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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 82, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596827

RESUMO

In primates, neurons giving rise to the corticospinal tract (CST) are distributed in several motor-related areas of the frontal lobe, such as the primary motor cortex (M1), the supplementary motor area (SMA), and the dorsal and ventral divisions of the premotor cortex (PMd, PMv). Recently, we have shown in macaque monkeys that the morphology of basal dendrites of CST neurons, i.e., large layer V pyramidal neurons, varies among the digit regions of the motor-related areas. Here, we investigated the alterations in basal dendrite morphology of CST neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI). In our monkey model, both the complexity and the spine density of basal dendrites were highly decreased throughout the areas. Notably, these events were less prominent for the PMd than for the M1, SMA, and PMv. In analyzing the density changes post-SCI of the filopodia-, thin-, stubby-, and mushroom-type spines, it was found that the density of filopodia-type spines was increased for all areas, whereas the other types of spines exhibited density decreases. Such spine density reductions were so limited for the PMd as compared to the other areas. The observed plastic changes of CST neurons may contribute to the recovery from impaired motor functions caused by SCI.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Macaca , Haplorrinos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Primatas , Células Piramidais , Tratos Piramidais/fisiologia
2.
Science ; 379(6627): 16-17, 2023 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603095
3.
Dev Cell ; 58(1): 63-79.e4, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626872

RESUMO

Anterior-posterior axis formation regulated by the distal visceral endoderm (DVE) and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) is essential for peri-implantation embryogenesis. However, the principles of the origin and specialization of DVE and AVE remain elusive. Here, with single-cell transcriptome analysis and pseudotime prediction, we show that DVE and AVE independently originate from the specialized primary endoderm in mouse blastocysts. Along distinct developmental paths, these two lineages, respectively, undergo four representative states with stage-specific transcriptional patterns around implantation. Further comparative analysis shows that AVE, but not DVE, is detected in human and non-human primate embryos, defining differences in polarity formation across species. Moreover, stem cell-assembled human blastoids lack DVE or AVE precursors, implying that additional induction of stem cells with DVE/AVE potential could promote the current embryo-like models and their post-implantation growth. Our work provides insight into understanding of embryonic polarity formation and early mammalian development.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal , Embrião de Mamíferos , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Haplorrinos , Movimento Celular , Endoderma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Mamíferos
4.
Elife ; 122023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607323

RESUMO

Spatial frequency (SF) is an important attribute in the visual scene and is a defining feature of visual processing channels. However, there remain many unsolved questions about how extrastriate areas in primate visual cortex code this fundamental information. Here, using intrinsic signal optical imaging in visual areas of V2 and V4 of macaque monkeys, we quantify the relationship between SF maps and (1) visual topography and (2) color and orientation maps. We find that in orientation regions, low to high SF is mapped orthogonally to orientation; in color regions, which are reported to contain orthogonal axes of color and lightness, low SFs tend to be represented more frequently than high SFs. This supports a population-based SF fluctuation related to the 'color/orientation' organizations. We propose a generalized hypercolumn model across cortical areas, comprised of two orthogonal parameters with additional parameters.


Assuntos
Macaca , Córtex Visual , Animais , Haplorrinos , Vias Visuais , Percepção Visual , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2592: 21-36, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36507983

RESUMO

The anterior chamber of the eye is a highly vascularized and innervated location that is also particularly rich in oxygen and immune privileged. This uncommon transplantation site offers unique possibilities for the observation of the transplanted material as well as for local pharmacological intervention. Transplantation of islets and islet organoids to the anterior chamber of the eye of mice and monkeys facilitates a multitude of new approaches for research into islet physiology and pathophysiology and for the treatment of diabetes. We now present a short overview of the experimental possibilities and describe an updated protocol for transplantation of islets and islet organoids into mice and monkeys.


