technological equipment upgrades, enhancing comprehensive income, lowering the pricing of sewage charges, and raising initial selection probability all promote a tendency towards ESS.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Esgotos , Humanos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Simulação por Computador , China , Governo
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300595, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573988

RESUMO

Green and low carbon reflect the high-quality development, while income distribution is an indicator of the balance of development. Is there a lack of fairness in the process of green and low carbon transition of enterprises? Using data from A-share listed companies from 2009 to 2016, this paper constructs a DID identification framework for controlling the endogeneity problem using the 2013 carbon trading policy pilot as a quasi-natural experiment to empirically test the impact of corporate low-carbon transformation on corporate labor income share in the context of carbon trading policy. The findings indicate that carbon trading policy decreases the labor income share of firms. In addition, we demonstrate that the low-carbon transition promotes labor productivity, suggesting that the Porter's hypothesis is confirmed in China, but the increase in labor wages is not in tandem with productivity growth, resulting in reduced labor income share. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the impact of carbon trading policy on labor income share is mainly pronounced in larger firms, high technology firms and persistent incumbent firms. Collectively, these results are expected to accurately improve our understanding on the impact of low-carbon transformation of enterprises on income distribution and provide reference for the government to formulate industrial policies and distribution mechanisms under low-carbon economy.


Assuntos
Carbono , Renda , China , Governo , Indústrias
6.
Science ; 384(6691): 9, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574127

RESUMO

In a world where biodiversity is on the line on many fronts-from armed conflict to pandemics to climate change-defending institutions that have effectively managed it is paramount. In the global effort to protect biodiversity, Mexico has been at the forefront. In particular, for more than 30 years, Mexico's National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) has promoted research, compiled information on the biodiversity of Mexico and elsewhere, and connected academia, government, and society to guide decision-making. Unfortunately, the demise of CONABIO, which began in 2018 under the current administration, may be fully realized soon. Last month, the Mexican government announced its intent to reduce CONABIO from a multi-ministry federal government agency to a branch within the environment ministry. This will strip CONABIO of its independent voice, credibility, and influence on national and international policy. As this decision is open for public comment, it is important for the scientific community to speak out strongly against this change.


Assuntos
Governo , Política Pública , México , Biodiversidade
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 957, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research has extensively explored the relationship between government trust and compliance behaviour, but significant controversies exist. Some studies suggest a strong positive correlation between the two. Other studies have found that government trust hinders compliance behaviour. However, during the pandemic, the effectiveness of public health policies largely depends on the public's compliance with these policies. To examine the aforementioned controversies, this study utilizes survey data on the Chinese population during the COVID-19 period to explore the relationship between compliance with public health policies and government trust. METHODS: The study conducted a questionnaire survey of 1,395 individuals from 25 provinces in China from mid-November to mid-December 2022. Firstly, we categorized the public's compliance behaviour with public health policies based on the results of factor analysis. Subsequently, we examined the impact of government trust and professional trust on compliance behaviour with public health policies by constructing a structural equation model. RESULTS: Based on the results of factor analysis, we classified public adherence to public health policies into protective compliance and restrictive compliance. Results from the structural equation model show a positive correlation between the public's trust in the government and both protective and restrictive compliance, with a stronger influence on protective compliance. Government trust also exerts a positive impact on restrictive compliance behaviour through professional trust. Additionally, the study indicates a significant positive correlation between the public's professional trust and restrictive compliance, while it does not significantly affect protective compliance. Moreover, the public from rural areas demonstrates a greater willingness to adhere to both types of public health policies. Married individuals exhibit a stronger inclination toward protective compliance, while females show a stronger tendency toward restrictive compliance. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a significant positive impact of government trust and professional trust on compliance behaviour with public health policies during the COVID-19 pandemic, refuting any negative correlation between government trust and compliance behaviour. Normative motivations for compliance behaviour had a substantial impact on adherence. These findings offer valuable insights for future public health crisis management and public policy formulation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Governo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Política Pública
8.
Politics Life Sci ; 43(1): 34-59, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567782

