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1.
Poult Sci ; 103(6): 103751, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652951

RESUMO

Infectious coryza (IC) is an acute infectious respiratory disease in chickens that is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (A. paragallinarum). A. paragallinarum poses a significant threat to poultry health due to its virulence and multidrug resistance. This study isolated and identified 21 A. paragallinarum isolates from Guangdong between 2022 and 2023. Biochemical tests showed that 100% of A. paragallinarum isolates fermented glucose but did not ferment alginate and galactose, and only YZ18 was nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide independent. To determine the genetic relatedness between these isolates and NCBI reference strains, whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis was employed. In addition, analysis of the 2,000 bp-length hmtp210 gene showed that the hmtp210 gene was strongly associated with A. paragallinarum serotypes. Meanwhile, a PCR assay for serotyping A. paragallinarum was developed based on the hmtp210 gene, this assay has high sensitivity and specificity. The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance genes of isolates were analyzed using the genomic method. Phenotypic resistance to ampicillin (95.2%), streptomycin (95.2%), methotrexate-sulfamethoxazole (90.5%), and tetracycline (85.7%) was most frequent among the isolates. All of the isolates exhibited resistance to multiple drugs, and furthermore, the isolates possessed a collective total of 14 genes associated with antibiotic resistance. This study will contribute to advancing our knowledge of A. paragallinarum antibiotic resistance and provide a scientific basis for the prophylaxis and treatment of IC, and the subsequent rational design of potential clinical therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Pasteurellaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Filogenia , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Haemophilus paragallinarum/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus paragallinarum/fisiologia , Genoma Bacteriano
2.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37882211

RESUMO

Infectious coryza (IC) is an important respiratory infectious disease in chickens. In this study, an Avibacterium paragallinarum Page serovar C strain, named ZJ-C, was isolated from a local layer flock that was routinely vaccinated with an inactivated trivalent vaccine, using reference strain Modesto as the serovar C immunogen. The pathogenicity, immunogenicity, and genetic characteristics of ZJ-C were studied. The minimum pathogenic dose of the isolate was 100 CFU, which was 1/1,000 of the dose of the serovar C reference strain Modesto. The vaccination-challenge trial in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens showed that the ZJ-C bacterin could provide 100% protection against challenge from both ZJ-C and Modesto strains, whereas Modesto provided 100% protection against challenge from itself, but only 70% protection against ZJ-C. Sequence analysis of the HMTp210 hypervariable region (region 2) showed that the homology of region 2 between ZJ-C and Modesto was 96.14%, whereas the homology between ZJ-C and the Kume serovar C-4 reference strain HP60 was 99.83%. Phylogenetic analysis of region 2 showed that ZJ-C was most closely related to cluster C-4, represented by HP60. The experimental data obtained in this study will help the selection of optimal vaccine strains and assist serotyping studies of Av. paragallinarum.


Vaccination with inactivated multivalent vaccines is a primary strategy to control Infectious coryza. Avibacterium paragallinarum serotyping is important for effective protection as inactivated whole-cell vaccines provide protection against only the serogroup or serovar from which the vaccine was derived. In this study, a novel serovar within the serogroup C Avibacterium paragallinarum isolate ZJ-C has been characterized first time in China. It was highly virulent and induced 100% cross-protection to Modesto bacterin vaccinated chickens, but not the other way around.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
3.
Avian Dis ; 67(2): 153-159, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37556294

RESUMO

Avibacterium paragallinarum is an important respiratory pathogen of domestic chickens. Avibacterium paragallinarum has been subtyped into three serogroups and nine serovars according to the Page and revised Kume schemes. The major hemagglutinin antigen of A. paragallinarum is HMTp210, which is a large protein of about 2000 amino acids (aa), including a 70-aa signal peptide at its N-terminal end. However, the regions important for the hemagglutination (HA) activity and serotypes of HMTp210 remain unclear. In this study we constructed a series of A. paragallinarum strains expressing HMTp210 in-frame deletion mutants and determined their HA titers to identify the regions important for the HA activity and serotypes of HMTp210. Two distinct types of HA activities were found in HMTp210. The type 1 HA activity resided in the region spanning the full-length HA (aa 71-2084), whereas the type 2 resided in the region spanning aa 1003-2084. The putative ligand binding of the type 1 HA activity was located at aa 176-360, which had a structure similar to YadA of Yersinia enterocolitica. The putative ligand binding site of the type 2 HA activity was located at aa 1003-1125, which had a structure similar to UspA1 from Moraxella catarrhalis. The type 1 HA activity appeared to be Page serogroup specific, whereas type 2 appeared to be Kume serovar specific. Finally, sequence analyses of the regions spanning aa 1-400 and aa 1100-1600 of HMTp210 could be useful for the molecular serotyping (the Page and revised Kume schemes) of A. paragallinarum isolates.