Assuntos
Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Animais , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/métodos , Haplorrinos , Roedores , Câmara Anterior
7.
Zool Res ; 44(1): 153-168, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484227

RESUMO

Strabismus and amblyopia are common ophthalmologic developmental diseases caused by abnormal visual experiences. However, the underlying pathogenesis and visual defects are still not fully understood. Most studies have used experimental interference to establish disease-associated animal models, while ignoring the natural pathophysiological mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate whether natural strabismus and amblyopia are associated with abnormal neurological defects. We screened one natural strabismic monkey ( Macaca fascicularis) and one natural amblyopic monkey from hundreds of monkeys, and retrospectively analyzed one human strabismus case. Neuroimaging, behavioral, neurophysiological, neurostructural, and genovariation features were systematically evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), behavioral tasks, flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP), electroretinogram (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), respectively. Results showed that the strabismic patient and natural strabismic and amblyopic monkeys exhibited similar abnormal asymmetries in brain structure, i.e., ipsilateral impaired right hemisphere. Visual behavior, visual function, retinal structure, and fundus of the monkeys were impaired. Aberrant asymmetry in binocular visual function and structure between the strabismic and amblyopic monkeys was closely related, with greater impairment of the left visual pathway. Several similar known mutant genes for strabismus and amblyopia were also identified. In conclusion, natural strabismus and amblyopia are accompanied by abnormal asymmetries of the visual system, especially visual neurophysiological and neurostructural defects. Our results suggest that future therapeutic and mechanistic studies should consider defects and asymmetries throughout the entire visual system.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Vias Visuais , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Haplorrinos
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 641: 50-56, 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521285

RESUMO

Kyasanur forest disease is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by a single-stranded RNA-based flavivirus, the incidence of which was first recorded in 1957 in the Southern part of India. Kyasanur forest disease virus is transmitted to monkeys and humans through the infected tick bite of Haemophysalis spinigera. Kyasanur forest disease is a febrile illness, which in severe cases, results in neurological complications leading to mortality. The current treatment regimens are symptomatic and supportive, and no targeted therapies are available for this disease. In this study, we evaluated the ability of FDA-approved drugs sofosbuvir (and its active metabolite) and Dasabuvir to inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of NS5 protein from the Kyasanur forest disease virus. NS5 protein containing the N-terminal methyl transferase domain and C-terminal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain was expressed in Escherichia coli, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was demonstrated with the purified protein. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assay conditions were optimized, followed by the determination of apparent Km,ATP to validate the enzyme preparation. Half maximal-inhibitory concentrations against RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity were determined for Sofosbuvir and its active metabolite. Dasabuvir did not show detectable inhibition with the tested conditions. This is the first demonstration of the inhibition of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of NS5 protein from the Kyasanur forest disease virus with small molecule inhibitors. These initial findings can potentially facilitate the discovery and development of targeted therapies for treating Kyasanur forest disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/genética , Haplorrinos , Índia/epidemiologia , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/epidemiologia , Fosfatos , Sofosbuvir/farmacologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
9.
Schizophr Res ; 251: 22-29, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia have been linked to a lower density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Complement component C4, which has previously been found at higher levels in schizophrenia, marks synapses for phagocytosis by microglia. Thus, elevated consumption of dendritic spines by microglia mediated through excessive complement activity may play a role in lower spine density in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if microglia themselves have the molecular capacity for enhanced phagocytosis of spines in schizophrenia. METHODS: Transcript levels for complement components and microglia-specific phagocytic markers were quantified using quantitative PCR in the PFC of 62 matched pairs of schizophrenia and unaffected comparison subjects and in antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. RESULTS: Relative to comparison subjects, schizophrenia subjects had higher mRNA levels for C4 (+154 %); C1q (+69 %), which initiates the classical complement pathway that includes C4; and for microglia-specific markers that enable phagocytic activity including TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Axl (+27 %) and MerTK (+27 %) and lysosome-associated glycoprotein CD68 (+27 %) (all p ≤ .042). Transcript levels for microglial phagocytic markers were correlated with C4 mRNA levels in schizophrenia subjects (all r ≥ 0.31, p ≤ .015). We also found further evidence consistent with microglial activation in schizophrenia, including higher mRNA levels for THIK1 (TWIK-related halothane-inhibited potassium channel: +30 %) and lower mRNA levels for the purinergic receptor P2Y12 (-27 %) (all p ≤ .016). Transcript levels were unchanged in antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the presence of increased complement activity and an elevated molecular capacity of microglia for phagocytosis in the same schizophrenia subjects.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Animais , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Microglia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Fagocitose , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Haplorrinos
10.
J Neurosci Methods ; 385: 109764, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The brain-machine interface is a technology that has been used for improving the quality of life of individuals with physical disabilities and also healthy individuals. It is important to improve the methods used for decoding the brain-machine interface data as the accuracy and speed of movements achieved using the existing technology are not comparable to the normal body. COMPARISON WITH THE EXISTING METHOD: Decoding of brain-machine interface data using the proposed method resulted in improved decoding accuracy compared to the existing method. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated the usefulness of cell assembly state estimation method for decoding the brain-machine interface data. NEW METHOD: We incorporated a novel method of estimating cell assembly states using spike trains with the existing decoding method that used only firing rate data. Synaptic connectivity pattern was used as feature values in addition to firing rate. Publicly available monkey brain-machine interface datasets were used in the study. RESULTS: As long as the decoding was successful, the root mean square error of the proposed method was significantly smaller than the existing method. Artificial neural netowork-based decoding method resulted in more stable decoding, and also improved the decoding accuracy due to incorporation of synaptic connectivity pattern.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Animais , Haplorrinos , Qualidade de Vida , Movimento , Potenciais de Ação
11.
Vet Med Sci ; 9(1): 507-512, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum (TP) is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that in humans cause syphilis (subsp. pallidum), bejel (subsp. endemicum) and yaws (subsp. pertenue; TPE). The latter is target for eradication which requires detailed information on yaws epidemiology. It has been shown that African nonhuman primates (NHPs) are infected with TPE strains that are closely related to the human infecting yaws bacterium. While human yaws infection is known to be endemic in Ghana, there is a paucity of information regarding TPE infection of Ghana's native NHPs. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to perform a small-scale cross-sectional serological screening for antibodies against TPE in Ghanaian monkeys. Due to the reports of TPE-infected NHPs from neighbouring Côte d'Ivore, we hypothesised that monkeys in Ghana are infected with TPE and, therefore, are seropositive for antibodies against-Treponema. METHODS: We sampled blood from 37 NHPs representing four species: Erythrocebus patas (16/37) 43.2%, Papio anubis (15/37) 40.5%, Chlorocebus sabaeus (3/37) 8.1% and Cercopithecus mona (3/37) 8.1%. Samples were tested using the NHP validated treponemal test ESPLINE TP. RESULTS: All 37 animals were seronegative for yaws infection. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot exclude yaws infection in NHPs in Ghana at this point. Our study, in combination with the absence of reports of clinically infected NHPs in a yaws endemic country is, however, supportive for the current thinking that interspecies infection with TPE is extremely rare. This is an important finding for the current ongoing yaws eradication campaign.


