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1.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 86(6): 41-46, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964328

RESUMO

Approximately 25% of the world population suffer from halitosis, making it a significant medico-social issue. It is one of the clinical signs of chronic inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx and is commonly caused by the persistence some bacteria in the oral cavity and in the oropharynx. These in turn facilitate formation of volatile sulphur compounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the probiotic strain Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the Bactoblis product in exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 45 patients diagnosed with a diagnosis of exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis were studied, gastroesophageal reflux disease was found in 33 patients. After a microbiological testing, all patients were prescribed probiotic strain Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the amount of 1×109 colony-forming units (CFU) in the form of tablets for resorption as monotherapy for 14 days. The assessment of the therapy was based on physical examination data and on the subjective estimation of the clinical symptoms using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) before the start of the treatment and on the 5th and on the 7th day of the therapy. RESULTS: According to the microbiological analysis was revealed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus viridans which was seen within 103-105 CFU. A significant clinical progress was achieved for all three analyzed signs of diseases (the severity of pain when swallowing, a feeling of perspiration (foreign body) in the pharynx, halitosis), within the statistical significance between the 1st and the 7th day and the 7th and the 14th day of the surveillance. The pain severity was decreased from 5.69±0.39 points to 2.69±0.34 points on the 7th day and to 0.08±0.05 point on the 14th day from the start of the therapy, itchy throat (foreign body sensation) was relived from 6.88±0.23 points to 3.54±0.29 points on the 7th day and to 0.69±0.12 point on the 14th day of the therapy. In addition, there was a decline in the severity of halitosis from 6.16±0.31 points to 2.47±0.44 points on the 7th day and to 0.68±0.29 point on the 14th day of the therapy. CONCLUSION: Topical application of a drug containing a probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12, in case of chronic inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx of various etiologies, showed satisfactory effectiveness in the regression of the main symptoms of the exacerbation of the inflammatory process, expressed through pain in the throat when swallowing, halitosis and the foreign body sensation in the oropharynx.


Assuntos
Halitose , Faringite , Probióticos , Streptococcus salivarius , Adulto , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Halitose/terapia , Humanos , Boca
2.
Clin Lab ; 67(12)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a relatively inhomogeneous pathology with an extremely high prevalence in the population. Potential risk factors for bad breath include bacterial decomposition of organic material as well as numerous general and systemic diseases. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether certain subgroups of oral and maxillofacial surgery patients have a higher risk of halitosis. Further the impact of halitosis on the patient's quality of life was ascertained. METHODS: A total of 127 oral and maxillofacial patients aged between 19 and 86 years were enrolled in this study. On account of their underlining disease, patients were divided into five different investigation groups. The dental examination comprised tongue coating, periodontal screening index (PSI), gingival index (GI), PI (plaque index), DMF-T values as well as non-stimulated saliva flow rates. Halitosis was monitored both organoleptically according to Rosenberg and instrumentally by means of a Halimeter®, which records the volatile sulfur compounds (VSC values in ppm). Patients were further asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their medical history and oral hygiene, oral health (OHIP-14), and quality of life (BDI-II). RESULTS: Halitosis values, which were recorded by a Halimeter® correlated with the objective Rosenberg golden standard method. Furthermore, halitosis values correlated with elevated PSI, GI, and DMF-T values as well as the degree of tongue coating. Patients with oral cancer showed significantly higher VSC values compared to all other groups. No difference in VSC values could be found between all other patient groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Halimeter® could be validated as a suitable method for determining halitosis in oral and maxillofacial patients. The significantly increased halitosis values in cancer patients as opposed to all other patient groups suggests the potential of halitosis VSC values as a potential screening method. The development of non-invasive breath tests for diagnosis could be subject of future research.


Assuntos
Halitose , Cirurgia Bucal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Língua , Adulto Jovem
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211322, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254256

RESUMO

Mood disorders such as stress and depression can promote alterations of several hormones Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate if symptoms of depression and stress are associated with halitosis. The hypothesis is that halitosis is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Methods: All university students' entrants in the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) were invited to participate. Self-reported halitosis was measured using a visual analog scale. Students were also asked about the presence of halitosis perceived by close individuals. The stress level was measured using a modified version of the Perceived Stress Scale and symptoms of depression were screened by Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Poisson Regression Models were performed. Results: Of a total of 2,058 students who participated in the study, only 16% of them have reported not having any degree of halitosis and 17.6% were informed of closed individuals having halitosis. After adjustments, stress and depression symptoms remained associated with halitosis selfreported. Individuals from the higher stressed quartile presented higher scores of halitosis (RR 1.37 CI95% [1.24­1.53]). Students who presented depressive symptoms showed higher scores of self-perceived halitosis (RR 1.20 CI95% [1.10­1.32]). When the association of stress and halitosis reported by close individuals was tested, symptoms of depression lost the association in the adjusted model, while individuals from the highest quartile from stress remained associated (PR 1.36 CI95% [1.02­1.81]). Conclusion: Halitosis was associated with stress even after control for oral health and socioeconomic variables


