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1.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338436

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly for which there is no cure or disease-modifying therapy. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a central role in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. Therefore, antioxidants are considered a promising neuroprotective approach. In in vivo activity studies, 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells was established as a model of PD for cellular experiments. IIAVE (Ile-Ile-Ala-Val-Glu) was derived from Isochrysis zhanjiangensis octapeptide (IIAVEAGC), which has a small molecular weight. The structure and antioxidant activity of IIAVE were tested in a previous study and proved to have good antioxidant potential. In this study, the chemical properties of IIAVE were calculated using quantum chemical methods, including frontier molecular orbital (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural population analysis (NPA), and global reactivity properties. The interaction of IIAVE with Bcl-2 and DJ-1 was investigated using the molecular docking method. The results showed that IIAVE promoted the activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and up-regulated the expression of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) protein by inhibiting the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In addition, IIAVE inhibits ROS production and prevents 6-OHDA-induced oxidative damage by restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, IIAVE inhibited cell apoptosis by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibiting the activation of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3. Thus, IIAVE may become a potential drug for the treatment and prevention of PD.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Neuroblastoma , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Idoso , Neuroproteção , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Haptófitas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Apoptose , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(6): e2204075121, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306482

RESUMO

Coastal Antarctic marine ecosystems are significant in carbon cycling because of their intense seasonal phytoplankton blooms. Southern Ocean algae are primarily limited by light and iron (Fe) and can be co-limited by cobalamin (vitamin B12). Micronutrient limitation controls productivity and shapes the composition of blooms which are typically dominated by either diatoms or the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica. However, the vitamin requirements and ecophysiology of the keystone species P. antarctica remain poorly characterized. Using cultures, physiological analysis, and comparative omics, we examined the response of P. antarctica to a matrix of Fe-B12 conditions. We show that P. antarctica is not auxotrophic for B12, as previously suggested, and identify mechanisms underlying its B12 response in cultures of predominantly solitary and colonial cells. A combination of proteomics and proteogenomics reveals a B12-independent methionine synthase fusion protein (MetE-fusion) that is expressed under vitamin limitation and interreplaced with the B12-dependent isoform under replete conditions. Database searches return homologues of the MetE-fusion protein in multiple Phaeocystis species and in a wide range of marine microbes, including other photosynthetic eukaryotes with polymorphic life cycles as well as bacterioplankton. Furthermore, we find MetE-fusion homologues expressed in metaproteomic and metatranscriptomic field samples in polar and more geographically widespread regions. As climate change impacts micronutrient availability in the coastal Southern Ocean, our finding that P. antarctica has a flexible B12 metabolism has implications for its relative fitness compared to B12-auxotrophic diatoms and for the detection of B12-stress in a more diverse set of marine microbes.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Haptófitas , Haptófitas/genética , 5-Metiltetra-Hidrofolato-Homocisteína S-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/genética , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/metabolismo
3.
Arch Toxicol ; 98(3): 999-1014, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212450

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms kill fish populations worldwide, as exemplified by the haptophyte microalga Prymnesium parvum. The suspected causative agents are prymnesins, categorized as A-, B-, and C-types based on backbone carbon atoms. Impacts of P. parvum extracts and purified prymnesins were tested on the epithelial rainbow trout fish gill cell line RTgill-W1 and on the human colon epithelial cells HCEC-1CT. Cytotoxic potencies ranked A > C > B-type with concentrations spanning from low (A- and C-type) to middle (B-type) nM ranges. Although RTgill-W1 cells were about twofold more sensitive than HCEC-1CT, the cytotoxicity of prymnesins is not limited to fish gills. Both cell lines responded rapidly to prymnesins; with EC50 values for B-types in RTgill-W1 cells of 110 ± 11 nM and 41.5 ± 0.6 nM after incubations times of 3 and 24 h. Results of fluorescence imaging and measured lytic effects suggest plasma membrane interactions. Postulating an osmotic imbalance as mechanisms of toxicity, incubations with prymnesins in media lacking either Cl-, Na+, or Ca2+ were performed. Cl- removal reduced morphometric rearrangements observed in RTgill-W1 and cytotoxicity in HCEC-1CT cells. Ca2+-free medium in RTgill-W1 cells exacerbated effects on the cell nuclei. Prymnesin composition of different P. parvum strains showed that analog composition within one type scarcely influenced the cytotoxic potential, while analog type potentially dictate potency. Overall, A-type prymnesins were the most potent ones in both cell lines followed by the C-types, and lastly B-types. Disturbance of Ca2+ and Cl- ionoregulation may be integral to prymnesin toxicity.