Regiones importantes para la actividad de hemaglutinación y serotipos de la proteína HMTp210 de Avibacterium paragallinarum. La bacteria Avibacterium paragallinarum es un patógeno respiratorio importante de los pollos domésticos. Avibacterium paragallinarum se subtipificó en tres serogrupos y nueve serovares de acuerdo con los esquemas revisados de Page y Kume. El principal antígeno de la hemaglutinina de A. paragallinarum es la proteína HMTp210, que es una proteína grande de unos 2000 aminoácidos (aa), que incluye un péptido señal de 70 aminoácidos en su extremo N-terminal. Sin embargo, las regiones importantes para la actividad de hemaglutinación (HA) y de los serotipos de la proteína HMTp210 siguen sin estar determinados. En este estudio, se construyó una serie de cepas de A. paragallinarum que expresaban mutantes de deleción en marco de lectura de HMTp210 y se determinaron sus títulos de hemaglutinación para identificar las regiones importantes para la actividad de hemaglutinación y de los serotipos de HMTp210. Se encontraron dos tipos distintos de actividades hemaglutinación en la proteína HMTp210. La actividad de hemaglutinación de tipo 1 residía en la región que abarcaba la longitud completa (aminoácidos 71­2084), mientras que la de tipo 2 residía en la región que abarcaba entre los aminoácidos 1003­2084. El sitio supuesto de unión al ligando de la actividad de hemaglutinación tipo 1 se ubicó entre los aminoácidos 176­360, que tenía una estructura similar a la proteína YadA de Yersinia enterocolitica. El supuesto sitio de unión del ligando de la actividad de hemaglutinación tipo 2 se ubicó entre los aminoácidos 1003­1125, que tenía una estructura similar a la proteína UspA1 de Moraxella catarrhalis. La actividad de hemaglutinación tipo 1 parecía ser específica del serogrupo Page, mientras que la hemaglutinación tipo 2 parecía ser específica del serovar Kume. Finalmente, los análisis de secuencias de las regiones que abarcan los aminácidos 1­400 y aminoácidos 1100­1600 de HMTp210 podrían ser útiles para la serotipificación molecular (por el esquema revisado de Page y Kume revisado) de aislamientos de A. paragallinarum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Sorogrupo , Hemaglutinação , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Ligantes , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Aminoácidos
4.
Avian Pathol ; 52(5): 362-376, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37470411

RESUMO

Avibacterium paragallinarum (A. paragallinarum) is the aetiological agent of infectious coryza (IC) in chickens and characterized by acute respiratory distress and severe drop in egg production. Vaccination is important in the control of IC outbreaks and the efficacy of vaccination is dependent on A. paragallinarum serovars included in the vaccine. Classical serotyping of A. paragallinarum is laborious and hampered by poor availability of antigens and antisera. The haemagglutinin, important in classical serotyping, is encoded by the HMTp210 gene. HMTp210 gene analysis has been shown to have potential as alternative to classical serotyping. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the potential of sequence analyses of partial region 1 of the HMTp210 gene, the HMTp210 hypervariable region and the concatenated sequences of both fragments. For this analysis, 123 HMTp210 gene sequences (field isolates, A. paragallinarum serovar reference strains and vaccine strains) were included. Evaluation of serovar references and vaccine strains revealed a need for critical evaluation, especially within Page serovar B and C. Phylogenetic analysis of HMTp210 region 1 resulted in a separation of Page serovar A, B and C strains. Analysis of the HMTp210 HVR alone was not sufficient to discriminate all nine different Kume serovar references. The concatenated sequences of HMTp210 region 1 and HMTp210 HVR resulted in 14 clusters with a high correlation with Page serovar and with the nine currently known Kume serovars and is therefore proposed as a novel genotyping method that could be used as an alternative for classical serotyping of A. paragallinarum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Sorotipagem/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Galinhas , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0520922, 2023 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37212663

RESUMO

Avibacterium paragallinarum is the pathogen involved in infectious coryza (IC), an acute infectious upper respiratory disease in chickens. The prevalence of IC has increased in China in recent years. There is a lack of reliable and effective procedures for gene manipulation, which has limited the research on the bacterial genetics and pathogenesis of A. paragallinarum. Natural transformation has been developed as a method of gene manipulation in Pasteurellaceae by the introduction of foreign genes or DNA fragments into bacterial cells, but there has been no report on natural transformation in A. paragallinarum. In this study, we analyzed the existence of homologous genetic factors and competence proteins underlying natural transformation in A. paragallinarum and established a method for transformation in it. Through bioinformatics analysis, we identified 16 homologs of Haemophilus influenzae competence proteins in A. paragallinarum. We found that the uptake signal sequence (USS) was overrepresented in the genome of A. paragallinarum (1,537 to 1,641 copies of the core sequence ACCGCACTT). We then constructed a plasmid, pEA-KU, that carries the USS and a plasmid, pEA-K, without the USS. These plasmids can be transferred via natural transformation into naturally competent strains of A. paragallinarum. Significantly, the plasmid that carries USS showed a higher transformation efficiency. In summary, our results demonstrate that A. paragallinarum has the ability to undergo natural transformation. These findings should prove to be a valuable tool for gene manipulation in A. paragallinarum. IMPORTANCE Natural transformation is an important mechanism for bacteria to acquire exogenous DNA molecules during the process of evolution. Additionally, it can also be used as a method to introduce foreign genes into bacteria under laboratory conditions. Natural transformation does not require equipment such as an electroporation apparatus. It is easy to perform and is similar to gene transfer under natural conditions. However, there have been no reports on natural transformation in Avibacterium paragallinarum. In this study, we analyzed the presence of homologous genetic factors and competence proteins underlying natural transformation in A. paragallinarum. Our results indicate that natural competence could be induced in A. paragallinarum serovars A, B, and C. Furthermore, the method that we established to transform plasmids into naturally competent A. paragallinarum strains was stable and efficient.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0137922, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000914

