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1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 168: 113380, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028061

RESUMO

The toxicity of co-formulants present in glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) has been widely discussed leading to the European Union banning the polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA). We identified the most commonly used POEA, known as POE-15 tallow amine (POE-15), in the widely used US GBH RangerPro. Cytotoxicity assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 and hepatocyte HepG2 cell lines showed that RangerPro and POE-15 are far more cytotoxic than glyphosate alone. RangerPro and POE-15 but not glyphosate caused cell necrosis in both cell lines, and that glyphosate and RangerPro but not POE-15 caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. We further tested these pesticide ingredients in the ToxTracker assay, a system used to evaluate a compound's carcinogenic potential, to assess their capability for inducing DNA damage, oxidative stress and an unfolded protein response (endoplasmic reticulum, ER stress). RangerPro and POE-15 but not glyphosate gave rise to ER stress. We conclude that the toxicity resulting from RangerPro exposure is thus multifactorial involving ER stress caused by POE-15 along with oxidative stress caused by glyphosate. Our observations reinforce the need to test both co-formulants and active ingredients of commercial pesticides to inform the enactment of more appropriate regulation and thus better public and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Aminas/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Excipientes , Gorduras , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Polietilenoglicóis , Tensoativos/toxicidade
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-07-22. (OPS/NMH/RF/22-0011).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56172

RESUMO

La eliminación de las grasas trans de origen industrial representa una política de salud pública eficaz para prevenir las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), la principal causa de muerte en Argentina. En este informe, a través de la aplicación de un modelo de macrosimulación a diferentes marcos hipotéticos, se establecen asociaciones entre los factores de riesgo dietéticos y las ENT. Los resultados permiten afirmar que la eliminación de grasas y aceites parcialmente hidrogenados podría prevenir más de 2000 muertes al año.


Assuntos
Gorduras , Ácidos Graxos trans , Dieta , Fatores de Risco , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Argentina
3.
Chem Senses ; 472022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809054

RESUMO

Individuals vary in saliva composition, which could in turn influence variability of oral sensations. This study was designed to investigate associations among saliva's ability to emulsify an oil/water mixture, fatty sensations, and diet. Participants (N = 62) gave sensory ratings for a white chocolate substitute with 0, 0.1, and 1% added linoleic acid. Discrimination sorting tasks were performed using the chocolate substitute with/without linoleic acid and with high/low-fat salad dressing. Participants swished and expectorated an oil/water mixture, and the size of the emulsified layer of this spat-out sample was measured. This novel technique was used to estimate the emulsifying ability of saliva, as oral swishing caused the fat to disperse into the water, stabilized by saliva. Estimated macronutrient intake was assessed by 3-day dietary recalls. Results indicate that people who correctly sorted the chocolate substitute with/without linoleic acid had saliva that better emulsified the oil/water mixture and rated the 1% linoleic acid sample as fattier. Those who incorrectly sorted the chocolate samples rated the 1% linoleic acid sample as more bitter. The same pattern for fattiness and bitterness of 1% linoleic acid samples was observed for those who correctly/incorrectly sorted the high/low-fat salad dressings. Regarding dietary data, the only observed relationship was higher dietary protein intake associated with less saliva emulsion stability over time. Overall, the results indicate relationships among how saliva influences dispersions of fat and fatty sensations, but the role of diet should be reexamined with larger and more tightly controlled groups.


Assuntos
Ácido Linoleico , Saliva , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Gorduras , Humanos , Sensação
4.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 2): 113854, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841970