Assuntos
Colestenos , Haptófitas , Lipoproteínas , Animais , Humanos , Brânquias , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais , Colo
4.
Mar Environ Res ; 195: 106374, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277816

RESUMO

The occurrence of Phaeocystis globosa, a harmful algal bloom species in Chinese coastal waters, has significant impacts on marine organisms and poses a threat to the safety of coastal nuclear power plants. Although previous studies have established a close association between P. globosa blooms and the bacterial community, the relationship between the microeukaryotic community and P. globosa blooms remains poorly understood. In this study, the variations in the microeukaryotic community resulting from a P. globosa bloom were analyzed using 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that the diversity of the microeukaryotic community during the bloom phase was significantly higher than that during the dissipation phase. The microeukaryotic community compositions varied significantly between the two phases of the P. globosa bloom. During the bloom phase, the dominant microeukaryotic was Viridiplantae, which was then replaced by Dinoflagellata during the dissipation phase. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that the relationship among the microeukaryotic community during the bloom phase was more complex than that during the dissipation phase, and the keystone taxa varied as the bloom progressed. Additionally, microeukaryotic community assembly was primarily driven by stochastic processes during the bloom phase based on the ß-nearest taxon distance, whereas it was driven by both deterministic processes and stochastic processes during the dissipation phase. Overall, our findings provide novel insight into the mechanisms and interactions involved in microeukaryotic community dynamics in environments disturbed by P. globosa blooms.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Baías , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Organismos Aquáticos , Bactérias
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1727, 2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242962

RESUMO

Pesticides are ubiquitous in the catchments of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and regularly discharge into the nearshore waters. Effective management of pesticides requires suitable water quality guideline values (WQGVs), and further ecotoxicological data for many pesticides are needed to improve the reliability of environmental risk assessments. To help address this issue, toxicity thresholds were determined to two species of tropical marine microalgae Tisochrysis lutea and Tetraselmis sp. for a suite of herbicides detected in the GBR. Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides significantly reduced growth with no effect concentration (NEC) and 10% effect concentration (EC10) values spanning two orders of magnitude from 0.60 µg L-1 for diuron to 60 µg L-1 for simazine across both species. However, growth was insensitive to the non-PSII herbicides. The NEC/EC10 thresholds for most herbicide-microalgae combinations were greater than recent WQGVs intended to protect 99% of species (PC99); however, metribuzin was toxic to T. lutea at concentrations lower than the current PC99 value, which may have to be revisited. The toxicity thresholds for alternative herbicides derived here further inform the development of national and GBR-specific WQGVs, but more toxicity data is needed to develop WQGVs for the > 50 additional pesticides detected in catchments of the GBR.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Herbicidas , Microalgas , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Praguicidas/análise
6.
Virol J ; 21(1): 1, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The particle structure of Emiliania huxleyi virus (EhV), an algal infecting member of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), contains an outer lipid membrane envelope similar to that found in animal viruses such as African swine fever virus (ASFV). Despite both being enveloped NCLDVs, EhV and ASFV are known for their stability outside their host environment. METHOD: Here we report for the first time, the application of a viability qPCR (V-qPCR) method to describe the unprecedented and similar virion thermal stability of both EhV and ASFV. This result contradicts the cell culture-based assay method that suggests that virus "infectivity" is lost in a matter of seconds (for EhV) and minutes (for ASFV) at temperature greater than 50 °C. Confocal microscopy and analytical flow cytometry methods was used to validate the V-qPCR data for EhV. RESULTS: We observed that both EhV and ASFV particles has unprecedented thermal tolerances. These two NCLDVs are exceptions to the rule that having an enveloped virion anatomy is a predicted weakness, as is often observed in enveloped RNA viruses (i.e., the viruses causing Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), COVID-19, Ebola, or seasonal influenza). Using the V-qPCR method, we confirm that no PRRSV particles were detectable after 20 min of exposure to temperatures up to 100 °C. We also show that the EhV particles that remain after 50 °C 20 min exposure was in fact still infectious only after the three blind passages in bioassay experiments. CONCLUSIONS: This study raises the possibility that ASFV is not always eliminated or contained after applying time and temperature inactivation treatments in current decontamination or biosecurity protocols. This observation has practical implications for industries involved in animal health and food security. Finally, we propose that EhV could be used as a surrogate for ASFV under certain circumstances.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Haptófitas , Suínos , Animais , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Haptófitas/genética , Vírion , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 199: 116044, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237250