Assuntos
Bouba , Humanos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Bouba/epidemiologia , Bouba/veterinária , Bouba/microbiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Haplorrinos , Estudos Transversais , Treponema pallidum , Papio anubis , Cercopithecus
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(50): e2217198119, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36469782
13.
Elife ; 112022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454207

RESUMO

The evolution of human right-handedness has been intensively debated for decades. Manual lateralization patterns in non-human primates have the potential to elucidate evolutionary determinants of human handedness, but restricted species samples and inconsistent methodologies have so far limited comparative phylogenetic studies. By combining original data with published literature reports, we assembled data on hand preferences for standardized object manipulation in 1786 individuals from 38 species of anthropoid primates, including monkeys, apes, and humans. Based on that, we employ quantitative phylogenetic methods to test prevalent hypotheses on the roles of ecology, brain size, and tool use in primate handedness evolution. We confirm that human right-handedness represents an unparalleled extreme among anthropoids and found taxa displaying population-level handedness to be rare. Species-level direction of manual lateralization was largely uniform among non-human primates and did not strongly correlate with any of the selected biological predictors, nor with phylogeny. In contrast, we recovered highly variable patterns of hand preference strength, which show signatures of both ecology and phylogeny. In particular, terrestrial primates tend to display weaker hand preferences than arboreal species. These results challenge popular ideas on primate handedness evolution, including the postural origins hypothesis. Furthermore, they point to a potential adaptive benefit of disparate lateralization strength in primates, a measure of hand preference that has often been overlooked in the past. Finally, our data show that human lateralization patterns do not align with trends found among other anthropoids, suggesting that unique selective pressures gave rise to the unusual hand preferences of our species.