RESUMO

Population inflation has led to the unprecedented increase in urbanization, thus causing negative impacts on environmental sustainability. Recently, there is an upsurge in the number of restaurants due to the changing lifestyles of the people round the globe. For instance, there were 167,490 food and beverage establishments in 2015, representing an annual growth rate of 5.1% since 2010 in Malaysia. The rapid growth of restaurants has implicated a negative impact due to the generation of highly polluted restaurant wastewater (RWW). RWW is mainly generated during the cooking, washing, and cleaning operations. RWW typically contain fat, oil, and grease (FOG) resulting from residues of meat, deep-fried food, baked items and butter, and has caused serious blockages of sewer due to clogging and eventually sewage backup. This has increased the required frequency of cleaning and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Results from the previous studies have shown that FOG can be treated using physical, chemical, and biological processes. Different technologies have been applied for the treatment of FOG and other pollutants (COD, BOD, SS and NH4-N) present in RWW. Therefore, this review aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the characteristics of RWW, chemical and physical characteristics of FOG with the mechanism of its formation and utilization for biocomposites, biogas and biodiesel productions for circular bioeconomy. Besides, this review has discussed the potential treatment technologies comprehensively for RWW which is currently remain understudied. Integrated sustainable management of FOG with technoeconomic analysis of bioproducts, sustainable management with international initiatives and previous studies are also summarized. Hence, this review aims towards providing better alternatives in managing RWW at sources, including its treatment and potential of its biorefinery, therefore eventually contributing towards environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Restaurantes , Águas Residuárias , Meio Ambiente , Gorduras/análise , Gorduras/química , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias/análise
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 359: 127400, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654324

RESUMO

Accidental organic overloading (shock loading) is common during the anaerobic co-digestion of fats, oils and greases (FOG) and may lead to decreased performance or reactor failure due to the effects on the microbiome. Here, adapted and non-adapted lab-scale anaerobic digesters were exposed to FOG shocks of varying organic strengths. The microbiome was sequenced during the recovery periods employed between each shock event. Non-failure-inducing shocks resulted in enrichment of fermentative bacteria, and acetoclastic and methylotrophic methanogens. However, sub-dominant bacterial populations were largely responsible for increased biogas production observed after adaptation. Following failure events, early recovery communities were dominated by Pseudomonas and Methanosaeta while late recovery communities shifted toward sub-dominant bacterial taxa and Methanosarcina. Generally, the recovered microbiome structure diverged from that of both the initial and optimized microbiomes. Thus, while non-failure-inducing FOG shocks can be beneficial, the adaptations gained are lost after a failure event and adaptation must begin again.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Gorduras , Hidrocarbonetos , Metano , Óleos Vegetais
6.
Food Funct ; 13(13): 7112-7122, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698889

RESUMO

We investigated the temperature-dependent microstructure and thermal properties of back fat adipose tissue from pork, beef and lamb. Microstructural characterisation via electron, confocal and light microscopy showed that the back fats were structurally similar and consisted of fat dispersed as discrete units within a protein matrix akin to a closed cell foam. Differential scanning calorimetry showed distinct fat melting profiles for each of the tissues, which were ascribed to differences in fatty acid profile. Fat crystal organisation, melting and re-solidification signatures unique to each adipose tissue were found via X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Overall, we found that the temperature-dependent microstructure of adipose fat was intricately linked to the fat phase melting behaviour, and importantly, to its protein matrix at elevated temperatures. Such understanding is necessary to provide the required insights to effectively replicate the functionality of adipose tissue using plant-based materials.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Bovinos , Gorduras/química , Ovinos , Suínos , Temperatura
7.
Food Funct ; 13(13): 7132-7143, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699075

RESUMO

Matching the texture of fat in plant-based meat alternatives requires an in-depth understanding of the rheology of animal adipose tissue which, to-date, remains under-studied. Here, we characterised the small and large deformation behaviour of back fat from pork, beef, and lamb, with the underlying goal being the establishment of the temperature-dependent structure-function relationship governing the texture and rheology of adipose tissue. The dynamic rheological behaviour of the back fats was characterised via frequency and amplitude sweeps and large amplitude oscillatory strain (LAOS), as well as texture analysis via puncture tests. At 20 °C, prior to heating, the small and large deformation properties of adipose tissue were dominated by the solid fat phase within the adipose cells. Upon heating to 80 °C, with the fat phase molten, the protein network underpinning the structure of the back fats conferred elastic behaviour to the tissues, and the now-molten oil partly leaked from the adipocytes into the surrounding interstitial space. Upon re-cooling, a bicontinuous network of fat crystals and protein contributed to back fat rheology. Large deformation rheology revealed animal species-specific differences. Prior to heating, pork back fat was characterised by soft yielding behaviour while beef and lamb back fat showed abrupt yielding and intra-cycle strain stiffening. Post-heating, lamb showed the highest stiffness, compared to pork and beef, as well as non-linearities in its stress-strain relationship obtained via LAOS. Such fundamental understanding is essential to provide the required insights to replicate the functionality of adipose tissue using plant-based materials.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Bovinos , Gorduras/química , Reologia , Ovinos , Suínos , Temperatura
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 843: 156907, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753447