RESUMO

While numerous studies have examined how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected health care systems, supply chains, and economies, we do not understand how the pandemic has impacted the security of democratic and authoritarian states from a global standpoint. Thus, this study examines how COVID-19 has affected the security of democratic and authoritarian regimes. In conducting a historical, qualitative review of the security effects of the pandemic, we find that COVID-19 significantly affected domestic and international security for democratic and authoritarian states in both similar and varied ways. Additionally, the manner in which states responded to the pandemic was often conditioned by their regime type and by the nature of the governing leadership during the pandemic. These findings have important implications in considering how COVID-19 affected the security of democratic and authoritarian states, how regime type shapes government responses to infectious disease outbreaks, and how democratic and authoritarian states may respond to future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Autoritarismo , Surtos de Doenças , Governo
9.
Politics Life Sci ; 43(1): 60-82, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567785

RESUMO

This article offers a new perspective on when and why individual-level authoritarian perceptions of security threats change. We reexamine claims that authoritarian members of the public responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in a counterintuitive fashion. The response was counterintuitive in that, rather than a desire for a stronger government with the ability to impose measures to address the pandemic and its consequences, authoritarian individuals rejected a stronger government response and embraced individual autonomy. The article draws on perceptions of security threats-issues that directly or indirectly harm personal or collective safety and welfare-from surveys in two different contexts in England: 2012, when perceptions of the threat from infectious disease was low relative to most other security threats, and 2020, when perceptions of the personal and collective threat of COVID-19 superseded all other security threats. We argue that the authoritarian response was not counterintuitive once we account for the type of threat it represented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Autoritarismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Governo , Inglaterra
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1350743, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566798

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted new interest in non-traditional data sources to inform response efforts and mitigate knowledge gaps. While non-traditional data offers some advantages over traditional data, it also raises concerns related to biases, representativity, informed consent and security vulnerabilities. This study focuses on three specific types of non-traditional data: mobility, social media, and participatory surveillance platform data. Qualitative results are presented on the successes, challenges, and recommendations of key informants who used these non-traditional data sources during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain and Italy. Methods: A qualitative semi-structured methodology was conducted through interviews with experts in artificial intelligence, data science, epidemiology, and/or policy making who utilized non-traditional data in Spain or Italy during the pandemic. Questions focused on barriers and facilitators to data use, as well as opportunities for improving utility and uptake within public health. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using the framework analysis method. Results: Non-traditional data proved valuable in providing rapid results and filling data gaps, especially when traditional data faced delays. Increased data access and innovative collaborative efforts across sectors facilitated its use. Challenges included unreliable access and data quality concerns, particularly the lack of comprehensive demographic and geographic information. To further leverage non-traditional data, participants recommended prioritizing data governance, establishing data brokers, and sustaining multi-institutional collaborations. The value of non-traditional data was perceived as underutilized in public health surveillance, program evaluation and policymaking. Participants saw opportunities to integrate them into public health systems with the necessary investments in data pipelines, infrastructure, and technical capacity. Discussion: While the utility of non-traditional data was demonstrated during the pandemic, opportunities exist to enhance its impact. Challenges reveal a need for data governance frameworks to guide practices and policies of use. Despite the perceived benefit of collaborations and improved data infrastructure, efforts are needed to strengthen and sustain them beyond the pandemic. Lessons from these findings can guide research institutions, multilateral organizations, governments, and public health authorities in optimizing the use of non-traditional data.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Governo , Saúde Pública
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1362716, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596513