RESUMO

Avibacterium paragallinarum is the etiological agent of infectious coryza, an acute respiratory disease of chickens that is globally distributed and causes serious economic losses for chicken production. A. paragallinarum is a Gram-negative bacterium that releases outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In this study, a comparative genomic analysis of A. paragallinarum isolate P4chr1 and its OMVs was carried out, and the ability to transfer antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) via the OMVs was studied. Sequencing and data analyses demonstrated that the genomic size of A. paragallinarum P4chr1 was approximately 2.77 Mb with a 25 kb tolerance island that covered six types of antibiotics and 11 ARGs. The genomic size of its OMVs was approximately 2.69 Mb, covering 97% of the genomic length and almost all the gene sequences of P4chr1. Purified and DNase-treated A. paragallinarum P4chr1 OMVs were cocultured with the antibiotic-sensitive A. paragallinarum Modesto strain on an antibiotic (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, or streptomycin)-containing plate, and the corresponding ARGs were detected in the colonies grown on the plates. However, using an antimicrobial susceptibility test, we found that ARGs delivered by OMVs were not persistent but only appeared transiently on the antibiotic-containing plates. Antibiotic resistance and ARGs were lost by the second bacterial passage. IMPORTANCE The functions and roles of OMVs on ARG and virulent gene transfer and dissemination have been reported in numerous Gram-negative bacteria. However, the role of OMVs in mediating antibiotic resistance in A. paragallinarum has not been reported. This study is the first report to compare the genomic characteristics of OMVs with its parent A. paragallinarum strain and to study A. paragallinarum ARG transfer via OMVs. This work has provided useful data for further studies focusing on nonplasmid ARG transfer mediated by A. paragallinarum OMVs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Tetraciclina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cloranfenicol , Eritromicina , Estreptomicina , Genômica , Desoxirribonucleases
7.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(2): 822-826, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143715

RESUMO

We report Avibacterium paragallinarum and Klebsiella pneumoniae coinfection in a grey crowned crane (Balearica regulorum). The crane was recovered from illegal captivity and released at a grey crowned crane (GCC) rehabilitation facility located at Akagera National Park in Rwanda. One year after being transferred, the bird presented with clinical signs suggesting a respiratory disease. Those signs included severe dyspnoea with mouth breathing, sneezing and nasal discharge. The crane was put on a 3-day treatment with antibiotics (ceftiofur 200 mg/ml at 50 mg/kg intramuscularly) and anti-inflammatory drug (meloxicam, intramuscular injection at a dose of 2 mg/kg), after which the crane seemed to have recovered. A month later, the same crane presented similar clinical signs and was treated with enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg intramuscularly. Despite the treatment, the crane died 19 h later. At necropsy, adhesive air sacculitis and hydroperitoneum were observed, and a reddish fluid in air sacs and in the abdominal cavity was found. Also, a marked hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were observed. Samples were collected for laboratory examination. Molecular tests done on the tracheal and cloacal swabs revealed A. paragallinarum and K. pneumoniae, respectively. This is the first case of A. paragallinarum and K. pneumoniae coinfection reported in a grey crowned crane. Our study contributes to knowledge on the ecological distribution of both these pathogens in wild birds. It provides an opportunity to investigate further the clinical significance of infectious coryza in Rwanda's wild and domestic birds.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Animais , Aves , Coinfecção/veterinária
8.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(3): 1157-1165, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious coryza (IC) is an invasive upper respiratory disease caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum that affects birds, particularly chickens. The objective of this study is to isolate, characterize and molecularly identify the bacterium A. paragallinarum in poultry birds, as well as to determine its antibiotic sensitivity and resistance. METHODS: A total of 10 chickens from four different Iranian farms with typical IC symptoms were used in this study. The nasal swabs were streaked onto chocolate agar plates and blood agar plates and incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 24 to 48 h. As part of the identification of bacteria, bacteriological observations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing are conducted. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were also performed using the disk diffusion method against A. paragallinarum and the prevalence in different farms was determined. RESULTS: By using biochemical assays and PCR analyses, seven strains of A. paragallinarum were isolated from samples of four chicken farms with typical IC clinical signs. Most isolates (4/7) showed the typical requirement for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and an enriched CO2 atmosphere for growth. Three of the seven strains of A. paragallinarum were found to be novel NAD-independent under anaerobic conditions. There was one biochemical biovar identified in terms of carbohydrate fermentation patterns, although changes in maltose carbohydrate fermentation patterns were detected in the No. 5 strain. All isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and spectinomycin. Three novel NAD-independent strains (Nos.1, 5 and 7) were found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) and resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics. There was greater antibiotic resistance in the three NAD-independent isolates than in normal NAD-dependent bacteria. CONCLUSION: By discovering NAD-independent forms of A. paragallinarum, these species have a greater range than previously believed. A clear, cautious approach should be taken in diagnosing and possibly controlling IC.


