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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8715-8730, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564531

RESUMO

Wuyi Rock tea, specifically Shuixian and Rougui, exhibits distinct sensory characteristics. In this study, we investigated the sensory and metabolite differences between Shuixian and Rougui. Quantitative description analysis revealed that Rougui exhibited higher intensity in bitter, thick, harsh, and numb tastes, while Shuixian had stronger salty and umami tastes. Nontargeted metabolomics identified 151 compounds with 66 compounds identified as key differential metabolites responsible for metabolic discrimination. Most of the catechins and flavonoids were enriched in Rougui tea, while epigallocatechin-3,3'-di-O-gallate, epigallocatechin-3,5-di-O-gallate, gallocatechin-3,5-di-O-gallate, isovitexin, and theaflavanoside I were enriched in Shuixian tea. Catechins, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin derivatives were positively correlated with bitter taste and numb sensation. Sour taste was positively correlated to organic acids. Amino acids potentially contributed to salty and umami tastes. These results provide further insights into the taste characteristics and the relationship between taste attributes and specific metabolites in Wuyi Rock tea.


Assuntos
Catequina , Paladar , Chá/química , 60705 , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Metabolômica/métodos
2.
Nature ; 628(8008): 477, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605199
3.
Curr Biol ; 34(7): R271-R272, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593768

RESUMO

Taste is a sense that detects information about nutrients and toxins in foods. Of the five basic taste qualities, bitterness is associated with the detection of potentially harmful substances like plant alkaloids. In bony vertebrates, type 2 taste receptors (T2Rs), which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), act as bitter taste receptors1,2. In vertebrates, six GPCR gene families are described as chemosensory receptor genes, encoding taste receptor families (T1Rs and T2Rs) and olfactory receptor families (ORs, V1Rs, V2Rs, and TAARs). These families of receptors have been found in all major jawed vertebrate lineages, except for the T2Rs, which are confined to bony vertebrates3. Therefore, T2Rs are believed to have emerged later than the other chemosensory receptor genes in the bony vertebrate lineage. So far, only the genomes of two cartilaginous fish species have been mined for TAS2R genes, which encode T2Rs4. Here, we identified novel T2Rs in elasmobranchs, namely selachimorphs (sharks) and batoids (rays, skates, and their close relatives) by an exhaustive search covering diverse cartilaginous fishes. Using functional and mRNA expression analyses, we demonstrate that their T2Rs are expressed in the oral taste buds and contribute to the detection of bitter compounds. This finding indicates the early origin of T2Rs in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates.


Assuntos
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Paladar , Animais , Paladar/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Vertebrados/genética , Vertebrados/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Peixes/genética , Percepção Gustatória
4.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611810

RESUMO

A single combi oven, known for its versatility, is an excellent choice for a variety of chicken soup preparations. However, the impact of universal steam ovens on the flavor quality of chicken soup remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the impact of different cooking methods on the aroma and taste of chicken soup. Three cooking methods with various stewing times were compared: ceramic pot (CP), electric pressure cooker (EPC), and combi oven (CO). Analyses were conducted using electron-nose, electron-tongue, gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), automatic amino acid analysis, and chemometric methods. A total of 14 amino acids, including significant umami contributors, were identified. The taste components of CP and CO chicken soups were relatively similar. In total, 39 volatile aroma compounds, predominantly aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols, were identified. Aldehydes were the most abundant compounds, and 23 key aroma compounds were identified. Pearson's correlation analyses revealed distinct correlations between various amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid and serine) and specific volatile compounds. The aroma compounds from the CP and CO samples showed similarities. The results of this study provide a reference for the application of one-touch cooking of chicken soup in versatile steam ovens.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Odorantes , Animais , Galinhas , Vapor , Paladar , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Aminoácidos , Aldeídos , Culinária
5.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(4): 237, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthognathic surgery on taste sensation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients scheduled to undergo Le Fort I osteotomy (LFIO), sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO), and bimaxillary surgery (BMS) were evaluated by administering localized and whole-mouth taste tests preoperatively and postoperatively at months 1, 3, and 6. The patients were asked to identify the quality of four basic tastes applied to six locations on the palate and tongue and to rate the taste intensities they perceived. Taste recognition thresholds and taste intesity scores were evaluted according to operation groups and follow-ups. RESULTS: There were significant decreases in the quinine HCl recognition thresholds at the postoperative follow-ups compared to the preoperative in LFIO patients (p = 0.043). There were significant decreases in sucrose taste intensity scores in the right posterolateral part of the tongue at months 3 and 6 compared to preoperative in SSRO patients (p = 0.046), and significant increases in quinine HCL taste intensity scores in the right and left anterior parts of the tongue at month 6 compared to preoperative in LFIO patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Taste perception is affected due to potential damage to the chemosensory nerves during orthognathic surgical procedures. Generally, non-significant alterations have been observed in taste perception after orthognathic surgery, except for significant alterations in bitter and sweet taste perceptions. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of taste perception change after orthognathic surgery procedures and patients should be informed accordingly. THE TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER (TRN): NCT06103422/Date of registration: 10.17.2023 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Cirurgia Ortognática , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Humanos , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Osteotomia de Le Fort , Osteotomia Sagital do Ramo Mandibular/métodos , Quinina , Paladar , Percepção Gustatória
6.
Nature ; 628(8008): 506-507, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600187
7.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114209, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609210