RESUMO

Using appropriate zooplankton to transfer the primary productivity of harmful algae to higher trophic levels through food chain is an eco-friendly mode to remove harmful algae. To assess the top-down efficiency of rotifer removing Phaeocystis and the salinity effect, we adopted a series of salinities to carry out Phaeocystis-rotifer population dynamics and rotifer life-history experiments. Results showed that the time for rotifers to remove Phaeocystis population was the shortest when the salinity was ≤20 ‰. With salinity rising to above 25 ‰, although the clearance time of Phaeocystis population by rotifer was significantly prolonged, ultimately the Phaeocystis population were almost completely eliminated at all salinities. Additionally, rotifer matured and reproduced earlier at low salinity, while high salinity significantly delayed first reproductive time and decreased the total offspring. The above findings are helpful to assess the impacts of external environmental factors on the application of zooplankton to control harmful algae.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Rotíferos , Animais , Salinidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169715, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38160825

RESUMO

Inorganic phosphate limitation for phytoplankton may be intensified with water stratification by global warming, and with the increasing nitrogen: phosphorus (N:P) ratio in coastal zones resulting from continuous anthropogenic N overloading. Under these circumstances, phytoplankton's ability to use dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) will give species a competitive advantage. In our previous study, we have shown that the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana can use glyphosate (Roundup) as a P nutrient source to support growth, but the mechanism of how remains unexplored. Here, we show that three genes encoding PhnC (IgPhnCs), which exhibit up-regulated expression in glyphosate-grown cultures, are probably responsible for glyphosate uptake, while homologs of PhnK and PhnL (IgPhnK and IgPhnL) probably provide auxiliary support for the intracellular degradation of glyphosate. Meanwhile, we found the use efficiency of glyphosate was low compared with phosphate, probably because glyphosate uptake and hydrolysis cost energy and because glyphosate induces oxidative stress in I. galbana. Meanwhile, genes encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, the target of the herbicide, were up-regulated in glyphosate cultures. Furthermore, our data showed the up-regulation of P metabolisms (transcription) in glyphosate-grown cultures, which further induced the up-regulation of nitrate/nitrite transport and biosynthesis of some amino acids. Meanwhile, glyphosate-grown cells accumulated more C and N, resulting in remarkably high C:N:P ratio, and this, along with the up-regulated P metabolisms, was under transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. This study sheds lights on the mechanism of glyphosate utilization as a source of P nutrient by I. galbana, and these findings have biogeochemical implications.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Fósforo/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Nutrientes
9.
ACS Synth Biol ; 13(1): 77-84, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147049

RESUMO

Coccolithophores are a group of unicellular marine phytoplankton that exhibit a prolific capacity for carbon conversion and are critical to ocean biogeochemistry. A fundamental understanding of coccolithophore biomineralization has been limited, in part, by the lack of genetic and molecular tools to investigate the organisms. In particular, it has proven to be difficult to deliver macromolecules across the coccosphere-membrane complex. To overcome this barrier, we employed cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) in the Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophores. We evaluated three established CPPs (TAT, R9, and KFF) and designed a CPP that incorporates a high proline content identified in the protein transduction domain of EhV060, an E. huxleyi virus lectin protein. To measure the delivery performance, we covalently linked CPPs to synthetic peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and attached a fluorescein marker. CPP-PNA-FITC complexes were efficiently delivered across the coccosphere-membrane complex to the cytoplasm of E. huxleyi cells. Characterization of E. huxleyi demonstrates that CPP-PNA are nontoxic and reveals specific effects of CPP-PNA on cell biology and calcification. Direct delivery and characterization of synthetic nucleic acids represent a step forward in synthetic biology to explore coccolithophore biomineralization.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Penetradores de Células , Haptófitas , Ácidos Nucleicos , Haptófitas/genética , Haptófitas/metabolismo , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica , Fitoplâncton/genética
10.
Harmful Algae ; 129: 102513, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951608