Assuntos
Haemophilus paragallinarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Ágar , Animais , Antibacterianos , Dióxido de Carbono , Galinhas , Irã (Geográfico) , NAD , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
9.
Poult Sci ; 101(1): 101523, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784516

RESUMO

Infectious coryza (IC) is an acute infectious upper respiratory disease in chickens. Recently, the prevalence of IC has increased in China. In this study, to clarify the pathogenic mechanism and innate immune response of Avibacterium paragallinarum (A. paragallinarum), an infection experiment with A. paragallinarum was conducted. Our results showed that the whole course of IC was approximately 7 d. The clinical signs score was highest at 3 dpi and decreased from 5 dpi. A large amount of mucus and exudates was found in the infraorbital sinuses and nasal cavity. The A. paragallinarum contents in blood remained the highest, reaching 9.16 × 105 CFU/g at 5 dpi, which indicated that A. paragallinarum could rapidly invade the host, replicate in the blood and cause bacteremia. A. paragallinarum targets the upper respiratory tract. The infiltration of inflammatory cells, macrophages, and heterophilic granulocytes was only observed in the nasal cavity and infraorbital sinus. The Tlr4 and Nod1 pathways were activated and induced proinflammatory responses in chickens after infection with A. paragallinarum. The expression of Il1ß and Il6 in the nasal cavity was significantly higher than that in the spleen, and it was consistent with the gross lesions and pathological changes. In particular, the expression of Il6 increased 229.07-fold at 1 dpi in the nasal cavity and increased 3.12-fold in the spleen. The high level of proinflammatory cytokines in the nasal cavity at an early stage of infection may be the main factor related to acute upper respiratory inflammation in chickens. These findings provide a reference for the occurrence and development of diseases mediated by A. paragallinarum.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Animais , Muco , Baço , Virulência
10.
Avian Dis ; 65(3): 329-334, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427403

RESUMO

Avibacterium paragallinarum has been subtyped into three serogroups (A, B, and C) and nine serovars (A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, B-1, C-1, C-2, C-3, and C-4) according to the Page and Kume schemes. Both schemes use the hemagglutination inhibition test for serotyping. However, the relationship between the hemagglutinin gene (HMTp210) sequences and serotypes of A. paragallinarum is still unclear. This problem is partly due to the lack of information on the complete HMTp210 sequence from the formal reference strain of Page serogroup B (strain 0222 or Spross). In this study, we determined the complete HMTp210 sequence of strain Spross. The sequence of Spross and those of other HMTp210 sequences retrieved from GenBank were used to conduct phylogenetic analyses to investigate the relationship between the serotypes and HMTp210 sequences of A. paragallinarum. Four phylogenetic clusters, designated clusters A-1, A-2, B, and C, were identified. Clustering based on complete HMTp210 sequences correlates with serotyping based on hemagglutination inhibition tests. Serovar A-2 was found to contain a chimeric HMTp210 gene that might have resulted from recombination between serovar A-1 and serovar C-1. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences (approximately nucleotides 1-1200) of HMTp210 was sufficient to discriminate between serogroups A, B, and C. These findings could be valuable for developing a molecular method for serotyping of A. paragallinarum.


Relación entre los serotipos y las secuencias génicas de hemaglutinina de Avibacterium paragallinarum. Avibacterium paragallinarum se ha subtipificado en tres serogrupos (A, B y C) y nueve serovares (A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, B-1, C-1, C-2, C- 3 y C-4) de acuerdo con los esquemas Page y Kume. Ambos esquemas utilizan la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación para la serotipificación. Sin embargo, la relación entre las secuencias del gene de la hemaglutinina (HMTp210) y los serotipos de A. paragallinarum aún no está clara. Este problema se debe en parte a la falta de información sobre la secuencia completa del gene HMTp210 de la cepa de referencia formal del serogrupo B de Page (cepa 0222 o Spross). En este estudio, se determinó la secuencia completa de HMTp210 de la cepa Spross. La secuencia de Spross y las de otras secuencias del gene HMTp210 obtenidas de GenBank se utilizaron para realizar análisis filogenéticos para investigar la relación entre los serotipos y las secuencias de HMTp210 de A. paragallinarum. Se identificaron cuatro agrupaciones filogenéticas, denominadas grupos A-1, A-2, B y C. La agrupación basada en las secuencias completas del gene HMTp210 se correlaciona con la serotipificación basada en pruebas de inhibición de la hemaglutinación. Se encontró que el serovar A-2 contenía un gene HMTp210 quimérico que podría haber resultado de la recombinación entre el serovar A-1 y el serovar C-1. Además, el análisis filogenético basado en secuencias parciales (aproximadamente nucleótidos 1-1200) del gene HMTp210 fue suficiente para discriminar entre los serogrupos A, B y C. Estos hallazgos podrían ser valiosos para desarrollar un método molecular para la serotipificación de A. paragallinarum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Hemaglutininas/genética , Filogenia , Sorogrupo
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009436, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740012

