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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 92, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311227

RESUMO

Guaiacum is a homeopathic medicine used for arthritis, syphilis and tonsillitis. Its use as a substance abuse is not properly described in literature. Its excess intake may be life threatening and can damage the vision permanently.


Assuntos
Guaiacum/envenenamento , Artrite , Humanos , Materia Medica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Sífilis
2.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5(Supplementary)): 2251-2256, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894051

RESUMO

The aim of present study is to evaluate the antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effect of Guaiacum officinale in streptozotocin induced male albino rats. The methanolic bark extract of Guaiacum officinale was administered at a dose of 500 mg/kg and Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 0.5mg/kg for 28 days. The animals were divided in to four groups. Control group n=12, received distilled water. Positive control group (STZ group) n=12 received streptozotocin at 30 mg/kg dose through I/P route. Standard group (STZ+ GLB group): n=12 received Glibenclamide. Treated group (STZ+ extracted group): n=12 received bark extract of Guaiacum officinale. Blood glucose level was significantly reduced after oral adminstration of bark extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The SGOT level significantly reduced in Guaiacum officinale treated group as compare to control, pronounced reduction of ALT level as compared to GLB and the ALP levels was highly significantly reduced in Guaiacum officinale treated group while GLB is unable to improve ALP levels in GLB treated diabetic albino rats. The level of direct bilirubin in Guaiacum officinale treated group was found to be insignificant as compared to control and STZ treated group while the level of indirect bilirubin was significantly reduced in STZ treated group as compare to control. Histopathological studies showed that Guaiacum officianle have hepatoprotective effect in experimental induced male albino rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Guaiacum , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Casca de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(1): 259-267, jan./fev. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-963855

RESUMO

Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Clusiaceae), popularly known as "pau-santo", is a typical Brazilian cerrado tree known due to its varied secondary metabolites. This study aimed to determine the allelopathic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of K. coriacea through bioassays of seed germination, seedling growth and mitotic index of Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce). In addition it was done the tetrazolium assay and a phytochemical screening. The extract concentrations caused alterations in germination parameters, in root growth and in the mitotic index. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenes, coumarins, steroids, flavonoids and condensed tannins, compounds known to confer allelopathic characteristics upon other species. These data indicate that K. coriacea presents an allelopathic potential because its leaf extracts interfere with germination and growth without any interference of pH and osmotic potential in the results.


Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Clusiaceae), conhecida popularmente como "pau-santo", é uma árvore típica do cerrado brasileiro, conhecida pelos seus variados metabólitos secundários. O estudo teve como objetivo determinar o potencial alelopático do extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas de K. coriacea por meio dos bioensaios de germinação, crescimento de plântulas e índice mitótico de Lactuca sativa L. (alface). Além disso, foi feito o teste de tetrazólio e uma triagem fitoquímica. As concentrações de extrato causaram alterações nos parâmetros de germinação, no crescimento radicular e no índice mitótico. A triagem fitoquímica mostrou a presença de triterpenos, cumarinas, esteroides, flavonoides e taninos condensados, compostos conhecidos por conferir características alelopáticas sobre outras espécies. Estes dados indicam que K. coriacea apresenta potencial alelopático pois o extrato de sua folha interfere na germinação e no crescimento da planta alvo, sem qualquer interferência do pH e do potencial osmótico.