RESUMO

The formation of a floating scum layer on the liquid surface of covered anaerobic lagoons prevents optimal and efficient lagoon operation. Scum can reduce hydraulic retention time, inhibit biogas capture and cause damage to lagoon covers. Managing the negative impact of scum requires understanding what scum is, how it forms and how it consolidates. This paper presents measurements of the physical and mechanical properties of scum and sludge samples from two covered anaerobic lagoons that alternatively treat municipal and abattoir waste. Both scum samples consisted of a large proportion of suspended solids that sank once the sample was diluted, degassed and mixed, indicating that sludge flotation and buoyancy due to biogas generation is a major contributor to scum accumulation. Total and soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile solids in the scum are approximately 90 % higher than in sludge, which indicates that scum has a large proportion of undigested solids. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrates that scum and sludge have similar organic matter, with both including fats, oils, greases, proteins, and polysaccharides. Scum formation due to gas buoyancy implies that scum accumulation is inevitable and controlling fats, oils, and greases at the source of the wastewater is not enough to stop scum formation. Scum accumulation increases due to buoyancy, which drives scum compaction and increases the strength of the scum, as demonstrated by the measurement of scum compressional rheology. Scum management techniques that disturb the scum layer early enough to release the entrapped gas enable the scum to sink and get digested, thus minimising the impact of scum formation.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Gorduras , Óleos Vegetais , Esgotos/química
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1210: 339887, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595364

RESUMO

Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural oils and fats is a highly challenging task in analytical chemistry. Here we present a software (TAG Analyzer) for automatic calculation of regioisomeric composition of TAGs based on the mass spectral data from recently reported ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for analyzing TAG regioisomers. The software enables fast and accurate processing of complex product ion spectra containing structurally informative diacylglycerol [M+NH4-RCO2H-NH3]+ and fatty acid ketene [RCO]+ fragment ions. Compared to manual processing, the developed software offers higher throughput with faster calculation as well as more accurate interpretation of chromatographically overlapping isobaric TAGs. The software determines results by constructing a synthetic spectrum to match the measured fragment ion spectrum, and by reporting the optimal concentrations of TAGs used to create the synthetic spectrum. This type of calculation is often extremely challenging for manual interpretation of the fragment ion spectra of isobaric TAGs with shared fragments, hence the need for automated data processing. The developed software was validated by analyzing a wide range of mixtures of regiopure TAG reference compounds of known composition and a commercial olive oil sample. Additionally, the method was also applied for regiospecific analysis of TAGs in human milk as an example of natural fats and oils with a highly complex TAG profile. The results indicate that the software is capable of resolving regioisomeric composition of natural TAGs even of the most complex composition. This novel calculation software combined with our existing UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method form a highly efficient tool for regioisomeric analysis of TAGs in natural fats and oils.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gorduras , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Software , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise
10.
J Med Food ; 25(6): 660-674, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617705

RESUMO

High-fat diet (HFD) consumption is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndromes (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, the consumption of alternative and functional fatty acids to replace saturated fatty acids and/or trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids has become an important dietary strategy for the prevention of MetS. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) reduces various physiological complications, including CVDs, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance, related to inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated the partial replacement effects of HFD with beef tallow (BT) on dyslipidemia and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in male db/db mice. The animals were grouped to one of four dietary intervention groups (n = 16 per group): (1) normal diet, (2) HFD, (3) HFD partially replaced with regular beef tallow (HFD+BT1), or (4) HFD partially replaced with beef tallow containing a relatively reduced omega-6 fatty acid (n-6)/n-3 ratio (HFD+BT2) than HFD+BT1. After 6 weeks of dietary intervention, 1 mg/kg of phosphate-buffered saline or tunicamycin (TM) was injected intraperitoneally. HFD+BT2 significantly suppressed the serum total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels more than HFD and HFD+BT1, and triglyceride levels in the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) were remarkably decreased. Mice that received HFD+BT2 had elevated protein expressions of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK). Moreover, HFD+BT2 effectively inhibited ER stress in the liver and EAT. Consistent with our hypothesis, HFD+BT2 remarkably alleviated dyslipidemia and TM-inducible ER stress, while activating p-AMPK.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Gorduras , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Waste Manag ; 143: 242-252, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290841