RESUMO

Opportunistic pathogens frequently cause volatile infections in hosts with compromised immune systems or a disrupted normal microbiota. The commensalism of diverse microorganisms contributes to colonization resistance, which prevents the expansion of opportunistic pathogens. Following microbiota disruption, pathogens promptly adapt to altered niches and obtain growth advantages. Nevertheless, whether and how resident bacteria modulate the growth dynamics of invasive pathogens and the eventual outcome of such infections are still unclear. Here, we utilized birds as a model animal and observed a resident bacterium exacerbating the invasion of Avibacterium paragallinarum (previously Haemophilus paragallinarum) in the respiratory tract. We first found that negligibly abundant Staphylococcus chromogenes, rather than Staphylococcus aureus, played a dominant role in Av. paragallinarum-associated infectious coryza in poultry based on epidemic investigations and in vitro analyses. Furthermore, we determined that S. chromogenes not only directly provides the necessary nutrition factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) but also accelerates its biosynthesis and release from host cells to promote the survival and growth of Av. paragallinarum. Last, we successfully intervened in Av. paragallinarum-associated infections in animal models using antibiotics that specifically target S. chromogenes. Our findings show that opportunistic pathogens can hijack commensal bacteria to initiate infection and expansion and suggest a new paradigm to ameliorate opportunistic infections by modulating the dynamics of resident bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus paragallinarum/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus paragallinarum/patogenicidade , Microbiota , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6525-6532, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248567

RESUMO

The diagnosis of a concurrent infection of Avibacterium paragallinarum and fowl adenovirus (FAdV) in an infectious coryza-like outbreak in the outskirt of Beijing is reported. The primary signs of the infection were acute respiratory signs, a drop in egg production, and the presence of hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome-like gross lesions. Laboratory examination confirmed the presence of A. paragallinarum by bacterial isolation and a species-specific PCR test. In addition, conventional serotyping identified the isolates as Page serovar A. Fowl adenovirus was isolated from chicken liver specimen and identified by hexon gene amplification. In addition, histopathologic analysis and transmission electron microscopy examination further confirmed the presence of the virus. Both hexon gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis defined the viral isolate as FAdV-4. The pathogenic role of A. paragallinarum and FAdV was evaluated by experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens. The challenge trial showed that combined A. paragallinarum and FAdV infection resulted in more severe clinical signs than that by FAdV infection alone. The concurrent infection caused 50% mortality compared with 40% mortality by FAdV infection alone and zero mortality by A. paragallinarum infection alone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. paragallinarum coinfection with FAdV. The case implies that concurrent infections with these 2 agents do occur and more attention should be given to the potential of multiple agents during disease diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Coinfecção , Infecções por Haemophilus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Galinhas , China , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Coinfecção/patologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/complicações , Infecções por Haemophilus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Haemophilus/mortalidade , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
13.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 123, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977847

RESUMO

Infectious coryza (IC), an upper respiratory tract disease affecting chickens, is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The clinical manifestations of IC include nasal discharge, facial swelling, and lacrimation. This acute disease results in high morbidity and low mortality, while the course of the disease is prolonged and mortality rates are increased in cases with secondary infections. Studies regarding the immune response in infected chickens are scarce, and the local immune response is the focal point of investigation. However, a large body of work has demonstrated that severe infections can impact the systemic immune response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic effects of Avibacterium paragallinarum (serovar B-1) infection on immune cells in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The current study revealed the presence of a transient circulating monocyte population endowed with high phagocytic ability and clear downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) surface expression. In human and mouse studies, this monocyte population (identified as tolerant monocytes) has been correlated with a dysfunctional immune response, increasing the risk of secondary infections and mortality. Consistent with this dysfunctional immune response, we demonstrate that B cells from infected chickens produced fewer antibodies than those from control chickens. Moreover, T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of infected chickens had a lower ability to proliferate in response to concanavalin A than those isolated from control chickens. These findings could be related to the severe clinical signs observed in complicated IC caused by the presence of secondary infections.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/fisiologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Haemophilus/imunologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
14.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 157-165, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550616