RESUMO

To promote the rationalized and standardized application of star anise in braised poultry products, the effects of different concentrations of star anise (0 %, 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 %, and 0.4 %) on the aroma and taste compounds intensities of braised duck legs from the perspective of flavor were evaluated by using flavor omics approach combined with multivariate statistics. The volatile flavor results showed that there were 17 key aroma compounds with odor activity values (OAVs) > 1, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, furans, hydrocarbons, and ethers. Most of the aroma compounds related to lipid oxidation were significantly inhibited when the concentration of star anise reached 0.2 %, especially inhibited the concentrations of the unpleasant off-odorants containing hexanal, heptanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-pentyl-furan by 30.27 %, 15.08 %, 30.30 %, and 41.63 %, respectively. And the flavor intensities of these compounds were negatively correlated with the concentration of star anise. Additionally, star anise gave braised duck legs characteristic aroma such as floral and herbal notes. The taste results revealed that the maximum umami value (4.36 g MSG/100 g) of braised duck legs was observed when the concentration of star anise reached 0.2 %. Six flavor markers were obtained via PLS-DA model, and the flavors of braised duck legs with different concentrations of star anise were distinguished. This study provided a vital theoretical basis for the rational application and flavor control of star anise in braised poultry products.


Assuntos
Patos , Illicium , Animais , Odorantes , Paladar , Éteres
8.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 84, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558357

RESUMO

This review critically assessed the existence of presbygeusia, i.e., the impairment in taste perception occurring in the elderly, as a natural part of the aging process and its potential clinical implications. Several factors might contribute to age-related taste alterations (TAs), including structural changes in taste buds, alterations in saliva composition, central nervous system changes, and oral microbiota dysbiosis. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to disentangle the effects of age from those of the several age-related diseases or conditions promoting TAs. Most of the included studies reported TAs in healthy elderly people, suggesting that presbygeusia is a relatively frequent condition associated with age-related changes in the absence of pathological conditions. However, the impact of TAs on dietary preferences and food choices among the elderly seems to be less relevant when compared to other factors, such as cultural, psychological, and social influences. In conclusion, presbygeusia exists even in the absence of comorbidities or drug side effects, but its impact on dietary choices in the elderly is likely modest.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Humanos , Idoso , Paladar/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares
9.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 50(2): 144-160, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587941

RESUMO

Taste aversion learning has sometimes been considered a specialized form of learning. In several other conditioning preparations, after a conditioned stimulus (CS) is conditioned and extinguished, reexposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US) by itself can reinstate the extinguished conditioned response. Reinstatement has been widely studied in fear and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning, as well as operant conditioning, but its status in taste aversion learning is more controversial. Six taste-aversion experiments with rats therefore sought to discover conditions that might encourage it there. The results often yielded little to no evidence of reinstatement, and we also found no evidence of concurrent recovery, a related phenomenon in which responding to a CS that has been conditioned and extinguished is restored if a second CS is separately conditioned. However, a key result was that reinstatement occurred when the conditioning procedure involved multiple closely spaced conditioning trials that could have allowed the animal to learn that a US presentation signaled or set the occasion for another trial with a US. Such a mechanism is precluded in many taste aversion experiments because they often use very few conditioning trials. Overall, the results suggest that taste aversion learning is experimentally unique, though not necessarily biologically or evolutionarily unique. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Paladar , Ratos , Animais , Paladar/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante , Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 171: 105224, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522126

