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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612811

RESUMO

In most cases, the unused by-products of venison, including deer tallow, are disposed of in rendering plants. Deer tallow contains essential fatty acids and can be used to prepare products for everyday food and advanced applications. This work aimed to process deer tallow into hydrolyzed products using microbial lipases. A Taguchi design with three process factors at three levels was used to optimize the processing: amount of water (8, 16, 24%), amount of enzyme (2, 4, 6%), and reaction time (2, 4, 6 h). The conversion of the tallow to hydrolyzed products was expressed by the degree of hydrolysis. The oxidative stability of the prepared products was determined by the peroxide value and the free fatty acids by the acid value; further, color change, textural properties (hardness, spreadability, stickiness, and adhesiveness), and changes at the molecular level were observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The degree of hydrolysis was 11.8-49.6%; the peroxide value ranged from 12.3 to 29.5 µval/g, and the color change of the samples expressed by the change in the total color difference (∆E*) was 1.9-13.5. The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis strongly influenced the textural properties: hardness 25-50 N, spreadability 20-40 N/s, and stickiness < 0.06 N. FTIR showed that there are changes at the molecular level manifested by a decrease in ester bonds. Enzymatically hydrolyzed deer tallow is suitable for preparing cosmetics and pharmaceutical matrices.


Assuntos
Cervos , Gorduras , Animais , Hidrólise , Carne , Peróxidos
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8849-8858, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580310

RESUMO

Comprehensive analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) regioisomers is extremely challenging, with many variables that can influence the results. Previously, we reported a novel algorithmic method for resolving regioisomers of complex mixtures of TAGs. In the current study, the TAG Analyzer software and its mass spectrometric fragmentation model were further developed and validated for a much wider range of TAGs. To demonstrate the method, we performed for the first time a comprehensive analysis of TAG regioisomers of bovine milk fat, a very important and one of the most complex TAG mixtures in nature containing FAs ranging from short to long carbon chains. This analysis method forms a solid basis for further investigation of TAG regioisomer profiles in various natural fats and oils, potentially aiding in the development of new and healthier foods and nutraceuticals with targeted lipid structures.


Assuntos
Leite , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Triglicerídeos/química , Leite/química , Gorduras/análise , Software
3.
J Environ Manage ; 358: 120812, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615397

RESUMO

Coke wastewater is a complex industrial wastewater due to its high content of toxic compounds such as cyanides, thiocyanates, phenols, tar, oils, and fats. After a series of treatments, wastewater with a high ammonium content is obtained (around 4,150 mg·L-1). A stripping process is used to reduce it. Certain pollutants in the influent, such as tar, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oils, fats and total suspended solids (TSS), interfere with stripping and therefore must be previously removed. In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale airlift sand filter was evaluated under real conditions for the reduction of the concentration of tar, PAHs, oils, fats and TSS, before stripping. Prior to the sand filter, a cationic flocculant was added to the influent (2 ppm). High (10 mm.min-1), medium (7.5 mm.min-1) and low sand speeds (1.9-2.6 mm.min-1) were assessed. The latter conditions gave the best results: a decrease of 98.2% in TSS, 99.7% in oils, fats and grease and 97.6% in PAHs. The final effluent (≤ 1.6 mg PAHs·L-1, ≤ 5 mg TSS·L-1 and ≤ 0.05 mg·L-1 of fats, oils and grease) was suitable for the stripping process.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Coque , Filtração , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Águas Residuárias/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/análise , Óleos/química
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 108, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507148

RESUMO

Saharan population in Algeria still depending on bovine milk, which suffers from serious constraints undermining its sustainability. Camelus dromedarius milk has experienced growing demand following the emerging market requirements for livestock production and dairy farming over the past decade. The present work aimed at analysing the effect of nutritional regime on milk quality. The differences in pH, Acidity D°, Ash and Fats were significant. The pH was negatively influenced by the intensification conditions such as the much higher use of concentrates. The major constituents of milk were strongly and positively correlated with barley, wheat bran, TN/Kg.DM (Total Nitrogen/ Kg. Dry Matter), Kg.DM, Concentrates and daily watering. The results showed that a good energy-protein balance around 73 g PDI/UFL (Protein Digestible in the Intestine/Energetic Forage Unit for milk production) was beneficial for a better milk protein ratio. The use of corn, soybeans, palm dates and VM-premix (Vitamin Mineral) supplementation were also favourable to the synthesis of fats. Crude fiber and cell walls were better valued in the synthesis of fats with the availability of concentrates and the increasing of TN /Kg.DM and VM-premix rate in dietary regime. The vitamin C content elevate following high ratio of UFL /Kg.DM and PDI/UFL. For thus, the influence of nutritional status can lead to major improvements that need also more advanced and detailed studies.