RESUMO

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a multifaceted and complex problem in the health system that can change the priorities of the economic, social, and even political systems of countries. Therefore, as a grand challenge (GC), its management requires adopting a systematic, interdisciplinary, and innovative approach. In Iran, the most common causes of death, have changed from infectious and diarrheal diseases to cardiovascular diseases since 1960. Methods: In this study, the novel framework of the problem-oriented innovation system (PIS) has been used, and cardiovascular diseases in Iran have been selected as a case study. To this end, first, the main challenges related to cardiovascular diseases in Iran were identified in two layers of "governance-centered" (including legal and policy gaps, insufficient education, financing, lack and unbalanced distribution of medical personnel) and "society driven" (including unhealthy diet and lifestyle, uncontrolled and hard-to-regulate factors, and high costs) through a library research. Then, the functional-structural framework of the problem-oriented innovation system was used to analyze cardiovascular diseases and provide policy recommendations. Results: The findings indicate that based on the eight functions of the problem-oriented innovation system, an important part of cardiovascular diseases can be managed and controlled in three short-term, medium-term, and long-term periods. Conclusion: Increasing public awareness in the form of university courses, participation of the government with the private sector in building and equipping specialized cardiovascular centers, creating an electronic health record from birth, implementing a family health plan focusing on less developed areas, supporting agriculture and guaranteeing the purchase of agricultural products and healthy food, increasing the capacity of accepting students in medical and paramedical fields, and allocating pharmaceutical currency in the form of pharmaceutical subsidies directly to cardiovascular patients, are among the most important policy recommendations for this grand challenge.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Governo , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Irã (Geográfico)
13.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297408, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446793

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of government ideology on e-waste recycling in 30 European countries from 2008 to 2018. This study seeks to enhance the e-waste recycling literature by introducing a novel determinant, examining the unexplored relationship between government ideology and e-waste recycling rates in European countries, thus addressing a substantial research gap. Utilizing panel quantile regression on an unbalanced dataset, the findings revealed that the increased influence of right-wing parties in government was associated with lower e-waste recycling rates. Conversely, greater influence of left-wing or center-wing parties was correlated with higher recycling rates across all quantiles analyzed. The estimation results remain robust when different indicators of government ideology were employed. Overall, the study underscores the importance of political ideology in shaping e-waste recycling policies and environmental sustainability efforts. It emphasizes that effective policies should align with the political commitment of the governing body.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , União Europeia , Europa (Continente) , Governo , Políticas
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299359, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health expenditure is one of the fastest-growing spending items in EU member states. As the population ages and wealth increases, governments allocate more resources to their health systems. In view of this, the aim of this study is to identify the key determinants of public health expenditure in the EU member states. METHODS: This study is based on macro-level EU panel data covering the period from 2000 to 2018. The association between explanatory variables and public health expenditure is analyzed by applying both static and dynamic econometric modeling. RESULTS: Although GDP and out-of-pocket health expenditure are identified as the key drivers of public health expenditure, there are other variables, such as health system characteristics, with a statistically significant association with expenditure. Other variables, such as election year and the level of public debt, result to exert only a modest influence on the level of public health expenditure. Results also indicate that the aging of the population, political ideologies of governments and citizens' expectations, appear to be statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: Since increases in public health expenditure in EU member states are mainly triggered by GDP increases, it is expected that differences in PHE per capita across member states will persist and, consequently, making it more difficult to attain the health equity sustainable development goal. Thus, measures to reduce EU economic inequalities, will ultimately result in reducing disparities in public health expenditures across member states.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Governo , Envelhecimento , Cabeça
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(3): e06772023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451649

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an emblematic case of historical health neglect in Brazil and reflects how institutional racism produces health inequalities. This article engaged in a historical journey of this disease, showing the delayed implementation of health policies for people with sickle cell disease, often concealed in Public Power's (in)actions and omissions. The lack of commitment to implement the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, such as neonatal screening, and the difficulty in incorporating technologies for health care result from this modus operandi. The advances and setbacks in programmatic actions and the constant pressure on several governmental entities have characterized the reported saga in the last twenty years. The present text discusses the policies for people with SCD, appropriating the Sankofa symbol, meaning that building the present is only possible by remembering past mistakes. Thus, we recognize this trajectory and this historical moment in which there is a concrete possibility of moving forward and achieving the longed-for comprehensive care for people with SCD. There is an invitation to glance at a new perspective, one in which hope is the trigger for the movements needed to guarantee the rights of people with SCD.