RESUMO

Salt (NaCl) is an essential nutrient for horses because their diet is low in sodium and they lose salt in sweat. Given the many types of salt block available, 342 horse owners were surveyed to see what type they offered their horses. The owners most often offered plain(30%) mineralized (29%) or Himalayan salt blocks. Next, adult mares were given two choice preference tests between plain (white) and mineralized (red) salt blocks, between mineralized and selenium (green) blocks, between plain and selenium, between Himalayan (pink) and plain and between Himalayan and selenium salt blocks. The horses preferred plain salt to Himalayan salt, but showed no preference between the other combinations.


Assuntos
Selênio , Cloreto de Sódio , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Paladar , Sódio , Dieta/veterinária
11.
J Med Chem ; 67(5): 3232-3243, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482829

RESUMO

The molecular origin of the sweet taste is still elusive. Herein, the canonical AH-B-X theory of sweet taste is extended by resurveying various sweeteners, which provides deeper insights into an analogous intramolecular connectivity pattern of both glucophores in sweeteners and their interaction counterparts in sweet taste receptor TAS1R2/TAS1R3: electrostatic complementarity and topochemical compatibility. Furthermore, their complementary interaction is elaborately illustrated, accounting for the common molecular feature of eliciting sweetness. Moreover, it highlights that multiple glucophores in a topological system synergistically mediate the elicitation and performance of sweetness. This perspective presents a meaningful framework for the structure-activity relationship-based molecular design and modification of sweeteners and sheds light on the mechanism of molecular evolution of TAS1R2s/TAS1R3s. The link between palatability of sweeteners and harmony relationships between their structural components via stereochemistry and network has significant implications to illuminate the underlying mechanisms by which nature designs chemical reactions to elicit the most important taste.


Assuntos
Edulcorantes , Paladar , Edulcorantes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química
12.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497660

RESUMO

Insects taste the external world through taste hairs, or sensilla, that have pores at their tips. When a sensillum comes into contact with a potential food source, compounds from the food source enter through the pore and activate neurons within. For over 50 years, these responses have been recorded using a technique called tip recording. However, this method has major limitations, including the inability to measure neural activity before or after stimulus contact and the requirement for tastants to be soluble in aqueous solutions. We describe here a technique that we call base recording, which overcomes these limitations. Base recording allows the measurement of taste neuron activity before, during, and after the stimulus. Thus, it allows extensive analysis of OFF responses that occur after a taste stimulus. It can be used to study hydrophobic compounds such as long-chain pheromones that have very low solubility in water. In summary, base recording offers the advantages of single-sensillum electrophysiology as a means of measuring neuronal activity - high spatial and temporal resolution, without the need for genetic tools - and overcomes key limitations of the traditional tip recording technique.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Paladar , Animais , Neurônios , Alimentos , Cabelo , Água
13.
Cogn Sci ; 48(3): e13421, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500336

RESUMO

The interest in crossmodal correspondences, including those involving sounds and involving tastes, has experienced rapid growth in recent years. However, the mechanisms underlying these correspondences are not well understood. In the present study (N = 302), we used an associative learning paradigm, based on previous literature using simple sounds with no consensual taste associations (i.e., square and triangle wave sounds at 200 Hz) and taste words (i.e., sweet and bitter), to test the influence of two potential mechanisms in establishing sound-taste correspondences and investigate whether either learning mechanism could give rise to new and long-lasting associations. Specifically, we examined an emotional mediation account (i.e., using sad and happy emoji facial expressions) and a transitive path (i.e., sound-taste correspondence being mediated by color, using red and black colored squares). The results revealed that the associative learning paradigm mapping the triangle wave tone with a happy emoji facial expression induced a novel crossmodal correspondence between this sound and the word sweet. Importantly, we found that this novel association was still present two months after the experimental learning paradigm. None of the other mappings, emotional or transitive, gave rise to any significant associations between sound and taste. These findings provide evidence that new crossmodal correspondences between sounds and tastes can be created by leveraging the affective connection between both dimensions, helping elucidate the mechanisms underlying these associations. Moreover, these findings reveal that these associations can last for several weeks after the experimental session through which they were induced.