About 90% of humans are right-handed. While it is known that handedness is caused by certain brain regions that are specialized in one of the two hemispheres, it is not clear how this evolved or why right-handedness dominates. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extreme preference, including the use of tools, the larger size of the human brain, and the fact that humans live primarily on the ground. Many researchers have regarded the extreme population-wide preference for using the right hand as being uniquely human. However, handedness had not been studied in a standardized manner across a wide range of primates. To fill this gap in our knowledge and understand how handedness may have evolved in monkeys and apes, Caspar et al. used existing data and new experimental observations to create a large dataset of hand preference. This dataset illustrates how approximately 1800 primates across 38 species retrieve mashed food from a tube (or pieces of paper in the case of humans). Similar to humans, some species of monkey only had small proportions of ambidextrous individuals. However, no species had an extreme preference for using one specific hand the way humans do. Interestingly, Caspar et al. found that the presence of tool use as well as brain size were not associated with the degree of handedness in species. However, ground-living primates tended to show weaker individual preferences for a specific hand than tree-living species, with humans being a notable exception to the trend. These findings confirm that humans do exhibit exceptional right-handedness, being unique among primates. While the results cannot explain the cause of this behaviour, they do help to rule out some of the theories that aim to explain how this preference evolved. This will be of interest to researchers studying the origins of human behaviour as well as the emergence of asymmetries in the brain.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Primatas , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Lateralidade Funcional/genética , Haplorrinos
14.
Elife ; 112022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512395

RESUMO

Spinal stimulation is a promising method to restore motor function after impairment of descending pathways. While paresis, a weakness of voluntary movements driven by surviving descending pathways, can benefit from spinal stimulation, the effects of descending commands on motor outputs produced by spinal stimulation are unclear. Here, we show that descending commands amplify and shape the stimulus-induced muscle responses and torque outputs. During the wrist torque tracking task, spinal stimulation, at a current intensity in the range of balanced excitation and inhibition, over the cervical enlargement facilitated and/or suppressed activities of forelimb muscles. Magnitudes of these effects were dependent on directions of voluntarily produced torque and positively correlated with levels of voluntary muscle activity. Furthermore, the directions of evoked wrist torque corresponded to the directions of voluntarily produced torque. These results suggest that spinal stimulation is beneficial in cases of partial lesion of descending pathways by compensating for reduced descending commands through activation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections to motoneurons.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores , Medula Espinal , Animais , Torque , Haplorrinos , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1407249

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Wildlife hematological patterns are fundamental for health monitoring, and allows elucidating variations both within and between populations. Among these, hematological parameters are particularly valuable to evaluate the health status of neotropical primate species in the wild. Objective: To define hematological reference values for two species of monkeys in Costa Rica. Methods: During 2014, we collected blood samples from free-ranging mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata (17 females, 18 males) and white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus imitator (5 females, 7 males) in seven localities of the Costa Rican Pacific coast. Results: For both species, the hematological values were higher in males, and howler monkey populations differed significantly except for platelets. Conclusions: These hematological values, which differ by sex and locality, will help evaluate the health status of these neotropical primate populations.


Resumen Introducción: Los patrones hematológicos de la vida silvestre son fundamentales para el monitoreo de la salud y permiten dilucidar las variaciones tanto dentro como entre poblaciones. Entre estos, los parámetros hematológicos son particularmente valiosos para evaluar el estado de salud de las especies de primates neotropicales en la naturaleza. Objetivo: Definir valores de referencia hematológicos para dos especies de monos en Costa Rica. Métodos: Durante el 2014 recolectamos muestras de sangre de monos aulladores de manto, Alouatta palliata (17 hembras, 18 machos) y monos capuchinos cariblancos, Cebus imitador (5 hembras, 7 machos) en siete localidades de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. Resultados: Para ambas especies, los valores hematológicos fueron mayores en los machos, y las poblaciones de monos aulladores difirieron significativamente con excepción de las plaquetas. Conclusiones: Estos valores hematológicos, que difieren según el sexo y la localidad, ayudarán a evaluar el estado de salud de estas poblaciones de primates neotropicales.