RESUMO

The reemergence of infectious coryza (IC) caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (AP) as an acute and occasionally chronic respiratory disease in domestic poultry has caused severe losses in several U.S. states. The disease is also associated with decreased egg production in layers and increased condemnations from air sac infections in broilers. A series of applied experiments were performed to elucidate the persistence of AP in infected broiler flocks, to genotype AP strains isolated from field cases, and to evaluate commercial and autogenous vaccine protection in commercial and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Experimental evaluation of environmental persistence suggests that AP did not persist more than 12 hr in a hypothetically contaminated environment. Additionally, other detected potential pathogens such as Gallibacterium anatis and infectious bronchitis virus caused mild respiratory signs in the exposed birds. The HMTp210 and HagA genes of four IC field strains were sequenced and compared with published sequences of HMTp210 and HagA. The HMTp210 phylogeny showed a marginally imperfect clustering of the sequences in genogroups A, B, and C. Although not definitive, this phylogeny provided evidence that the four field strains aligned with previously characterized serovar C strains. Moreover, the base pair homology of the four strains was 100% identical to serovar C reference strains (H-18 and Modesto). HagA phylogeny was unclear, but interestingly, the IC field strains were 100% homologous to C-1 strains reported from Mexico and Ecuador. Finally, vaccine protection studies in commercial hens indicate that clinical signs are induced by a combination of IC and other concomitant pathogens infecting commercial birds. Additionally, vaccine protection experiments performed in SPF hens indicated that protection provided by the two commercial vaccines tested provided a reduction in clinical signs and bacterial shedding after two applications.


Coriza infecciosa: Persistencia, genotipificación y pruebas para vacunas. El resurgimiento de la coriza infecciosa (CI) causada por Avibacterium paragallinarum (AP) como una enfermedad respiratoria aguda y ocasionalmente crónica en aves domésticas ha causado graves pérdidas en varios estados de los Estados Unidos. La enfermedad también se asocia con una disminución en la producción de huevo en gallinas de postura y al incremento de decomisos por infecciones de los sacos aéreos en pollos de engorde. Se realizó una serie de experimentos aplicados para dilucidar la persistencia de A. paragillanarum en parvadas de pollos de engorde infectados, para genotipificar las cepas de A. paragallinarum aisladas de casos de campo y para evaluar la protección de vacunas comerciales y autógenas en pollos comerciales y en aves libres de patógenos específicos (SPF). La evaluación experimental de la persistencia ambiental sugiere que A. paragallinarum no persistió más de doce horas en un ambiente hipotéticamente contaminado. Además, otros patógenos potenciales detectados como Gallibacterium anatis y el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa causaron signos respiratorios leves en las aves expuestas. Los genes HMTp210 y HagA de cuatro cepas de campo de coriza infecciosa se secuenciaron y compararon con las secuencias publicadas de HMTp210 y HagA. La filogenia de HMTp210 mostró una agrupación marginalmente imperfecta de las secuencias en los genogrupos A, B y C. Aunque no es definitiva, esta filogenia proporcionó evidencia de que las cuatro cepas de campo se alinearon con cepas del serovar C previamente caracterizadas. Además, la homología de pares de bases de las cuatro cepas fue 100% idéntica a las cepas de referencia del serovar C (H-18 y Modesto). La filogenia de HagA no fue clara, pero curiosamente, las cepas de campo de coriza infecciosa fueron 100% similares con las cepas C-1 reportadas en México y Ecuador. Finalmente, los estudios de protección de vacunas en gallinas comerciales indican que los signos clínicos son inducidos por una combinación de coriza infecciosa y otros patógenos concomitantes que infectan a las aves comerciales. Además, los experimentos de protección de vacunas realizados en aves libres de patógenos específicos indicaron que la protección proporcionada por las dos vacunas comerciales analizadas proporcionó una reducción en los signos clínicos y en la eliminación bacteriana después de dos aplicaciones.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Galinhas , Genótipo , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Haemophilus paragallinarum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
15.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 197-202, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550620

RESUMO

Despite routine vaccine use, sporadic outbreaks of infectious coryza in poultry continue to occur in Taiwan. This study was designed to determine the serotypes and the complete nucleotide sequences of a hemagglutinin gene (HMTp210) of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated in Taiwan between 1994 and 2017. Hemagglutination inhibition tests showed that these isolates belong to serogroups B and C. Sequence analyses of the HMTp210 gene showed that Taiwanese serogroup B isolates are most similar (94.7%-98.2% identity) to strain FARPER-174 isolated in Peru in 2015. In contrast, Taiwanese serogroup C isolates are most similar (96.3%-99.8% identity) to strain H-18 isolated in Japan in 1976. This is the first report showing the presence of A. paragallinarum of serogroup B in Taiwan. In addition, one Taiwanese isolate showed cross-reactivity with serogroup B and C antisera. This isolate contains a chimeric HMTp210 gene that might result from recombination between serogroups B and C. These findings could be valuable for the epidemiologic study and molecular serotyping of A. paragallinarum.