Assuntos
Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Humanos , Som , Emoções
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6296, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491261

RESUMO

Protein residues within binding pockets play a critical role in determining the range of ligands that can interact with a protein, influencing its structure and function. Identifying structural similarities in proteins offers valuable insights into their function and activation mechanisms, aiding in predicting protein-ligand interactions, anticipating off-target effects, and facilitating the development of therapeutic agents. Numerous computational methods assessing global or local similarity in protein cavities have emerged, but their utilization is impeded by complexity, impractical automation for amino acid pattern searches, and an inability to evaluate the dynamics of scrutinized protein-ligand systems. Here, we present a general, automatic and unbiased computational pipeline, named VirtuousPocketome, aimed at screening huge databases of proteins for similar binding pockets starting from an interested protein-ligand complex. We demonstrate the pipeline's potential by exploring a recently-solved human bitter taste receptor, i.e. the TAS2R46, complexed with strychnine. We pinpointed 145 proteins sharing similar binding sites compared to the analysed bitter taste receptor and the enrichment analysis highlighted the related biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components. This work represents the foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the effective role of tastants outside the gustatory system: this could pave the way towards the rationalization of the diet as a supplement to standard pharmacological treatments and the design of novel tastants-inspired compounds to target other proteins involved in specific diseases or disorders. The proposed pipeline is publicly accessible, can be applied to any protein-ligand complex, and could be expanded to screen any database of protein structures.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Papilas Gustativas , Humanos , Ligantes , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas/metabolismo , Paladar , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(11): 14133-14143, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447141

RESUMO

The unique structural sensitivity of photonic crystals (PCs) endows them with stretchable or elastic tunability for light propagation and spontaneous emission modulation. Hydrogel PCs have been demonstrated to have biocompatibility and flexibility for potential human health detection and environmental security monitoring. However, current elastic PCs still possess a fixed elastic modulus and uncontrollable structural colors based on a tunable elastic modulus, posing considerable challenges for in situ detection, particularly in wearable or portable sensing devices. In this work, we introduced a novel chemo-mechanical transduction mechanism embedded within a photonic crystal nanomatrix, leading to the creation of structural colors and giving rise to a visual gustation sensing experience. By utilizing the captivating structural colors generated by the hydrogel PC, we employ abundant optical information to identify various analytes. The finite element analysis proved the electric field distribution in the PC matrix during stretch operations. The elastic-optical behaviors with various chemical cosolvents, including cations, anions, saccharides, or organic acids, were investigated. The mechanism of the Hofmeister effect regulating the elasticity of hydrogels was demonstrated with the network nanostructure of the hydrogels. The hydrogel PC matrix demonstrates remarkable capability in efficiently distinguishing a wide range of cations, anions, saccharides, and organic acids across various concentrations, mixtures, and even real food samples, such as tastes and soups. Through comprehensive research, a precise relationship between the structural colors and the elastic modulus of hydrogel PCs has been established, contributing to the biomatching elastic-optics platform for wearable devices, a dynamic environment, and clinical or health monitoring auxiliary.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Paladar , Humanos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Ânions , Cátions
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5898-5911, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459945

RESUMO

In view of potential future changes of German food legislation with regard to cheese product quality parameters, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of whey protein-enriched semihard cheese (WPEC). Model WPEC was produced in a pilot plant and on an industrial scale by adding defined amounts of high-heat (HH) milk to the cheese milk and comprehensively analyzed during cheese processing. The dry matter, total protein, pure protein, fat, and sodium chloride content of six-week ripened cheese samples were not significantly different (p < 0.05) when the technologically necessary heating of the curd was adapted to the amount of HH milk. However, the ripening, firmness, and melting behavior of WPEC was different compared to cheese without HH milk. During ripening, no formation of whey protein peptides was observed, but differences in the amount of some bitter peptides deriving from the casein fraction were found. Sensory data suggested a slightly more bitter taste perception by the panelists for the WPEC. Further technological adjustments are recommended to obtain marketable WPEC.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Queijo/análise , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Leite/química , Paladar , Peptídeos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Soro do Leite
17.
Physiol Behav ; 277: 114500, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430645