Assuntos
Camelus , Lactação , Feminino , Animais , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Zea mays , Gorduras/análise , Gorduras/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Silagem/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo
5.
Waste Manag ; 180: 85-95, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547759

RESUMO

Food waste disposers (FWDs) streamline kitchen waste management and facilitate waste classification, whether they would increase the potential of blockage in kitchen drainage system is still unknown. This study conducted a theoretical analysis of the interactive forces between fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits and their aggregation on pipe walls. The study involved grading food waste particles processed by FWDs using sieving and weighing techniques to determine the mean weight diameter (MWD) of various aggregations. A full-scale experimental system, implemented in a 60-m high test tower, simulated blockages in horizontal pipes of high-rise buildings. The effect of pipeline materials and particle sizes on blockage were examined by measuring the adhesion of deposits on horizontal pipes. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis suggested that liquid bridge force is a primary factor in aggregate formation. Hand-cut particles formed aggregates with the highest MWD value. Particle size analysis revealed that sizes ranging from 2.36 to 4.75 mm, 1.18-2.36 mm, and 0.60-1.18 mm constituted over 80 % of particles ground by FWDs, with an average size of 2.16 mm. Results of full-scale experiment indicate particle diameters, friction coefficients and lipophilic coefficient significantly affected the propensity of these aggregates to adhere to pipes. Notably, particles processed by FWDs tended to cause blockages more frequently than hand-cut particles. These findings elucidate the deposition mechanism of FOG deposits and offer strategies to reduce blockages in kitchen drainage systems, such as reducing current grinding particle size by 18 % to 1.77 mm or selecting pipes like cast iron and high-density polyethylene.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Eliminação de Resíduos , Perda e Desperdício de Alimentos , Esgotos , Alimentos , Hidrocarbonetos
6.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(2): e13316, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506169

RESUMO

Fats and oils are found in many food products; however, their macroscopic properties are difficult to predict, especially when blending different fats or oils together. With difficulties in sourcing specific fats or oils, whether due to availability or pricing, food companies may be required to find alternative sources for these ingredients, with possible differences in ingredient performance. Mathematical and computational modeling of these ingredients can provide a quick way to predict their properties, avoiding costly trials or manufacturing problems, while, most importantly, keeping the consumers happy. This review covers a range of mathematical models for triacylglycerides (TAGs) and fats, namely, models for the prediction of melting point, solid fat content, and crystallization temperature and composition. There are a number of models that have been designed for both TAGs and fats and which have been shown to agree very well with empirical measurements, using both kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, with models for TAGs being used to, in turn, predict fat properties. The last section describes computational models to simulate the behavior of TAGs using molecular dynamics (MD). Simulation of TAGs using MD, however, is still at an early stage, although the most recent papers on this topic are bringing this area up to speed.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Óleos , Gorduras/química , Cristalização , Temperatura , Simulação por Computador
7.
Food Chem ; 444: 138635, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325087

RESUMO

The relationship between batch and continuous enzymatic interesterification was studied through enzymatic interesterification of beef tallow. The interesterification degree (ID) during the batch reaction was monitored based on triacylglycerol composition, sn-2 fatty acid composition, solid fat content, and melting profile and was described by an exponential model. A relationship equation featuring reaction parameters of the two reations was established to predict the ID and physicochemical characteristics in continuous interesterification. The prediction of the ID based on triacylglycerol composition was reliable, with an R2 value greater than 0.85. Interesterification produced more high-melting-point components for both reactions, but the acyl migration in the batch-stirring reactor was much greater, resulting in faster crystallization, a more delicate crystal network, and lower hardness. The relationship equation can be employed to predict the ID, but the prediction of physicochemical properties was constrained by the difference in acyl migration degree between the two reactions.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Ácidos Graxos , Animais , Bovinos , Esterificação , Gorduras/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleos de Plantas/química
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170675, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316312