RESUMO

The potential of animal fats hydroconversion is experimentally investigated and validated in industrially relevant scale via the production of 100 L of transportation fuels. The experimental testing has indicated that mild hydrotreatment conditions are associated with low hydrogen consumption without significantly penalties in product quality. The optimal operating conditions (pressure of 6.89 MPa, H2/oil ratio of 84.95 Sm3 and LHSV of 1 hr-1) identified were also applied in the industrially relevant scale hydroprocessing pilot to validate the scale-up potential of the technology. The produced fuel is characterized by 5 wppm sulphur, 79.3 cetane index and 44.4 MJ/kg heating value, offering an advantage in compression ignition engines. The produced fuel can be blended up to 20% v/v with fossil diesel rendering a high bio-content diesel abiding by the EN 590 standard. It was found that, up to 20% per volume can be added in diesel without exceeding the requirements for CFPP standards for Greek winter diesel. Towards the commercialization of the technology with respect to the animal fats logistics, a dedicated 6-month storage stability study revealed that animal fats can be stored for up to three to four months at ambient conditions. The findings, indicate that the suggested technology is mature technology as applied successfully in the industrially-relevant-scale providing also the process data.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Gasolina , Animais , Gorduras
12.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163848

RESUMO

Robust and easy-to-use NMR sensor technology is proposed for accurate, on-site determination of fat and protein contents in milk. The two parameters are determined using fast consecutive 1H and 35Cl low-field NMR experiments on milk samples upon the 1:1 addition of a low-cost contrast solution. Reliable and accurate measurements are obtained without tedious calibrations and the need for extensive database information and may readily be conducted by non-experts in production site environments. This enables on-site application at farms or dairies, or use in laboratories harvesting significant reductions in costs and time per analysis as compared to wet-chemistry analysis. The performance is demonstrated for calibration samples, various supermarket milk products, and raw milk samples, of which some were analyzed directly in the milking room. To illustrate the wide application range, the supermarket milk products included both conventionally/organically produced, lactose-free milk, cow's, sheep's and goat's milk, homogenized and unhomogenized milk, and a broad nutrient range (0.1-9% fat, 1-6% protein). Excellent agreement between NMR measurements and reference values, without corrections or changes in calibration for various products and during extensive periods of experiment conduction (4 months) demonstrates the robustness of the procedure and instrumentation. For the raw milk samples, correlations between NMR and IR, NMR and wet-chemistry, as well as IR and wet-chemistry results, show that NMR, in terms of accuracy, compares favorably with the other methods.


Assuntos
Gorduras/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cabras , Ovinos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216234