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estresse Psicológico , Depressão , Halitose
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(8): 959-963, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753852

RESUMO

AIM: The present manuscript aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic aids, and management of halitosis in a pediatric population. BACKGROUND: Halitosis refers to bad breath from the mouth that seems unpleasant or offensive to others. This condition is prevalent worldwide, including all age-groups. However, studies on the pediatric population are limited. Self-confidence and personality development are important factors that the child builds up during their developmental stages. Halitosis may affect them both on personal and social aspects; hence, it is important to have beforehand knowledge and the modes to intercept it, paving the way to a positive growth of the child. REVIEW RESULTS: On reviewing the literature, the common risk factors for halitosis in children constituted predominantly oral factors that varied from poor oral hygiene, gingivitis, periodontal diseases, dental caries, tongue coating, mouth breathing, and so on. Their diagnosis commonly included the organoleptic test, sulfide monitoring, and gas chromatography along with the assessment of questionnaire by the parents and older children. The management was predominantly directed toward the identified source of halitosis along with instructions and counseling on the benefits of a good oral hygiene regime. CONCLUSION: The importance of cultivating a day-to-day practice of oral hygiene regime in the children will not only accustom them toward the benefits of good oral health but also help them to tackle halitosis and in turn their inhibitions associated with it. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Halitosis, though a prevalent condition experienced at various stages of life, is crucial to identify and manage, especially in the pediatric population owing to its influence on personal and on social aspects of life.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Halitose , Adolescente , Criança , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/epidemiologia , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Boca , Fatores de Risco , Língua
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501768

RESUMO

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of face masks has increased, resulting in potential health-related side-effects. Therefore, the study aimed to analyse the effect of wearing face masks on self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis. A questionnaire addressing the daily wearing time of different face masks (community masks, surgical/medical masks and KN95-/N95-/FFP2-masks) and self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis was given to adults attending or working at a university hospital. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and multiple linear regression analysis (p < 0.05). 3750 participants (age: 50.4 ± 15.5 years; 60.0% female) were included. During the pandemic, face masks were used for 4.7 ± 3.8 h per day: community masks: 0.9 ± 2.0 h, medical/surgical masks: 1.9 ± 2.8 h and KN95-/N95-/FFP2-masks: 1.9 ± 2.5 h per day. The use of face masks significantly increased self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis (both p < 0.001). Self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis increased with increasing wearing time (community masks: dry mouth: p < 0.001, halitosis: p = 0.014; medical/surgical masks: both: p < 0.001; KN95-/N95-/FFP2-masks: dry mouth: p < 0.001, halitosis: p = 0.011). The perception of dry mouth and halitosis was increased in females compared to males (both: p < 0.001). Participants used to wearing face masks prior to the pandemic perceived dry mouth to a higher extent (p = 0.043). Self-perceived halitosis was lower in older than in younger participants (p < 0.001). Due to the increased perception of dry mouth and halitosis, people might abstain from wearing face masks. Further studies need to analyse measurable changes in dry mouth or halitosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Halitose , Xerostomia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Halitose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Periodontal Res ; 56(6): 1174-1184, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oral malodour is often observed in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients, and the tongue microbiota is thought to play a major role in malodorous gas production, including volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and methanethiol (CH3 SH). This study aimed to examine the link between the presence of VSCs in mouth air (as a marker of oral malodour) and the oral bacterial ecology in the tongue and periodontal niches of healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis patients. METHODS: Participants were clinically assessed using plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP) and periodontal probing depths, and VSC concentrations in their oral cavity measured using a portable gas chromatograph. Tongue scrapings, subgingival and interdental plaque were collected from healthy individuals (n = 22), and those with gingivitis (n = 14) or chronic periodontitis (n = 15). The bacterial 16S rRNA gene region V3-V4 in these samples was sequenced, and the sequences were analysed using the minimum entropy decomposition pipeline. RESULTS: Elevated VSC concentrations and CH3 SH:H2 S were observed in periodontitis compared with health. Significant ecological differences were observed in the tongue microbiota of healthy subjects with high plaque scores compared to low plaque scores, suggesting a possible connection between the microbiota of the tongue and the periodontium and that key dysbiotic changes may be initiated in the clinically healthy individuals who have higher dental plaque accumulation. Greater subgingival bacterial diversity was positively associated with H2 S in mouth air. Periodontopathic bacteria known to be prolific VSC producers increased in abundance on the tongue associated with increased bleeding on probing (BOP) and total percentage of periodontal pockets >6 mm, supporting the suggestion that the tongue may become a reservoir for periodontopathogens. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of the periodontal microbiota in malodour and has detected dysbiotic changes in the tongue microbiota in periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Halitose , Microbiota , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Língua
7.
Am J Dent ; 34(4): 195-200, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370911