RESUMO

The early stage of heart development is highly susceptible to various environmental factors. While the use of animal models has aided in identifying numerous environmental risk factors, the variability between species and the low throughput limit their translational potential. Recently, a type of self-assembling cardiac structures, known as human heart organoids (hHOs), exhibits a remarkable biological consistency with human heart. However, the feasibility of hHOs for assessing cardiac developmental risk factors remains unexplored. Here, we focused on the cardiac developmental effects of core components of Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), the most widely used herbicides, to evaluate the reliability of hHOs for the prediction of possible cardiogenesis toxicity. GBHs have been proven toxic to cardiac development based on multiple animal models, with the mechanism remaining unknown. We found that polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA), the most common surfactant in GBHs formulations, played a dominant role in GBHs' heart developmental toxicity. Though there were a few differences in transcriptive features, hHOs exposed to sole POEA and combined POEA and Glyphosate would suffer from both disruption of heart contraction and disturbance of commitment in cardiomyocyte isoforms. By contrast, Glyphosate only caused mild epicardial hyperplasia. This study not only sheds light on the toxic mechanism of GBHs, but also serves as a methodological demonstration, showcasing its effectiveness in recognizing and evaluating environmental risk factors, and deciphering toxic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Glifosato , Herbicidas , Animais , Humanos , Aminas , Glicina/toxicidade , Glicina/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/química
9.
Food Res Int ; 177: 113911, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225148

RESUMO

Thermophysical properties of blends composed of soybean oil and fats obtained from fruits and seeds from Brazilian Amazonian region (Murumuru, Tucuma, and Bacuri) were investigated, looking for more sustainable alternatives to the mostly used industrial fats, for applications in product formulation. Fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol composition, nutritional indexes, solid fat content (SFC), compatibility, consistency, melting, and crystallization profiles were determined. Soybean oil increased blends' unsaturated FA profile, leading to lower SFC, but higher nutritional quality. Fats' melting profiles were significantly altered with soybean oil addition: temperatures decreased with the increase in oil content. Iso-solids diagrams showed that lipids were compatible, which is a technological advantage. SFC and consistency profiles suggested that tucuma and murumuru fats could be used as hardstocks for lipid products, and bacuri fat could be applied in products such as margarine and spreads. Blends could improve fats' spreadability and other technological properties, which is promising for applications in products formulation.


Assuntos
Óleos de Plantas , Óleo de Soja , Óleo de Soja/química , Óleos de Plantas/química , Gorduras/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Ácidos Graxos/química
10.
J Food Sci ; 89(2): 913-924, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221799

RESUMO

The characteristics of bread prepared with coconut oil were investigated to determine whether it can be used as an alternative to butter and shortening. Loaf height of the bread increased by adding butter and shortening water content of bread containing oils and fats was lower than that without oils and fats, and baking loss increased with decreasing water content. The addition of oils and fats influenced the baking color of bread and hindered the hardening of bread samples over time. Moreover, the addition and type of oils and fats influenced the crust density of bread samples and dough expansion. Furthermore, numerous fine bubbles were present in bread samples without oils and fats, whereas the size and number of bubbles increased and decreased in bread samples containing oils and fats, respectively. The band concentrations of insoluble proteins at approximately 39, 41, and 48 kDa in freeze-dried bread samples without oils and fats were significantly lower than those containing oils and fats. Thirty volatile compounds were detected in all bread samples tested, and the number was high in the following order: bread samples with butter, shortening, and coconut oil, and without oils and fats. However, sensory evaluation showed no significant differences among all bread samples tested. Therefore, it was suggested that bread containing coconut oil had the same characteristics as that containing butter and shortening. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Butter and shortening are usually used in bread making, although bread prepared with coconut oil can possess the same characteristics as that containing them. Therefore, this study evaluated the characteristics of bread prepared with coconut oil and revealed that use of coconut oil enabled a vegan bread with reduced environmental impact because coconut oil is a vegetable-derived oil that does not require the cutting of tropical rainforests.