Serotipos y secuencias de genes de hemaglutinina de Avibacterium paragallinarum aislados en Taiwán. A pesar del uso rutinario de vacunas, en Taiwán continúan ocurriendo brotes esporádicos de coriza infecciosa en avicultura. Este estudio fue diseñado para determinar los serotipos y las secuencias de nucleótidos completas de un gene de hemaglutinina (HMTp210) de Avibacterium paragallinarum aislado en Taiwán entre 1994 y 2017. Las pruebas de inhibición de la hemaglutinación mostraron que estos aislamientos pertenecen a los serogrupos B y C. El análisis de secuencias del gene HMTp210 mostró que los aislamientos del serogrupo B taiwaneses son más similares (94.7% ­98.2% de identidad) a la cepa FARPER-174 aislada en Perú en el año 2015. En contraste, los aislamientos del serogrupo C taiwaneses son más similares (96.3% ­99.8% de identidad) a la cepa H -18 aislada en Japón en 1976. Este es el primer reporte que muestra la presencia de A. paragallinarum del serogrupo B en Taiwán. Además, un aislado taiwanés mostró reactividad cruzada con los antisueros del serogrupo B y C. Este aislado contiene un gene HMTp210 quimérico que podría resultar de la recombinación entre los serogrupos B y C. Estos hallazgos podrían ser valiosos para el estudio epidemiológico y la serotipificación molecular de A. paragallinarum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Hemaglutininas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Hemaglutininas/metabolismo , Sorogrupo , Taiwan
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6463-6471, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801310

RESUMO

Infectious coryza (IC), an acute respiratory disease of chickens, is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. Here, the current epidemiological status of IC was investigated in China over 5 yr (2013 to 2018). A total of 28 Av. paragallinarum field isolates were identified by PCR tests and by sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin gene. The pathogenicities of 4 field isolates, the efficacy of 2 commercial inactivated oil-emulsion IC vaccines and vaccines containing different Av. paragallinarum isolates were also evaluated. The PCRs revealed a high rate (51.5%) of sample positivity for Av. paragallinarum during 2013 to 2018. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most field strains fell into the same cluster and had a farther genetic relationship with the early isolates from China. Pathogenicity testing revealed that the Chinese Av. paragallinarum isolates were able to induce the typical clinical signs of IC; hence, they were clearly pathogenic to chickens. Vaccine efficacy tests revealed that the 2 commercial inactivated oil-emulsion IC vaccines we tested had low protection rates against 2 selected Av. paragallinarum isolates after a single immunization, whereas the inactivated vaccine containing the Av. paragallinarum BJ26 isolate generated a relatively high protection rate against the field isolates compared with other three tested vaccines. The results indicate that IC is currently prevalent in China, and that commercial vaccines have not counteracted its presence in this country.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , China , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 714-718, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347465

RESUMO

Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of infectious coryza, a highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens. Given its fastidious nature, this bacterium is difficult to recover and identify, particularly from locations colonized by normal bacterial flora. Standard PCR methods have been utilized for detection but are labor-intensive and not feasible for high-throughput testing. We evaluated a real-time PCR (rtPCR) method targeting the HPG-2 region of A. paragallinarum, and validated a high-throughput extraction for this assay. Using single-tube extraction, the rtPCR detected 4 A. paragallinarum (ATCC 29545T and 3 clinical) isolates with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 cfu/mL and a PCR efficiency of 89-111%. Cross-reaction was not detected with 33 non-A. paragallinarum, all close relatives from the family Pasteurellaceae. Real-time PCR testing on extracts of 66 clinical samples (choana, sinus, or trachea) yielded 98.2% (35 of 36 on positives, 30 of 30 on negatives) agreement with conventional PCR. Duplicate samples tested in a 96-well format extraction in parallel with the single-tube method produced equivalent LOD on all A. paragallinarum isolates, and 96.8% agreement on 93 additional clinical samples extracted with both procedures. This A. paragallinarum rtPCR can be utilized for outbreak investigations and routine monitoring of susceptible flocks.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Resfriado Comum/microbiologia , Resfriado Comum/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Seios Paranasais/microbiologia , Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Traqueia/microbiologia
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(3): 364-367, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973083

RESUMO

Infectious coryza is a severe respiratory disease of chickens associated with large economic losses in affected commercial flocks. The fastidious causative pathogen, Avibacterium paragallinarum, is difficult to recover and identify, resulting in delayed diagnosis and enhanced spread of the agent. Small poultry flocks are increasingly common in rural and suburban environments. We assessed the frequency of A. paragallinarum using real-time PCR and clinical conditions present in samples from such flocks submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (Davis, CA) in 2018. From the 294 samples collected for our study, 86 (30%) were PCR-positive for A. paragallinarum. Juvenile birds (≤1 y) were significantly more likely to be PCR-positive ( p = 0.017), and birds diagnosed with respiratory disease had lower Ct values ( p = 0.001) than those without. Concurrent infections were also identified, including with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (18.6%), M. synoviae (18.6%), infectious bronchitis virus (12.8%), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (7.0%). Only 46.5% of PCR-positive chickens had antemortem respiratory signs, making endemic infections in these flocks highly likely. Our study demonstrates that A. paragallinarum is present in small-flock operations including those without respiratory disease and may present a risk for airborne pathogen transmission to commercial poultry operations.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
19.
Avian Dis ; 63(3): 486-494, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967433