A doença falciforme (DF) é um caso emblemático de negligência histórica em saúde no Brasil e reflete como o racismo institucional produz iniquidades em saúde. Este artigo fez um percurso histórico até os dias atuais e mostra atraso na implementação de políticas de saúde voltadas para as pessoas com DF, tantas vezes encoberto em (in)ações e omissões do poder público. O descompromisso para a efetivação das recomendações do Ministério da Saúde, a exemplo da triagem neonatal, e a dificuldade de incorporar as tecnologias para a assistência à saúde resultam desse modus nada operandi. Os avanços e retrocessos nas ações programáticas, bem como a pressão constante sobre os diversos entes governamentais, caracterizaram a saga dos últimos 20 anos. O texto disserta sobre as políticas voltadas para as pessoas com DF, apropriando-se da simbologia Sankofa, já que só é possível construir o presente pelo aprendizado dos erros do passado. Assim, reconhecemos essa trajetória e esse momento histórico em que há possibilidade concreta de avançar e concretizar o tão almejado cuidado integral para pessoas com DF. Concluiu-se que há um convite para um novo olhar, em que esperançar seja o disparador das movimentações necessárias para a garantia do direito para as pessoas com DF.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Brasil , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Governo , Instalações de Saúde
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 300, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to gain knowledge about how external inspections following serious incidents are played out in a Norwegian hospital context from the perspective of the inspectors, and whether stakeholders' views are involved in the inspection. METHODS: Based on a qualitative mixed methods design, 10 government bureaucrats and inspectors situated at the National Board of Health Supervision and three County Governors in Norway, were strategically recruited, and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Key official government documents were selected, collected, and thematically analyzed along with the interview data. RESULTS: Our findings overall demonstrate two overarching themes: Theme (1) Perspectives on different external inspection approaches of responding and involving stakeholders in external inspection following serious incidents, Theme (2) Inspectors' internal work practices versus external expectations. Documents and all participants reported a development towards new approaches in external inspection, with more policies and regulatory attention to sensible involvement of stakeholders. Involvement and interaction with patients and informal caregivers could potentially inform the case complexity and the inspector's decision-making process. However, stakeholder involvement was sometimes complex and challenging due to e.g., difficult communication and interaction with patients and/or informal caregivers, due to resource demands and/or the inspector's lack of experience and/or relevant competence, different perceptions of the principle of sound professional practice, quality, and safety. The inspectors considered balancing the formal objectives and expectations, with the expectations of the public and different stakeholders (i.e. hospitals, patients and/or informal caregivers) a challenging part of their job. This balance was seen as an important part of the continuous development of ensuring public trust and legitimacy in external inspection processes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our study suggests that the regulatory system of external inspection and its available approaches of responding to a serious incident in the Norwegian setting is currently not designed to accommodate the complexity of needs from stakeholders at the levels of hospital organizations, patients, and informal caregivers altogether. Further studies should direct attention to how the wider system of accountability structures may support the internal work practices in the regulatory system, to better algin its formal objectives with expectations of the public.