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease in which dry and itchy skin may develop into skin lesions. AD has a strong genetic component, as children from parents with AD have a two-fold increased chance of developing the disease. Genetic risk loci and epigenetic modifications reported in AD mainly locate to genes involved in the immune response and epidermal barrier function. However, AD pathogenesis cannot be fully explained by (epi)genetic factors since environmental triggers such as stress, pollution, microbiota, climate, and allergens also play a crucial role. Alterations of the epidermal barrier in AD, observed at all stages of the disease and which precede the development of overt skin inflammation, manifest as: dry skin; epidermal ultrastructural abnormalities, notably anomalies of the lamellar body cargo system; and abnormal epidermal lipid composition, including shorter fatty acid moieties in several lipid classes, such as ceramides and free fatty acids. Thus, a compelling question is whether AD is primarily a lipid disorder evolving into a chronic inflammatory disease due to genetic susceptibility loci in immunogenic genes. In this review, we focus on lipid abnormalities observed in the epidermis and blood of AD patients and evaluate their primary role in eliciting an inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Animais , Epiderme/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipídeos/fisiologia
14.
Pancreas ; 51(1): 28-34, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute pancreatitis is the most critical complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In this study, we investigated the association between the volume/fat content of the pancreatic head and the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 157 patients who underwent ERCP. The volume and fat content of the pancreas were calculated by multislice computed tomographic imaging by using a volume analyzer. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for PEP. RESULTS: The mean volumes of the whole pancreas and pancreatic head were significantly larger, and the fat content of the pancreatic head was significantly higher in the PEP group (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the mean volume and fat content of the pancreatic body and tail in the PEP group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the pancreatic guidewire placement (odds ratio [OR], 12.4; P < 0.01), pancreatic head volume (OR, 5.3; P < 0.01), and the pancreatic head fat content (OR, 4.8; P < 0.01) were independent risk factors for PEP. CONCLUSIONS: The pancreatic head volume and fat content were independent predicting factors of PEP. Quantitative assessment of the pancreas may contribute to the prediction of PEP onset.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Gorduras , Pâncreas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216326

RESUMO

Neurotensin (NT) is a small peptide with pleiotropic functions, exerting its primary actions by controlling food intake and energy balance. The first evidence of an involvement of NT in metabolism came from studies on the central nervous system and brain circuits, where NT acts as a neurotransmitter, producing different effects in relation to the specific region involved. Moreover, newer interesting chapters on peripheral NT and metabolism have emerged since the first studies on the NT-mediated regulation of gut lipid absorption and fat homeostasis. Intriguingly, NT enhances fat absorption from the gut lumen in the presence of food with a high fat content, and this action may explain the strong association between high circulating levels of pro-NT, the NT stable precursor, and the increased incidence of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer observed in large population studies. This review aims to provide a synthetic overview of the main regulatory effects of NT on several biological pathways, particularly those involving energy balance, and will focus on new evidence on the role of NT in controlling fat homeostasis, thus influencing the risk of unfavorable cardio-metabolic outcomes and overall mortality in humans.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Neurotensina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo
16.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-04. (OPS/NMH/RF/21-0036).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55547

RESUMO

Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la hipertensión arterial, la hiperglucemia en ayunas, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se encuentran entre los principales factores de riesgo de muerte de la población mundial. Estas alteraciones fueron responsables de 23% de las muertes en el mundo en el 2004 y de 31% de las registradas en la Región de las Américas en el mismo año. En el 2019, estos factores fueron responsables de 44,5% de las muertes en la Región, es decir, cerca de 3,2 millones de muertes. Estos factores de riesgo están estrechamente relacionados con la mala alimentación, debido en gran parte a la ingesta excesiva de nutrientes críticos relacionados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ENT). A su vez, la ingesta excesiva de estos nutrientes es resultado, en gran medida, de la amplia disponibilidad, asequibilidad, publicidad y promoción de productos alimentarios ultraprocesados y procesados que contienen cantidades excesivas de estos nutrientes. Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar los efectos del consumo de productos alimentarios ultraprocesados y procesados con un exceso de azúcares libres, sodio, y grasas totales, saturadas y trans (según el modelo de perfil de nutrientes de la OPS) sobre la calidad de la alimentación, teniendo en cuenta las metas de ingesta de nutrientes críticos relacionados con las ENT de la OMS, a partir de las encuestas representativas de nueve países de las Américas.  


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Alimentos e Bebidas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Açúcares , Sódio , Gorduras
17.
Food Chem ; 377: 131902, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974407

RESUMO

The effects of beef tallow, phospholipid, microwave, and ultrasonic pretreatment (MUP) on the Maillard reaction process, the sensory characteristics of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), and the composition and content of volatile compounds were studied. Maillard reaction of the sample was more intense after MUP, but more hydrophobic amino acids were generated, resulting in relatively high sourness in MRPs. Beef tallow encapsulation has no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of MRPs. The content of volatile compounds in MRPs added with phospholipids increased significantly, and the content of sulfur compounds (especially furan and furanthiol) increased most significantly. Hexanal, Nonanal, 2-Hexylfuran, 2-Hexylthiophene, and 1-Octanol were positively correlated with the value of umami and saltiness of MRPs. The addition of phospholipids after MUP and beef tallow encapsulation helps to increase the saltiness and umami of MRPs, reduce astringency, and produce more sulfur and other flavor compounds.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Micro-Ondas , Animais , Bovinos , Gorduras , Fosfolipídeos , Ultrassom
18.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056666