RESUMO

Freshwater ecosystems are highly susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs), which are often caused by monospecific dense blooms. Effective preventive management strategies are urgently needed to avoid wide-ranging and severe impacts often resulting in costly damage to resources and unsustainable management options. In this study, we utilized SDM techniques focused on Prymnesium parvum, one of the most notorious HABs species worldwide. We first compare the climatic space occupied by P. parvum in North America, Europe and Australia. Additionally, we use MaxEnt algorithm to infer, for the first time, the potentially suitable freshwater environments in the aforementioned ranges. We also discuss the risks of invasion in reservoirs - prone habitats to persistent blooms of pests and invasive phytoplanktonic species. Our results show populations with distinctive niches suggesting ecophysiological tolerances, perhaps reflecting different strains. Our model projections revealed that the potential extent for P. parvum invasions is much broader than its current geographic distribution. The spatial configuration of reservoirs, if not sustaining dense blooms due to non-optimal conditions, favors colonization of multiple basins and ecoregions not yet occupied by P. parvum. Our models can provide valuable insights to decision-makers and monitoring programs while reducing the resources required to control the spread of P. parvum in disturbed habitats. Lastly, as impact magnitude is influenced by toxicity which in turn varies between different strains, we suggest future studies to incorporate intraspecific genetic information and fine-scale environmental variables to estimate potential distribution of P. parvum.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Haptófitas/genética , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/fisiologia , América do Norte , Água Doce
11.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0284415, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37917737

RESUMO

Lower pH and elevated temperature alter phytoplankton growth and biomass in short-term incubations, but longer-term responses and adaptation potential are less well-studied. To determine the future of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a mixed genotype culture from subantarctic water was incubated for 720 days under present-day temperature and pH, and also projected future conditions by the year 2100. The future population exhibited a higher growth rate relative to present-day cells transferred to future conditions after 309 days, indicating adaptation or genotype selection; this was reflected by an increase in optimum growth temperature of ~2.5°C by the end of the experiment. Following transfer to opposing conditions in short-term cross-over incubations, cell volume responded rapidly, within eight generations, confirming trait plasticity. The changes in growth rate and cell volume were larger than reported in previous single stressor relationships and incubations, suggesting synergistic or additive effects of combined elevated temperature and lower pH and highlighting the importance of long-term multiple stressor experiments. At the end of the incubation there were no significant differences in cellular composition (particulate organic content and chlorophyll a), or primary production between present-day and future populations. Conversely, two independent methods showed a 50% decrease in both particulate inorganic carbon and calcification rate, consistent with the decrease in cell volume, in the future population. The observed plasticity and adaptive capacity of E. huxleyi indicate resilience to future conditions in subantarctic waters, although changes in cell volume and carbonate may alter grazing loss and cell ballast, so influencing carbon export to the deep ocean.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Clorofila A , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Carbonatos/química , Carbono , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia
12.
J Phycol ; 59(6): 1123-1129, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37983837

RESUMO

Coccolithophores are the most abundant calcifying organisms in modern oceans and are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems. Their ability to generate a cellular covering of calcium carbonate plates (coccoliths) plays a major role in marine biogeochemistry and the global carbon cycle. Coccolithophores also play an important role in sulfur cycling through the production of the climate-active gas dimethyl sulfide. The primary model organism for coccolithophore research is Emiliania huxleyi, now named Gephyrocapsa huxleyi. G. huxleyi has a cosmopolitan distribution, occupying coastal and oceanic environments across the globe, and is the most abundant coccolithophore in modern oceans. Research in G. huxleyi has identified many aspects of coccolithophore biology, from cell biology to ecological interactions. In this perspective, we summarize the key advances made using G. huxleyi and examine the emerging tools for research in this model organism. We discuss the key steps that need to be taken by the research community to advance G. huxleyi as a model organism and the suitability of other species as models for specific aspects of coccolithophore biology.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Carbonato de Cálcio , Biologia
13.
Int. microbiol ; 26(4): 1123-1130, Nov. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-227497

RESUMO

Microalgae are photosynthetic organisms that can produce biomolecules with industrial interest, including exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to their structural and compositional diversity, microalgae EPS present interesting properties that can be considered in cosmetic and/or therapeutic areas. Seven microalgae strains from three different lineages, namely Dinophyceae (phylum Miozoa), Haptophyta, and Chlorophyta, were investigated as EPS producers. All strains were found to be EPS producers, though the highest EPS yield was obtained for Tisochrysis lutea, followed by Heterocapsa sp. (126.8 and 75.8 mg L−1, respectively). Upon assessment of the polymers’ chemical composition, significant contents of unusual sugars, including fucose, rhamnose, and ribose, were found. Heterocapsa sp. EPS stood out due to its high content of fucose (40.9 mol%), a sugar known to confer biological properties to polysaccharides. The presence of sulfate groups (10.6–33.5 wt%) was also noticed in the EPS produced by all microalgae strains, thus contributing to the possibility that these EPS might have biological activities worth exploring.(AU)