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a flavored, non-fluoridated, alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.1% chlorine dioxide in reducing oral malodor. METHODS: This was a randomized, 8-week, single site, double blind, crossover design with a 2-week washout period between crossover phases. Fifty subjects with clinically diagnosed intrinsic oral malodor were enrolled according to inclusion/exclusion criteria and randomized to one of two groups. Washout period initiated at end of Phase I and crossover design implemented prior to Phase II. Calibration for organoleptic judges performed at baseline for both phases. RESULTS: 48 subjects completed the study. No significant differences in intensity scores at baseline were found for both groups during both phases (P> 0.05). Within group comparisons for placebo revealed no significant differences with organoleptic intensity scores for all visits during both phases (P> 0.05). During Phase I, the mean changes in organoleptic scores for the test group were significantly different from the baseline at each visit: Weeks 1 to 3 (P< 0.05). After crossover, significant differences were found for the last two visits: Weeks 7 and 8 (P< 0.05). No adverse effects to oral tissues were observed or reported. This product is safe to use for up to 3 weeks and resulted in a decrease in oral malodor. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggested that twice-daily use of a 0.1% chlorine dioxide-containing flavored mouthwash, in conjunction with normal oral hygiene care, provided clinically relevant improvements in oral malodor for up to 3 weeks.


Assuntos
Halitose , Antissépticos Bucais , Cloro , Compostos Clorados , Método Duplo-Cego , Halitose/tratamento farmacológico , Halitose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Odorantes , Óxidos
8.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(11): 1458-1469, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409629

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether halitosis is associated with impaired oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a systematic review of the literature. Electronic searches were performed in PubMed via Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE up to and including June 2021. Observational studies that assessed halitosis in association with OHRQoL were included. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) was estimated by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in the review; however, the meta-analysis included only 10 studies, all cross-sectional, comprising 2692 individuals. The overall meta-analysis showed an association between halitosis and impaired OHRQoL (SMD 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.75). Subgroup analyses, however, indicated that this association remained only among adults. Neither the OHRQoL instrument nor the halitosis assessment method, or the cultural background, influenced the pooled estimates. Meta-regression analyses revealed that the OHRQoL instrument, the halitosis assessment method, and the sample composition did not explain the between-study heterogeneity. Methodological quality appeared to explain 20% of the overall heterogeneity, as studies with high risk of bias overestimated the magnitude of the association. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that halitosis is associated with impaired OHRQoL.


Assuntos
Halitose , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Bibliometria , Estudos Transversais , Halitose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
9.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 405-409, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tongue coating is one of the primary causes of halitosis and some diseases such as aspiration pneumonia. However, to date, an effective method for reducing the bacterial count of tongue coating has not been established. We conducted a randomised-controlled study to compare the efficacy of three types of disinfectants approved for oral use in Japan in reducing the bacterial count of tongue coating. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to the following four groups according to the solution used: 1. benzethonium chloride; 2. povidone iodine; 3. hydrogen peroxide; 4. tap water (control group). Tongue cleaning with the three test disinfectants and water was performed using a toothbrush, and the bacterial count on the tongue dorsum before and after tongue cleaning was measured using the Rapid Oral Bacteria Quantification System. RESULTS: The bacterial count decreased statistically significantly after tongue brushing using povidone iodine and hydrogen peroxide solutions (both p = 0.012), but not after brushing using 0.2% benzethonium chloride and tap water. CONCLUSION: Tongue brushing with povidone iodine or hydrogen peroxide was the most effective method for reducing the bacterial count of tongue coating.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Halitose , Carga Bacteriana , Halitose/tratamento farmacológico , Halitose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão , Língua
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204752