Assuntos
Manteiga , Gorduras na Dieta , Óleo de Coco , Pão , Óleos de Plantas , Gorduras , Água
11.
Food Chem ; 441: 138321, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218145

RESUMO

Stir-fried pepper tallow is widely used in cooking due to its special flavor, particularly in hot-pot dishes. However, the composition and source of the key aroma compounds in stir-fried pepper tallow are poorly understood, resulting in uneven quality. Here, the key aroma compounds were screened using flavor dilution factors (FD) and odor activity values (OAVs). A total of 41 odorants compounds were identified. Of these, 20 compounds with FD ≥ 8 were aroma-active compounds. Furthermore, among these 20 compounds, 15 with OAVs ≥ 1were the key aroma-active compounds and most of these (13 out of 15 odorants) were produced from pepper. Glycosides in pepper are the precursors of the most of these key aroma compounds. It may be possible to improve the flavor quality of stir-fried pepper tallow by hydrolyzing glycosides. These findings should help to establish a standard to assess and improve the quality of stir-fried pepper tallow.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Glicosídeos , Olfatometria/métodos
12.
Talanta ; 270: 125552, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38118324

RESUMO

Triacylglycerols (TGs) are important components of human diet. The positional distribution of fatty acids (FAs) on the glycerol backbone affects the chemistry and physical properties of fats. Especially for infants, the structure of TGs plays an important role in the growth and development. However, limited by detecting technology, accurately identifying regioisomers of ABA/AAB and BAC/ABC/ACB type TGs is a significant challenge for human milk utilization and the development of infant formula. For this, we exploit a novel method for identifying the regioisomers of ABA/AAB and BAC/ABC/ACB type TGs within complex lipid mixtures, via used electron activated dissociation (EAD) tandem mass spectrometry. The distribution information of acyl chains at the sn-2 and sn-1/3 positions of glycerol backbone and double bonds in unsaturated FAs can be easily obtained by fragmenting TG ions with energetic electrons (15 eV). Then, the standard curve was established by correlating the peak area intensity of sn-2 characteristic product ion with the content of TG regioisomers standard. These analytical methods successfully enabled the identification and quantification of TG regioisomers in human milk, cow milk, infant formula, palm oil, and sunflower oil. Additionally, the distribution of the double-bond positions of unsaturated FAs in these samples was also identified. Compared to traditional methods, this approach eliminates the need for complex processing and analysis procedures, enabling rapid structural characterization of ABA/AAB and BAC/ABC/ACB type TGs within 17 min. Hence, we provide a rapid and convenient methodology for detecting and analyzing ABA/AAB and BAC/ABC/ACB type TG regioisomers, thereby offering valuable assistance in the development of specialized formulations and facilitating effective process control for ensuring the quality of edible oils and fats.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/química , Glicerol , Óleos , Gorduras
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 912: 169441, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38123089

RESUMO

The water industry worldwide experiences numerous sewer blockages each year, partially attributed to the accumulation of fat, oil and grease (FOG). Managing this issue involves various strategies, including the requirement for installation of grease interceptors (GIs) installation. However, the claimed efficacy of commercial GIs of eliminating 99 % of FOG has been questioned for many years because FOG deposit formation occurs despite food service establishments (FSEs) using GIs, therefore detailed understanding of FOG wastewater compositions and its removal by GIs is required. This study provides an insight into the key FOG components such as FOG particle size, metals and fatty acid (FA) profile in GI influent and effluent, and within the GI, at three different FSEs. Analysis of FAs identified substantial proportions of extra-long-chain FAs in the effluents, including arachidic (C20:0), behenic (C22:0), mead (C20:3), lignoceric (C24:0), and nervonic (C24:1) acids. In contrast, the household kitchen released palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids. It was further observed that scums effectively remove the larger FOG particles, leaving only 10 % below 75.4 µm. Notably, FSEs which employed automatic dishwashers produced up to 80.4 % of particles ≤45 µm, whereas FSEs and household kitchen which used handwash sinks generated only 36.9 % and 26.3 % of particles ≤45 µm, respectively. This study demonstrated that the commercial GIs do not remove FOG entirely but clearly demonstrated that they discharge high concentrations of FOG with extra-long FFAs which were attributed to the occurrence of microbial activity and hydrolysis of triglycerides within the GI, potentially contributing to FOG deposition.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Serviços de Alimentação , Macrolídeos , Esgotos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 72(12): 1073-1082, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37989302