Assuntos
Bioprospecção , Microalgas , Clorófitas , Haptófitas , Fucose , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Microbiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas
14.
Mar Environ Res ; 192: 106232, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37866975

RESUMO

The effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coccolithophore's photosynthesis, calcification rates, and growth have been extensively studied. However, how the intracellular Ca2+, mechanical properties and chemical composition of the coccoliths are affected by OA have not yet been investigated. This study tries to fill these gaps using Emiliania huxleyi as a model coccolithophore. When the seawater pCO2 increased from 400 µatm to 1200 µatm, the intracellular Ca2+ and coccolith area were reduced by 66% and 36%, respectively. Single-cell mapping by atomic force microscopy revealed that the modulus and hardness of coccolith decreased from 23.6 ± 0.2 GPa to 12.0 ± 5.5 GPa and from 0.53 ± 0.15 GPa to 0.20 ± 0.06 GPa, respectively. Additionally, the proportional organic matter and silicon in the coccolith surfaces increased with pCO2. The copepods Acartia pacifica fed on more E. huxleyi grown at higher pCO2. Our study implies that OA could change coccolithophore's competitive interactions with other phytoplankton and ultimately influence carbon export to the deep ocean.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Haptófitas , Animais , Água do Mar/química , Haptófitas/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Acidificação dos Oceanos , Dióxido de Carbono
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 389: 129818, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37793555

RESUMO

Marine microalgae have potential to be low-cost raw materials. This depends on the exploitation of different biomass fractions for high-value products, including unique compounds. Chrysochromulina rotalis, an under-explored haptophyte with promising properties, was the focus of this study. For the first time, C. rotalis was successfully cultivated in an 80 L tubular photobioreactor, illuminated by an easy-to-use light-emitting-diode-based system. C. rotalis grew without certain trace elements and showed adaptability to different phosphorus sources, allowing a significant reduction in the N:P ratio without compromising biomass yield and productivity. The design features of the photobioreactor provided a protective environment that ensured consistent biomass production from this shear-sensitive microalgae. Carotenoid analysis showed fucoxanthin and its derivatives as major components, with essential fatty acids making up a significant proportion of the total. The study emphasizes the tubular photobioreactor's role in sustainable biomass production for biorefineries, with C. rotalis as a valuable bioactive feedstock.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Microalgas , Fotobiorreatores , Carotenoides , Biomassa
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(9)2023 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37761856

RESUMO

The interactions of Emiliania huxleyi and its specific lytic virus (EhV) have a profound influence on marine biogeochemical carbon-sulfur cycles and play a prominent role in global climate change. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising candidates with extensive diagnostic potential due to their role in virus-host interactions. However, the application of miRNA signatures as diagnostic markers in marine viral infection has made limited progress. Based on our previous small-RNA sequencing data, one host miRNA biomarker that is upregulated in early infection and seven viral miRNA biomarkers that are upregulated in late infection were identified and verified using qRT-PCR and a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in pure culture, mixed culture, and natural seawater culture. The host ehx-miR20-5p was able to significantly differentiate infection groups from the control in the middle (24 h post-infection, hpi) and late infection (48 hpi) phases, while seven virus-derived miRNA biomarkers could diagnose the early and late stages of EhV infection. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these miRNAs participated in numerous essential metabolic pathways, including gene transcription and translation, cell division-related pathways, protein-degradation-related processes, and lipid metabolism. Additionally, a dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed the targeted relationship between a viral ehv-miR7-5p and the host dihydroceramide desaturase gene (hDCD). This finding suggests that the virus-derived miRNA has the ability to inhibit the host sphingolipid metabolism, which is a specific characteristic of EhV infection during the late stage. Our data revealed a cluster of potential miRNA biomarkers with significant regulatory functions that could be used to diagnose EhV infection, which has implications for assessing the infectious activity of EhV in a natural marine environment.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , MicroRNAs , Phycodnaviridae , Haptófitas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Phycodnaviridae/genética , Sequência de Bases , Água do Mar
17.
Sci Adv ; 9(39): eadh9768, 2023 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37774025