Assuntos
Alface , Germinação , Guaiacum , Plântula , Alelopatia , Índice Mitótico , Árvores , Pradaria
5.
Homeopathy ; 103(2): 133-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24685418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is a popular form of complementary and alternative medicine. Guaiacum extract is said to be useful for pain and inflammation, but there appears to be no scientific evidence to support this. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-rheumatic and anti-oxidant activity of homeopathic preparations of Guaiacum officinale (Gua) on experimental animal model. DESIGN: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was induced in male albino rats by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) at a dose of (0.25 mg heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis/ml of emulsion). Gua mother tincture (MT) (prepared from the latex part of the plant) (MT), Gua 30cc and 200cc were purchased commercially from King Company, Kolkata, India. Male albino Wistar rats (130 ± 10 g) were divided into 6 groups: Sham control; Arthritis control; Standard treatment indomethacin (0.25 mg 100 g(-1) p.o. × 5 alternative days), Gua MT (1 ml kg(-1) p.o. × 5 days) treated; Gua (30c 1 ml kg(-1) p.o. × 5 days) treated; Gua (200c; 1 ml kg(-1) p.o. × 5 days) treated. Anti-rheumatic activity was examined through physical, urinary, serum parameters. All the results were expressed in terms of mean ± SEM (statistical error of mean n = 6) at each dose level. The level of significance was determined through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: It was observed that body weight, ankle and knee diameter, urinary parameters (hydroxyproline (OH-P), glucosamine, calcium (Ca(2)(+)), creatinine (CRE), phosphate (PO4(3)(-))), serum ACP (acid phosphatase)/ALP (alkaline phosphatase)/Ca(2+)/CRE/PO4(3-)/gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)/Lipid peroxidation (LPO)/Glutathione (GSH)/Superoxide dismutase (SOD)/Catalase, serum GGT, serum interleukins like IL-1ß/CINC-1/PGE2/TNF-α/IL-6, IL-12/IL-4/IL-6 levels were significantly affected. After treatment with Guaiacum in all 3 regimes was associated with normalization of these parameters compared to control group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that homeopathic G. officinale possesses anti-rheumatic and anti-oxidant activity in experimental animal and these activities may be more significant in higher potencies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Guaiacum/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ratos
6.
Rev Biol Trop ; 61(3): 1521-33, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24027940

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of individuals is a fundamental property of most species and constitutes essential information for the development of restoration and conservation strategies, especially for endangered plant species. In this paper we describe the spatial distribution of different size classes of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum and the effect of canopy cover on spatial aggregation. Adult G. sanctum were located and mapped in a 50 ha plot in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica. Seedlings, saplings and juveniles were mapped to the nearest centimetre and permanently marked in three 50 x 50 m subplots. Within each subplot spatial aggregation was assessed using Ripley's K statistic and canopy opening readings were performed every 5 m using a densitometer. Kriging spatial interpolation and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if average canopy cover differed among size classes. Individuals of G. sanctum were spatially aggregated at all size classes with seedlings being the most frequent size class in all subplots. Seedlings were found predominantly in areas with significantly higher canopy cover. In contrast, juveniles were more likely found in areas with higher light availability. The high number of seedlings, saplings, and juveniles relative to adults suggests that populations of G. sanctum in PVNP are expanding. Light availability and canopy structure are important factors shaping the spatial distribution of this species. The contemporary demographic structure of G. sanctum is dependent on forest gap dynamics and changes in human disturbance during the past 25 years.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Guaiacum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Costa Rica , Guaiacum/classificação , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Clima Tropical
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1521-1533, sep. 2013. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688493

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of individuals is a fundamental property of most species and constitutes essential information for the development of restoration and conservation strategies, especially for endangered plant species. In this paper we describe the spatial distribution of different size classes of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum and the effect of canopy cover on spatial aggregation. Adult G. sanctum were located and mapped in a 50ha plot in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica. Seedlings, saplings and juveniles were mapped to the nearest centimetre and permanently marked in three 50x50m subplots. Within each subplot spatial aggregation was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic and canopy opening readings were performed every 5m using a densitometer. Kriging spatial interpolation and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if average canopy cover differed among size classes. Individuals of G. sanctum were spatially aggregated at all size classes with seedlings being the most frequent size class in all subplots. Seedlings were found predominantly in areas with significantly higher canopy cover. In contrast, juveniles were more likely found in areas with higher light availability. The high number of seedlings, saplings, and juveniles relative to adults suggests that populations of G. sanctum in PVNP are expanding. Light availability and canopy structure are important factors shaping the spatial distribution of this species. The contemporary demographic structure of G. sanctum is dependent on forest gap dynamics and changes in human disturbance during the past 25 years.