RESUMO

(1) Background: Halitosis is a frequent condition that affects a large part of the population. It is considered a "social stigma", as it can determine a number of psychological and relationship consequences that affect people's lives. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of psychological factors in the condition of self-perceived halitosis in adolescent subjects and adulthood. (2) Type of studies reviewed: We conducted, by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, systematic research of the literature on PubMed and Scholar. The key terms used were halitosis, halitosis self-perception, psychological factors, breath odor and two terms related to socio-relational consequences ("Halitosis and Social Relationship" OR "Social Issue of Halitosis"). Initial research identified 3008 articles. As a result of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the number of publications was reduced to 38. (3) Results: According to the literature examined, halitosis is a condition that is rarely self-perceived. In general, women have a greater ability to recognize it than men. Several factors can affect the perception of the dental condition, such as socioeconomic status, emotional state and body image. (4) Conclusion and practical implication: Self-perceived halitosis could have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Among the most frequent consequences are found anxiety, reduced levels of self-esteem, misinterpretation of other people's attitudes and embarrassment and relational discomfort that often result in social isolation.


Assuntos
Halitose , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem
12.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(7): 582, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176571
13.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14207-14217, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170113

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in human breath for early stage diagnosis of halitosis is of great significance for prevention of dental diseases. However, fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive H2S gas sensor material still remains a challenge, and direct analysis of real breath samples has not been properly attempted, to the best of our knowledge. To address the issue, herein, we introduce facile cofunctionalization of WO3 nanofibers with alkaline metal (Na) and noble metal (Pt) catalysts via the simple addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Pt nanoparticles (NPs), followed by electrospinning process. The Na-doping and Pt NPs decoration in WO3 grains induces the partial evolution of the Na2W4O13 phase, causing the buildup of Pt/Na2W4O13/WO3 multi-interface heterojunctions that selectively interacts with sulfur-containing species. As a result, we achieved the highest-ranked sensing performances, that is, response (Rair/Rgas) = 780 @ 1 ppm and selectivity (RH2S/REtOH) = 277 against 1 ppm ethanol, among the chemiresistor-based H2S sensors, owing to the synergistic chemical and electronic sensitization effects of the Pt NP/Na compound cocatalysts. The as-prepared sensing layer was proven to be practically effective for direct, and quantitative halitosis analysis based on the correlation (accuracy = 86.3%) between the H2S concentration measured using the direct breath signals obtained by our test device (80 cases) and gas chromatography. This study offers possibilities for direct, highly reliable and rapid detection of H2S in real human breath without the need of any collection or filtering equipment.


Assuntos
Halitose , Eletrônica , Halitose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Óxidos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0247096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a term that defines any foul odor emanating from the oral cavity. The origin may be local or systemic. The aim of the proposed protocol is to determine whether treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and treatment with probiotics are effective at eliminating halitosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients, from 18 to 25 years old with a diagnosis of halitosis (H2S≥112 ppb, determined by gas chromatography) will be randomly allocated to four groups (n = 22) that will receive different treatments: Group 1 -treatment with teeth brushing, dental floss and tongue scraper; Group 2 -brushing, dental floss and aPDT; Group 3 -brushing, dental floss and probiotics; Group 4 -brushing, flossing, aPDT and probiotics. The results of the halimetry will be compared before, immediately after, seven days and thirty days after treatment. The microbiological analysis of the coated tongue will be performed at these same times. The normality of the data will be determined using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Data with normal distribution will be analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Non-parametric data will be analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Wilcoxon test will be used to analyze the results of each treatment at the different evaluation periods. CLINICAL TRAIL REGISTRATION: NCT03996044.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Halitose/terapia , Humanos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
15.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(1): 51-55, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002709

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate risk factors associated with halitosis in children using OralChroma™. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven children between the ages of 3 and 8 who attended a pre-general anesthesia assessment at the Dental University Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were enrolled in this study after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Demographic data, medical history, and oral hygiene practices were obtained by a standardized questionnaire completed by the parents of each child. Clinical dental examination was conducted to record the following: caries index (dmft/DMFT), simplified debris index (DI-S), modified gingival index (MGI), and Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI). Clinical halitosis was assessed using the OralChroma™ device that measures the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3). Statistics were completed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney U-test to assess the association with the VSC scores with continuous and binary variables, respectively. Then, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to detect the degree of association. RESULTS: High VSC measures were detected in 58 children (87%). The dmft/DMFT was significantly associated with H2S level (ß = 26.84, p = 0.034) and CH3SH level (ß = 19.96, p = 0.016) after controlling possible confounders. There was no significant association of DI-S, MGI, and WTCI with the VSC measures. CONCLUSION: The result suggested that dmft/DMFT score (children's caries experience) is associated significantly with high levels of H2S and CH3SH in the sample studied. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Caries experience in children is a significant risk factor for halitosis and should be considered during the management of halitosis.