RESUMO

To explore the role of fatty acids as flavor precursors in the flavor of oxidized tallow, the volatile flavor compounds and free fatty acid (FFAs) in the four oxidization stages of tallow were analyzed via gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS), the aroma characteristics of them were analyzed by GC-olfactory (GC-O) method combined with sensory analysis and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) analysis. 12 common FFAs and 35 key aroma-active compounds were obtained. Combined with the results of odor activity value (OAV) and FD factor, benzaldehyde was found to be an important component in unoxidized tallow. (E,E)-2,4-Heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, octanal, hexanoic acid, hexanal and (E)-2-heptenal were the key compounds involved in the tallow flavor oxidation. The changes in FFAs and volatile flavor compounds during oxidation and the metabolic evolution of key aroma-active compounds are systematically summarized in this study. The paper also provides considerable guidance in oxidation control and meat flavor product development.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Gorduras/química , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Olfato
19.
Chemosphere ; 294: 133578, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074324

RESUMO

Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POE-T) is a member of the polyoxyethylene alkylamine (POEA) class of nonionic surfactants and is a component of some glyphosate-based formulations. The presence of POE-T improves foliar uptake of glyphosate in weeds, thereby reducing the amount of glyphosate needed for weed control. To further characterize the environmental fate of POE-T, aerobic soil degradation, hydrolysis, adsorption/desorption, and aerobic aquatic degradation studies were conducted according to U.S. EPA and OECD pesticide regulatory testing guidelines. POE-T labeled with carbon-14 was used in the studies to aid in analysis, assess mineralization to CO2, and allow for mass balance determinations. The aerobic soil half-lives (DT50) for POE-T ranged from 20 to 166 days with DT50 values increasing with increasing soil percent organic carbon (OC). POE-T was hydrolytically stable at pH 4-9. POE-T adsorbed strongly to soil (KFocads = 17,600-114,000) with sorption generally increasing as soil percent OC increased. The aerobic aquatic (water-sediment) system DT50s for POE-T were 14-29 days, with POE-T dissipating from the water column with DT50s of 0.10-0.12 days through metabolism and adsorption to sediment. Based on these results, aquatic organisms are unlikely to be exposed to POE -T in the water column for more than a few hours following waterborne exposure and sediment is a significant sink for POE-T in aquatic systems. However, bioavailability of POE-T in sediment and soil is predicted to be low based on strong adsorption and it is not readily desorbed.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Polietilenoglicóis , Aminas/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Exposição Ambiental , Gorduras , Herbicidas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Medição de Risco
20.
Food Chem ; 378: 132119, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033715

RESUMO

This work investigated the effect of oxidized beef tallow on the volatile compositions and sensory properties of soybean meal-based Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Various tallow oxidation methods included thermal treatment (TT), enzymatic hydrolysis (ET) and enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mild thermal (ETT) treatment. Results showed that all these oxidized tallow contained more types of volatile compounds than those of untreated tallow. Moreover, the composition of almost all types of volatile substances was greatly increased with the addition of the oxidized beef tallow into the hydrolyzed soybean meal-based Maillard reaction system. More importantly, the composition of oxygen-containing heterocycles (63.89 µg/mL), sulfur-containing compounds (76.64 µg/mL), and nitrogen-containing heterocycles (19.81 µg/mL) that contribute positively to sensory properties in ETT-MRPs was found to be the highest among all the MRPs. Correlation assessment revealed that ETT was closely related to the most typical volatile products and sensory attributes, indicating this approach can effectively enhance the sensory and flavor of hydrolyzed soybean meal derived MRPs.


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Soja , Animais , Bovinos , Gorduras , Aromatizantes , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard
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