RESUMO

Compound chocolates made of lauric-acid-based cocoa butter substitute (CBS) and cocoa butter (CB) often exhibit serious fat blooms caused by phase separation and polymorphic transformation of CB and CBS triacylglycerols. Herein, we found that the fat bloom of CBS-based chocolates could be completely inhibited by adding fat containing 1,3-dioleoyl-2-stearoyl-triacylglycerol (OSO) to CBS/CB blends. Unlike the CBS/CB chocolates that presented fat blooms within 3 wk under isothermal storage at 15, 20, and 25°C and 15 wk under thermal thawing storage at 15-25°C , no fat blooms appeared in the CBS/CB/OSO compound chocolates under any storage condition up to 6 months. The following key factors are involved in the addition of the OSO fats: the (1) concentration ratio of CB/OSO should be 1/1 such that CB/OSO can form molecular compound crystals and (2) total amount of CB+OSO in the CBS/CB/OSO blends should reach 20%. The solid fat content, hardness, and crystallisation rate of the CBS/CB/OSO blend-based chocolate compound were confirmed to be suitable for chocolate production.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Triglicerídeos/química , Gorduras na Dieta , Gorduras/química
16.
Food Funct ; 14(22): 10232-10239, 2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37916919

RESUMO

Industrially generated trans-fats have been linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and have thus been replaced by interesterified (IE) fats, in foods. Interesterification rearranges fatty acids on the glycerol backbone of a triacylglycerol molecule. However, the impact of IE fat on health is unknown. We recently reported differences in lipid absorption kinetics between IE and rapeseed oil (RO). Here, we investigated the mechanisms underpinning IE fat digestion kinetics in the same muffins baked using an IE fat, non-IE fat [with the same fatty acid composition] and rapeseed oil (RO) under simulated conditions. IE and non-IE fats were largely solid in the gastric phase and strongly associated within the muffin matrix, whereas RO formed liquid droplets which separated from the matrix. No significant difference in lipolysis rates was detected between IE and non-IE fats. The lipolysis of the RO fat was slower, due to long-chain PUFAs. Interesterification itself did not affect digestibility, but the strong interaction between the hard fats and the muffin matrix resulted in extensive creaming of the matrix in the stomach, leading to delayed gastric emptying compared to the RO sample. The rate and extent of lipolysis were determined by the amount of fat available and the structure of the fat. This demonstrates the importance of the physical behaviour of the fats during digestion and provides a mechanistic understanding of the overall lipid digestion of IE fats, which relates to their physiological response.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos , Óleo de Brassica napus , Triglicerídeos/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gorduras , Estômago
17.
Anal Methods ; 15(39): 5112-5128, 2023 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37791457

RESUMO

The presence of fat, oil and grease can lead to blockages in sewer lines, pumps, and treatment plant operations, thereby creating health risks and environmental hazards. These deposits primarily consist of fatty acids, triglycerides and soap, among other components. These three main components are hydrophobic and insoluble in water. The composition of FOG can vary significantly depending on the source, such as food service establishments, households, or industrial processes. Several analytical methods, such as chromatographic, gravimetric, chemical and spectroscopic analysis, are used to measure different FOG components. AOAC, Gerber and APHA are the most commonly utilized standardized analytical methods for measuring FOG components. The AOAC and Gerber methods, which use gas chromatography, tend to provide more accurate results compared to other methods. This can be attributed to GC's ability to measure individual fatty acids in FOG samples by separating and quantifying each compound based on its unique chemical properties, such as volatility, polarity and molecular weight. Similarly, high-performance liquid chromatography is capable of measuring glycerides by separating and quantifying them based on their polarity and molecular weight. This article delves into the challenge of accurately measuring FOG concentrations and evaluates various FOG measurement technologies. The study also discusses the need for standardized methods for FOG measurement, highlighting the importance of understanding FOG deposits and the performance of grease interceptors.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Águas Residuárias , Gorduras/análise , Gorduras/química , Esgotos/análise , Esgotos/química , Hidrocarbonetos , Ácidos Graxos/análise
18.
Molecules ; 28(14)2023 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37513254