Assuntos
Animais , Haplorrinos/microbiologia , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Costa Rica
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383890

RESUMO

Human Adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36) has been related to diverse effects on metabolism and may attenuate the lipid accumulation in kidneys with increased adiposity. Some of these effects would be related to viral persistence. However, until now, a model of persistent in vitro infection by HAdV-36 is unknown. In this study, we examined the cells of the Vero lineage to explore their permissiveness to long-term HAdV-36 infection. HAdV-36 was productively replicated in Vero cells and maintained long-term infection for up to 35 cell passages. A subculture was obtained from the cells that survived the primary infection at a low MOI (0.5). The production of the extracellular infectious virus with titers ranging from 104 to 106 TCID50/mL and DNA-bearing cells was detected. In long-term infected cells, the intracellular distribution of viral antigen was demonstrated by performing immunolocalization (IFI) and expression of cell-viral antigen in 50% of cells by flow cytometry, using anti-HAdV-36 hyperimmune rabbit serum. Furthermore, E1a and E4orf1 genes in long-term infected passages showed a decreasing trend. Our preliminary results reveal that renal epithelial monkey cells are permissive for the productive infection of HAdV-36. Vero cell culture long-term infection might be a promising model for addressing the fundamental aspects of the HAdV-36 biology that cannot reveal broadly-used cultures, which do not maintain long-term infection in primary or transformed cells.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Coelhos , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Haplorrinos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral , Rim , Antígenos Virais
19.
J Neurosci ; 42(45): 8508-8513, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351824

RESUMO

Understanding the unique functions of different subregions of primate prefrontal cortex has been a longstanding goal in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the anatomy and function of one of its largest subregions (the frontopolar cortex) remain enigmatic and underspecified. Our Society for Neuroscience minisymposium Primate Frontopolar Cortex: From Circuits to Complex Behaviors will comprise a range of new anatomic and functional approaches that have helped to clarify the basic circuit anatomy of the frontal pole, its functional involvement during performance of cognitively demanding behavioral paradigms in monkeys and humans, and its clinical potential as a target for noninvasive brain stimulation in patients with brain disorders. This review consolidates knowledge about the anatomy and connectivity of frontopolar cortex and provides an integrative summary of its function in primates. We aim to answer the question: what, if anything, does frontopolar cortex contribute to goal-directed cognition and action?


Assuntos
Cognição , Objetivos , Animais , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Primatas , Haplorrinos
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18546, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329096

RESUMO

The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is the predominant species causing human malaria infection, including hospitalisations for severe disease and death, in Malaysian Borneo. By contrast, there have been only a few case reports of knowlesi malaria from Indonesian Borneo. This situation seems paradoxical since both regions share the same natural macaque hosts and Anopheles mosquito vectors, and therefore have a similar epidemiologically estimated risk of infection. To determine whether there is a true cross-border disparity in P. knowlesi prevalence, we conducted a community-based malaria screening study using PCR in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan. Blood samples were taken between April and September 2019 from 1000 people aged 6 months to 85 years attending health care facilities at 27 study sites within or close to jungle areas. There were 16 Plasmodium positive samples by PCR, five human malarias (two Plasmodium vivax, two Plasmodium ovale and one Plasmodium malariae) and 11 in which no species could be definitively identified. These data suggest that, if present, simian malarias including P. knowlesi are rare in the Kapuas Hulu District of West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo compared to geographically adjacent areas of Malaysian Borneo. The reason for this discrepancy, if confirmed in other epidemiologically similar regions of Indonesian Borneo, warrants further studies targeting possible cross-border differences in human activities in forested areas, together with more detailed surveys to complement the limited data relating to monkey hosts and Anopheles mosquito vectors in Indonesian Borneo.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Plasmodium knowlesi , Animais , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/genética , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/veterinária , Malária/parasitologia , Anopheles/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Haplorrinos , Malásia/epidemiologia
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