RESUMO

In 2017, the Turlock branch of the California Animal Health & Food Safety laboratory system received a significant increase in infectious coryza (IC) necropsy cases, with a total of 54 submissions originating from commercial broilers (n = 40), commercial layers (n = 11), and backyard chickens (n = 3). Layer flocks positive for IC were distributed within the adjacent counties of Merced and Stanislaus, while broiler flocks were concentrated within Merced County. The backyard flocks were located in Alameda and Sacramento counties. The clinical and pathologic presentation was consistent with IC, although septicemic lesions were also noticed. Avibacterium paragallinarum was isolated and identified by PCR from the respiratory tract as well as from extrarespiratory sites. Polymicrobial infections involving other viral (infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus) and bacterial (Mycoplasma spp., Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Gallibacterium anatis biovar haemolytica) agents were commonly reported. Thirteen selected Av. paragallinarum isolates were successfully characterized as serovar C (Page scheme) and serovar C2 (Kume scheme). They shared a unique enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR, differing from the four reference strains, and showed consistent high minimum inhibitory concentration values for tetracycline, suggesting a common origin from a single clone. Based on these results, high biosecurity standards and proper immunization of susceptible, multi-age flocks should always be implemented and adjusted as needed. The importance of backyard flocks should not be underestimated due to their unique epidemiologic role.


Caracterización de un brote de coriza infecciosa (Avibacterium paragallinarum) en pollos comerciales en la parte central de California. En el año 2017, la sede en Turlock del Sistema de Laboratorios de Salud Animal y Seguridad Alimentaria de California recibió un aumento significativo en el número de casos de necropsia por coriza infecciosa, con un total de 54 casos, incluyendo casos provenientes de pollos de engorde comerciales (n = 40), gallinas de postura comerciales (n = 11) y aves de traspatio (n = 3). Las parvadas de gallinas de postura positivas para coriza infecciosa se distribuyeron en los condados adyacentes de Merced y Stanislaus, mientras que las parvadas de pollos de engorde se concentraron en el condado de Merced. Las parvadas de traspatio estaban ubicadas en los condados de Alameda y Sacramento. La presentación clínica y patológica fue consistente con coriza infecciosa, aunque también se observaron lesiones septicémicas. Se aisló Avibacterium paragallinarum y se identificó mediante PCR en el tracto respiratorio y también de sitios extrarespiratorios. Las infecciones polimicrobianas relacionadas con otros virus (virus de la bronquitis infecciosa, virus de la enfermedad infecciosa de la bolsa) y bacterias (Mycoplasma spp., Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Gallibacterium anatis biovar haemolytica) fueron reportadas comúnmente. Trece aislamientos seleccionados de A. paragalinarum se caracterizaron con éxito como serovar C (esquema de Page) y serovar C2 (esquema de Kume). Estos aislamientos Compartieron por PCR un consenso intergénico repetitivo enterobacterial (ERIC) único, que difiere de las cuatro cepas de referencia y mostraron valores constantes de concentración mínima inhibitoria alta para tetraciclina, lo que sugiere un origen común de un solo clon. Con base en estos resultados, siempre se deben implementar y ajustar estándares de bioseguridad altos y la inmunización adecuada de parvadas susceptibles de edades múltiples, según sea necesario. La importancia de las parvadas de traspatio no debe subestimarse debido a su función epidemiológica especial.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , California/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/virologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 411, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious coryza (IC) is an acute respiratory disease of growing chickens and layers caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The development of tools that allow rapid pathogen detection is necessary in order to avoid disease dissemination and economic losses in poultry. An Av. paragallinarum-specific Ma-4 epitope of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) was selected using bioinformatic tools in order to immunize a BalbC mouse and to produce monoclonal antibodies to be used in a lateral flow test (LFT) developed for Av. paragallinarum detection in chicken nasal mucus samples. RESULTS: The 1G7G8 monoclonal antibody was able to detect TBDT in Av. paragallinarum cultures (serogroups: A, B and C) by Western blot and indirect ELISA assay. Consequently, we developed a self-pairing prototype LFT. The limit of detection of the prototype LFT using Av. paragallinarum cultures was 1 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Thirty-five nasal mucus samples from chickens suspected of having infectious coryza were evaluated for the LFT detection capacity and compared with bacterial isolation (B.I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Comparative indicators such as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and the kappa index (K) were obtained. The values were 100.0% Se, 50% Sp, 65.4% PPV, 100% NPV, and 0.49 K and 83.9% Se, 100% Sp, 100% PPV, 44.4% NPV, and 0.54 K for the comparison of the LFT with B.I and PCR, respectively. Additionally, the LFT allowed the detection of Av. paragallinarum from coinfection cases of Av. paragallinarum with Gallibacterium anatis. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the self-pairing prototype LFT is suitable for the detection of TBDT in Av. paragallinarum cultures as well as in field samples such as nasal mucus from Av. paragallinarum-infected chickens. Therefore, this prototype LFT could be considered a rapid and promising tool to be used in farm conditions for Av. paragallinarum diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/diagnóstico , Haemophilus paragallinarum/fisiologia , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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