RESUMO

The orosensory features of alcoholic drinks are potent relapse triggers because they acquire incentive properties during consumption, including enhanced palatability. Whether mice similarly perceive alcoholic drinks to be more palatable after repeated consumption is complicated by reports showing that alcohol elicits aversive taste reactivity responses and conditions flavor avoidance. Here, by analyzing the microstructure of alcohol consumption, we report a gradual increase in lick bout duration relative to water that is partially maintained by an alcohol-paired flavor in extinction. We interpret lick bout duration to reflect an increase in the palatability alcohol and an alcohol-paired flavor. This finding demonstrates that bout duration is amenable to Pavlovian conditioning and highlights the importance of considering the microstructure of alcohol consumption in preclinical models of alcohol misuse.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Etanol , Camundongos , Animais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamento Animal , Motivação , Paladar/fisiologia
18.
Carbohydr Res ; 537: 109067, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442683

RESUMO

Taste, especially unpleasant taste, can be key for patient compliance. In the formulation development process, drug-cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes are often used to improve the solubility of a drug and/or mask its bitterness. This study aimed to evaluate the bitter masking effect of CDs on different drugs using NMR-ROESY analysis, human sensory tests, and e-tongue measurements. The strength of inclusion complex formation between drugs and CDs was investigated by NMR-ROSEY, and these results were compared to human sensory test results. In the sensory test, participants identified which drug-CD inclusion complexes were not bitter. NMR-ROSEY results aligned with the sensory tests; short magnetization transfer times corresponded to masked bitterness. The electrical tongue was not able to detect the taste of any of the drug-CD inclusion complexes. Additionally, we used NMR-ROSEY to determine which drug-CD inclusion complex formed in a system with multiple drug substances present. This research offers valuable insights into the bitter masking effect of CDs on different drugs and presents a comprehensive evaluation approach using various methods. This knowledge has significant implications for the pharmaceutical industry, clinical practice, and patient care, contributing to improved patient compliance and satisfaction with bitter medications.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Humanos , Paladar , Solubilidade
19.
Meat Sci ; 212: 109475, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447358

RESUMO

As the demand for beef products grows in the Chinese market, understanding consumer preferences for beef, especially those related to quality labelling, is essential. The recent agreement between China and the European Union to promote Geographical Indications (GIs) provides a new insight into preferences for beef with quality labelling. This paper assesses consumer preferences for beef products with GIs and other attributes. A nationwide survey is conducted including 1210 respondents in China by a choice experiment attributing GI label, 'green', 'hazard-free', and 'organic' labels, feeding regimes (grain-fed, grass-fed), country of origin (China, Ireland, Australia, Brazil), and price (30, 40, 80, 100 ¥/500 g). The random parameter logit model with error component reveals that Chinese consumers have a significant preference for grain-fed beef and domestic beef, and they are willing to pay a premium price for GI-labelled beef compared with other attributes. The interaction between GIs and country of origin is included to indicate the positive price impact of GIs on imported beef products. Demographic factors such as place of residence and occupation are found to affect consumer preferences for GIs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Paladar , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Povo Asiático , Irlanda
20.
BMC Neurosci ; 25(1): 19, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515045

RESUMO

Since antiquity human taste has been divided into 4-5 taste qualities. We realized in the early 1970s that taste qualities vary between species and that the sense of taste in species closer to humans such as primates should show a higher fidelity to human taste qualities than non-primates (Brouwer et al. in J Physiol 337:240, 1983). Here we present summary results of behavioral and single taste fiber recordings from the distant South American marmoset, through the Old World rhesus monkey to chimpanzee, the phylogenetically closest species to humans. Our data show that in these species taste is transmitted in labelled-lines to the CNS, so that when receptors on taste bud cells are stimulated, the cell sends action potentials through single taste nerve fibers to the CNS where they create taste, whose quality depends on the cortical area stimulated. In human, the taste qualites include, but are perhaps not limited to sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami. Stimulation of cortical taste areas combined with inputs from internal organs, olfaction, vision, memory etc. leads to a choice to accept or reject intake of a compound. The labelled-line organization of taste is another example of Müller's law of specific nerve energy, joining other somatic senses such as vision (Sperry in J Neurophysiol 8:15-28, 1945), olfaction (Ngai et al. in Cell 72:657-666, 1993), touch, temperature and pain to mention a few.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Animais , Humanos , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta
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