Assuntos
Halitose , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Halitose/epidemiologia , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Língua
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5550267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884263

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the oral health of children in terms of the presence of dental caries, periodontal health, halitosis, and dentofacial changes in patients who had adenotonsillar hypertrophy related to mouth breathing and compared these findings with nasal breathing healthy and adenotonsillectomy-operated children. The patient group comprised 40 mouth-breathing children who were diagnosed with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, while the control group consisted of 40 nasal breathing children who had no adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Forty children who had undergone an adenotonsillectomy operation at least 1 year prior to the study were included in the treatment group. Oral examinations of all children were conducted, and the parents were asked about medical and dental anamnesis, demographic parameters, toothbrushing and nutrition habits, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and symptoms of their children. Demographic parameters, toothbrushing and nutrition habits, and the presence of bad oral habits did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). Adenotonsillectomy is associated with a remarkable improvement in symptoms; however, some symptoms persist in a small number of children. The salivary flow rate, dmft/s, DMFT/S index, plaque, and gingival index scores did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). The patient group showed higher rates of halitosis when compared with the treatment and control groups (p < 0.001). Mouth breathing due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy caused various dentofacial changes and an increase in Class II division 1 malocclusion (p < 0.001). It was shown that adenotonsillar hypertrophy does not negatively affect OHRQoL, it could be a risk factor for dental caries, periodontal diseases, and halitosis, but by ensuring adequate oral health care, it is possible to maintain oral health in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Also, it is recommended that orthodontic treatment should start as soon as possible if it is required. In this context, otorhinolaryngologists, pedodontists, and orthodontists should work as a team in the treatment of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Saúde Bucal , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Tonsila Faríngea/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Oclusão Dentária , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Halitose/complicações , Halitose/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Tonsila Palatina/fisiopatologia , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária
17.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 47(3): 359-375, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653206

RESUMO

Halitosis or oral malodor is one of the most common reasons for the patients' visit to the dental clinic, ranking behind only dental caries and periodontitis. In the present times, where social and professional communications are becoming unavoidable, halitosis has become a concern of growing importance. Oral malodor mostly develops due to the putrefaction of substrates by the indigenous bacterial populations. Although culture-based studies have provided adequate information on halitosis, the high throughput omics technologies have amplified the resolution at which oral microbial community can be examined and has led to the detection of a broader range of taxa associated with intra-oral halitosis (IOH). These microorganisms are regulated by the interactions of their ecological processes. Thus to develop effective treatment strategies, it is important to understand the microbial basis of halitosis. In the current review, we provide an update on IOH in context to the role of the oral microbiome, metabolic pathways involved, and novel diagnostic tools, including breathomics. Understanding oral microbiota associated with halitosis from a broader ecological perspective can provide novel insights into one's oral and systemic health. Such information can pave the way for the emergence of diagnostic tools that can revolutionize the early detection of halitosis and various associated medical conditions.


Assuntos
Halitose/microbiologia , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Halitose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Boca/metabolismo
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 599467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718263

RESUMO

Objective: This longitudinal study was aimed to evaluate the dynamic shift in oral microbiota during the process of halitosis progression among preschool children. Methods: The oral examinations, questionnaires and tongue coating specimens were collected at the baseline and 12-month follow-up. All children were oral healthy at the enrollment. At the 12-month follow-up, children who developed halitosis were included to the halitosis group (n = 10). While children who matched the age, gender, kindergarten and without halitosis were included to the control group (n = 10). 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to reveal the shift of the tongue coating microbiome in these children during the 12- month period with the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Results: A remarkable shift in relative abundance of specific bacteria was observed prior to halitosis development. The principal coordinates and alpha diversity analyses revealed different shifting patterns of halitosis and the healthy participants' microbiome structures and bacterial diversity over the 12-month follow-up. Both groups showed variable microbiota community structures before the onset of halitosis. Halitosis-enriched species Prevotella melaninogenica, Actinomyces sp._HMT_180 and Saccharibacteria TM7_G-1_bacterium_HMT_352 were finally selected as biomarkers in the halitosis-onset prediction model after screening, with a prediction accuracy of 91.7%. Conclusions: The microbiome composition and relative abundance of the tongue coatings in the halitosis and control groups remarkably differed, even prior to the onset of the clinical manifestations of halitosis. The halitosis prediction model constructed on the basis of tongue coating microbiome biomarkers indicated the microbial shifts before the halitosis onset. Therefore, this can be considered for the timely detection and intervention of halitosis in children.