Assuntos
Ácido Algínico , Comunicação , Humanos , Governo , Promoção da Saúde , Hospitais
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299031, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478479

RESUMO

Public comments are an important opinion for civic when the government establishes rules. However, recent AI can easily generate large quantities of disinformation, including fake public comments. We attempted to distinguish between human public comments and ChatGPT-generated public comments (including ChatGPT emulated that of humans) using Japanese stylometric analysis. Study 1 conducted multidimensional scaling (MDS) to compare 500 texts of five classes: Human public comments, GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 generated public comments only by presenting the titles of human public comments (i.e., zero-shot learning, GPTzero), GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 emulated by presenting sentences of human public comments and instructing to emulate that (i.e., one-shot learning, GPTone). The MDS results showed that the Japanese stylometric features of the public comments were completely different from those of the GPTzero-generated texts. Moreover, GPTone-generated public comments were closer to those of humans than those generated by GPTzero. In Study 2, the performance levels of the random forest (RF) classifier for distinguishing three classes (human, GPTzero, and GPTone texts). RF classifiers showed the best precision for the human public comments of approximately 90%, and the best precision for the fake public comments generated by GPT (GPTzero and GPTone) was 99.5% by focusing on integrated next writing style features: phrase patterns, parts-of-speech (POS) bigram and trigram, and function words. Therefore, the current study concluded that we could discriminate between GPT-generated fake public comments and those written by humans at the present time.


Assuntos
Desinformação , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Japão , Governo , Análise de Escalonamento Multidimensional
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 311, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The unequal distribution of government health spending within African regional economic groupings is a significant barrier to achieving Universal Health Coverage and reaching health-related Sustainable Development targets. It also hampers the progress toward achieving the African Union's vision of an integrated and prosperous Africa, free of its heavy disease burden. Based on panel data from 36 countries nested into eight Regional Economic Communities (RECs), this study probes the effects of countries' macro-level factors on government health expenditure disparities within eight regional economic communities from 2000 to 2019. METHOD: We use the multilevel linear mixed-effect method to show whether countries' trade gains, life expectancy at birth, poverty, urbanization, information and communication technology, and population aging worsen or reduce the differences for two government health expenditure indicators. RESULTS: The insignificant effect of GDP per capita suggests that in most regional economic groupings, the health sector is still not considered a high-priority sector regarding overall government expenditures. Countries' poverty levels and urbanization increase the domestic general government health expenditure disparities as a percentage of general government expenditure within the regional groupings. However, trade gains and ICT diffusion reduce these disparities. Furthermore, the results reveal that external health expenditure per capita and life expectancy at birth positively impact within-regional inequalities in the domestic general government health expenditure per capita. In contrast, GDP per capita and trade gains tend to reduce them. CONCLUSIONS: This study enriches the research on the determinants of government health expenditure inequality in Africa. Policies that can spur growth in trade and ICT access should be encouraged. Countries should also make more efforts to reduce poverty. Governments should also develop policies promoting economic growth and planned urbanization.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Gastos em Saúde , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , África , Governo , Expectativa de Vida
19.
Br Dent J ; 236(5): 363, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459293
20.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2319952, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the 20th century, pursuing Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has emerged as an important developmental objective in numerous countries and across the global health community. With the intricate ramifications of population mobility (PM), the government faces a mounting imperative to judiciously deploy health expenditure to realise UHC effectively. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to construct a comprehensive UHC index for China, assess the spatial effects of Government Health Expenditure (GHE) on UHC, and explore the moderating effects of PM on this association. METHOD: A Dynamic Spatial Durbin Model (DSDM) was employed to investigate the influence of the GHE on UHC. Therefore, we tested the moderating effect of PM. RESULTS: In the short-term, the GHE negatively impacted local UHC. However, it enhanced the UHC in neighbouring regions. Over the long term, GHE improved local UHC but decreased UHC in neighbouring regions. In the short-term, when the PM exceeded 1.42, the GHE increased the local UHC. Over the long term, when the PM exceeded 1.107, the GHE impeded local UHC. If the PM exceeded 0.91 in the long term, the GHE promoted UHC in neighbouring regions. The results of this study offer a partial explanation of GHE decisions and behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance UHC, a viable strategy involves augmenting vertical transfer payments from the central government to local governments. Local governments should institute healthcare systems tailored to the urban scale and developmental stages, with due consideration for PM. Optimising the information disclosure mechanism is also a worthwhile endeavour.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Global , Governo , China
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