RESUMO

The synthesis of structured lipids with nutraceutical applications, such as medium-long-medium (MLM) triacylglycerols, via modification of oils and fats represents a challenge for the food industry. This study aimed to synthesize MLM-type dietary triacylglycerols by enzymatic acidolysis of cottonseed oil and capric acid (C10) catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM (lipase from Rhizomucor miehei) in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR). After chemical characterization of the feedstock and hydrodynamic characterization of the reactor, a 22 central composite rotatable design was used to optimize capric acid incorporation. The independent variables were cycle number (20-70) and cottonseed oil/capric acid molar ratio (1:2-1:4). The temperature was set at 45 °C. The best conditions, namely a 1:4 oil/acid molar ratio and 80 cycles (17.34 h), provided a degree of incorporation of about 40 mol%, as shown by compositional analysis of the modified oil. Lipozyme RM IM showed good operational stability (kd = 2.72 × 10-4 h-1, t1/2 = 2545.78 h), confirming the good reuse capacity of the enzyme in the acidolysis of cottonseed oil with capric acid. It is concluded that an FBR configuration is a promising alternative for the enzymatic synthesis of MLM triacylglycerols.


Assuntos
Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Óleos de Plantas , Triglicerídeos/química , Óleos de Plantas/química , Solventes , Gorduras
19.
J Oleo Sci ; 72(8): 745-754, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37468273

RESUMO

Although partially hydrogenated oil (PHO) provides foods with outstanding thick tastes and pronounced "creamy" flavor, the high level of artificial trans-fatty acids (TFA; about 30%) limits its usages around the world in the near future. It is necessary to produce trans-free alternatives with similar tastes to PHO. The relationship between sensory attributes and physicochemical characteristics of PHO and four typical specialty fats were therefore analyzed in the present study. PHO exhibited the highest greasiness score (8.19), accompanying by mild creaminess and aftertaste as well as a weak coolness during swallow, which were resulted from the close-packed arrangements of TFA, its cis-counterparts and other long chain fatty acids. None of artificial trans-fats, mainly anhydrous milk fat, cocoa butter, and coconut oil and its fully hydrogenated counterpart, were similar to PHO in terms of these sensory attributes. The unique fatty acid species of PHO and their arrangements contributed to the relatively smooth solid fat content profile and melting-crystallization curve, as well as forming uniform and dense ß' crystal-structures (Db=1.80). The Pearson correlation analyses relevelled that long chain fatty acids, e.g., t-C18:1 and C18:1, and melting final temperatures were generally positive correlated with greasiness, creaminess and aftertaste; whereas these indices were negatively correlated with coolness. The melting enthalpy was highly connected with coolness, which reflected the endothermic effectiveness during the melting process of fats in the mouth. These indices screened by correlation analyses that were strongly correlated with sensory attributes could provide references for producing trans-free alternatives.


Assuntos
Óleos de Plantas , Ácidos Graxos trans , Óleos de Plantas/química , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Gorduras , Óleo de Coco , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(14): 6837-6848, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37278491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fat significantly affects the properties of ice cream. Prior studies have investigated the correlation between fat crystallization, fat destabilization, and ice cream quality. However, the role of fatty acid composition, the similarity between fat and emulsifier in these characteristics, and their impact on final product quality remains unclear. RESULTS: To investigate the influence of the fatty acid composition of fats, as well as their similarity to glycerol monostearate (GMS), on fat crystallization and destabilization during the aging and freezing stages, ice creams were formulated using a combination of two types of fats (coconut oil and palm olein) in five different ratios. In oil phases, decreased saturation of fatty acids (from 93.38% to 46.69%) and increased similarity to GMS (from 11.96% to 46.01%) caused a reduction in the maximum solid fat content. Moreover, the rise in unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (from 34.61% to 99.57%) and similarity to GMS enhanced the formation of rare and coarse fat crystals, leading to a sparse crystalline network. This, in turn, reduced the crystallization rate and the stiffness of the fat in emulsions. Assuming consistent overrun across all ice creams, the enhanced interactions between fat globules in ice cream improved its hardness, melting properties, and shrinkage. CONCLUSION: The crystalline properties of fat in emulsions were influenced by oil phases, impacting fat destabilization and ultimately enhancing the quality of ice cream. The present study offers valuable insights for the optimization of fat and monoglyceride fatty acid ester selection, with the potential to improve ice cream quality. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Sorvetes , Cristalização , Sorvetes/análise , Glicerol , Gorduras/química , Emulsões/química
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