Assuntos
Halitose , Microbiota , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Língua
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247947, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661974

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the association of periodontitis with the organoleptic score (OLS)-defined oral malodor after validating OLS with odoriferous sulfur compounds in mouth air among Korean adults. A total of 330 adults aged 47-86 years were recruited from the Yangpyeong health cohort, South Korea, in 2015. Oral malodor was assessed using a 6-point OLS by a trained dentist and validated with the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (HS) and methyl mercaptan (MM) using a gas chromatographer. Periodontitis was measured by assessing the radiographic alveolar bone loss on digital orthopantomography. Statistical analyses including descriptive statistics, partial correlation, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression with putative confounders were applied. OLS was significantly correlated with the concentrations of HS and MM (partial r = 0.401 and 0.392, respectively; both p<0.001) after controlling for confounders. Individuals with periodontitis had 1.8 times the risk of OLS-defined oral malodor in multivariable models (adjusted odds ratio = 1.77 in the model with the number of teeth and 1.82 in the model with denture wearing; p = 0.047 and 0.035, respectively). Periodontitis was associated with OLS-defined oral malodor among Korean adults independent of known confounders. Periodontal conditions should be considered for clinical practice and research of oral malodor.


Assuntos
Halitose/etiologia , Periodontite/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/diagnóstico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sensação , Compostos de Enxofre/análise
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780530

RESUMO

Microbiota plays a prominent role in periodontal disease, but the canine oral microbiota and how dental chews may affect these populations have been poorly studied. We aimed to determine the differences in oral microbiota of adult dogs consuming dental chews compared with control dogs consuming only a diet. Twelve adult female beagle dogs (mean age = 5.31 ± 1.08 yr) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design consisting of 28-d periods. Treatments (n = 12/group) included: diet only (CT); diet + Bones & Chews Dental Treats (BC; Chewy, Inc., Dania Beach, FL); diet + Dr. Lyon's Grain-Free Dental Treats (DL; Dr. Lyon's, LLC, Dania Beach, FL); and diet + Greenies Dental Treats (GR; Mars Petcare US, Franklin, TN). Each day, one chew was provided 4 h after mealtime. On day 27, breath samples were analyzed for total volatile sulfur compound concentrations using a Halimeter. On day 0 of each period, teeth were cleaned by a veterinary dentist blinded to treatments. Teeth were scored for plaque, calculus, and gingivitis by the same veterinary dentist on day 28 of each period. After scoring, salivary (SAL), subgingival (SUB), and supragingival (SUP) samples were collected for microbiota analysis using Illumina MiSeq. All data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.4) using the Mixed Models procedure, with P < 0.05 considered significant. All dogs consuming chews had lower calculus coverage and thickness, pocket depth and bleeding, plaque thickness, and halitosis compared with CT. In all sites of collection, CT dogs had a higher relative abundance of one or more potentially pathogenic bacteria (Porphyromonas, Anaerovorax, Desulfomicrobium, Tannerella, and Treponema) and lower relative abundance of one or more genera associated with oral health (Neisseria, Corynebacterium, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces, Lautropia, Bergeyella, and Moraxella) than those fed chews. DL reduced Porphyromonas in SUP and SUB samples. DL and GR reduced Treponema in SUP samples. DL increased Corynebacterium in all sites of collection. BC increased Corynebacterium in SAL samples. DL and GR increased Neisseria in SAL samples. DL increased Actinomyces in the SUB sample. GR increased Actinomyces in SAL samples. Our results suggest that the dental chews tested in this study may aid in reducing periodontal disease risk in dogs by beneficially shifting the microbiota inhabiting plaque and saliva of a dog's oral cavity. These shifts occurred over a short period of time and were correlated with improved oral health scores.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Gengivite , Halitose , Microbiota , Dente , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Gengivite/veterinária , Halitose/veterinária , Saliva
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