La distribución espacial es una característica fundamental de las especies y es importante para el desarrollo de estrategias de conservación y manejo. Aquí presentamos la distribución espacial de varias etapas de desarrollo del árbol tropical Guaiacum sanctum, una especie en vías de extinción. Todos los adultos de G. sanctum se geo-referenciaron en una parcela de 50ha en el Parque Nacional Palo Verde. Las plántulas, los briznales y juveniles se mapearon en tres sub-parcelas de 50x50m. En cada sub-parcela se estimó la agregación espacial de los individuos mediante la K de Ripley. Observamos que los individuos de G. sanctum se encuentran siempre agregados, sin importar en que etapa de desarrollo se encuentren. Registramos la apertura del dosel cada 5m con un densiómetro y mediante una extra-polación espacial (Krigin) determinamos que las plántulas se agregan con mayor frecuencia en áreas con abundante cobertura de dosel, mientras que es más probable encontrar juveniles agregados en áreas con una mayor incidencia de luz. Las plántulas son los individuos más abundantes, esta distribución de edades nos sugiere que esta población probablemente está en expansión. Concluimos que el régimen lumínico y la cobertura de dosel son factores que afectan significativamente la distribución espacial del Guayacán Real.


Assuntos
Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Guaiacum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Costa Rica , Guaiacum/classificação , Atividades Humanas , Clima Tropical
9.
J Nat Prod ; 74(5): 1293-7, 2011 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21391655

RESUMO

We investigated the composition of extracts derived from Guaiacum spp. (Zygophyllaceae), a group of neotropical tree species with varied uses in Central and South American traditional medicine. Activity-guided fractionation of Guaiacum heartwood extracts led to the identification of four new spirocyclic lignans, named ramonanins A-D (1-4). The ramonanins exhibit cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 18 µM and induce cell death via apoptotic mechanisms. The ramonanins are derived from four units of coniferyl alcohol and feature an unusual spirocyclic ring system.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Guaiacum/química , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , República Dominicana , Humanos , Lignanas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos de Espiro/química
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 24(20): 1877-82, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21108112

RESUMO

A triterpenoid saponin, guaianin O (1), oleanolic acid 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside}-28- O-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl]-ester, was isolated from the n-butanol extract of flowers of Guaiacum officinale L. The structural elucidation of 1 was accomplished by extensive studies of both one and two dimensional ¹H, ¹³C-NMR spectra, the FAB mass spectrum, and alkaline and acid hydrolyses.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Guaiacum/química , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Hidrólise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química
11.
J Hered ; 101(3): 284-91, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20142457

RESUMO

Fragmentation of tropical forests has changed continuous tropical landscapes into a network of poorly connected fragments, reducing population sizes and potentially increasing genetic isolation. This study quantifies genetic diversity within and among the 7 extant populations of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum in Costa Rica. We describe how genetic diversity differs between populations representing continuous and fragmented habitats. Allozyme analyses were conducted on adult samples from populations representing 2 geographic regions in northwestern Costa Rica. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the species (H(es) = 0.329) and significant but relatively small differences in allele frequencies among populations (G(ST) = 0.101) and between regions (G(ST) = 0.053). We found no differences in genetic diversity between fragmented and continuous populations. Evidence for significant isolation-by-distance (IBD) was seen only when all populations were analyzed. If populations within the 2 regions were analyzed separately, IBD ceased to be significant. Our results suggest that the patterns of genetic diversity observed for G. sanctum may be caused by the ancient separation of populations into 2 disjunct geographic regions with extensive historical rates of gene flow among populations within each region. Recent forest fragmentation has not yet affected patterns of genetic diversity in this species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Variação Genética , Guaiacum/genética , Costa Rica , Ecossistema , Fluxo Gênico , Frequência do Gene , Isoenzimas/genética , Árvores/genética
14.
Nat Prod Res ; 18(2): 111-6, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14984082

RESUMO

A new triterpenoid saponin, guaianin R (1) was isolated from the n-BuOH extract of bark of Guaiacum officinale L. It was characterized as akebonic acid-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside]-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ester. The structure was established with the help of a comparative study of 1D and 2D 1H- 13C NMR methods. A number of other saponins were isolated and reported from the same species.


Assuntos
Guaiacum/química , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Casca de Planta/química
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