RESUMO

UCYN-A is a globally important nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microbe often found in colder regions and coastal areas where nitrogen fixation has been overlooked. We present a 3-year coastal Northwest Atlantic time series of UCYN-A by integrating oceanographic data with weekly nifH and16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR assays for UCYN-A ecotypes. High UCYN-A relative abundances dominated by A1 to A4 ecotypes reoccurred annually in the coastal Northwest Atlantic. Although UCYN-A was detected every summer/fall, the ability to observe separate ecotypes may be highly dependent on sampling time given intense interannual and weekly variability of ecotype-specific occurrences. Additionally, much of UCYN-A's rarer diversity was populated by short-lived neutral mutational variants, therefore providing insight into UCYN-A's microevolutionary patterns. For instance, rare ASVs exhibited community composition restructuring annually, while also sharing a common connection to a dominant ASV within each ecotype. Our study provides additional perspectives for interpreting UCYN-A intraspecific diversity and underscores the need for high-resolution datasets when deciphering spatiotemporal ecologies within UCYN-A.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Haptófitas , Ecótipo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Haptófitas/genética , Haptófitas/microbiologia , Cianobactérias/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14694, 2023 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37679420

RESUMO

Dynamic xanthophyll cycle (XC) related non-photochemical quenching (NPQd, also called qE) is present in most phototrophs. It allows dissipating excess light energy under adverse growing conditions. Generally, NPQd rapidly reverses for photosynthesis to resume when light intensity decreases back toward optimal intensity. Under certain environmental conditions and/or in some species, NPQ can be strongly sustained (NPQs showing hours-to-days relaxation kinetics). Tisochrysis lutea is a South Pacific haptophyte phytoplankton with a strong potential for aquaculture and biotechnology applications. It was previously reported to show a surprisingly low NPQd capacity while synthesizing large amounts of diatoxanthin (Dt), a pigment involved in the XC. In order to better understand this paradox, we investigated the characteristics of NPQ in T. lutea under various growth conditions of light and nutrient availability (different photoperiods, low and high light, nutrient starvations). We found a strong NPQs, unmeasurable with usual fluorometry protocols. Along with confirming the involvement of Dt in both NPQd and NPQs (by using the dithiothreitol inhibitor), we highlighted a strong relationship between Dt and the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry (Fv/Fm) across growing conditions and during relaxation experiments in darkness. It suggests that changes in Fv/Fm, usually attributed to the 'photoinhibitory' quenching (qI), are simultaneously largely impacted by photoprotective NPQ. The overlap of xanthophyll pigments-related photoprotective NPQ with several other mechanisms involved in the cell response (Photosystem II photoinactivation, changes in pigments composition, and detoxification by antioxidants) to energy unbalance is further discussed. Our findings question both how widespread NPQs is in the global ocean, particularly in nutrient starved environments (oligotrophic waters) and situations (post-bloom), and the use of adapted active fluorescence protocols (i.e. with extended NPQ relaxation period prior to measurement).


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Luteína , Xantofilas , Nutrientes
19.
Curr Biol ; 33(20): 4405-4414.e4, 2023 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769661

RESUMO

Next to iron (Fe), recent phytoplankton-enrichment experiments identified manganese (Mn) to (co-)limit Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and species composition. Since taxonomic diversity affects aggregation time and sinking rate, the efficiency of the biological carbon pump is directly affected by community structure. However, the impact of FeMn co-limitation on Antarctic primary production, community composition, and the subsequent export of carbon to depth requires more investigation. In situ samplings of 6 stations in the understudied southern Weddell Sea revealed that surface Fe and Mn concentrations, primary production, and carbon export rates were all low, suggesting a FeMn co-limited phytoplankton community. An Fe and Mn addition experiment examined how changes in the species composition drive the aggregation capability of a natural phytoplankton community. Primary production rates were highest when Fe and Mn were added together, due to an increased abundance of the colonial prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica. Although the community remained diatom dominated, the increase in Phaeocystis abundance led to highly carbon-enriched aggregates and a 4-fold increase in the carbon export potential compared to the control, whereas it only doubled in the Fe treatment. Based on the outcome of the FeMn-enrichment experiment, this region may suffer from FeMn co-limitation. As the Weddell Sea represents one of the most productive Antarctic marginal ice zones, our findings highlight that in response to greater Fe and Mn supply, changes in plankton community composition and primary production can have a disproportionally larger effect on the carbon export potential.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Haptófitas , Ferro , Manganês , Carbono , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Oceanos e Mares
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(17)2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686316

RESUMO

The growing occurrence of detrimental algal blooms resulting from industrial and agricultural activities emphasizes the urgency of implementing efficient removal strategies. In this study, we have successfully synthesized stable and biocompatible carbon dots (R-CDs) capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon exposure to natural light irradiation. Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel (PGS) was selected as a representative model for conducting anti-algal experiments. Remarkably, in the presence of R-CDs, the complete eradication of harmful algae within a simulated light exposure period of 27 h was achieved. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was first employed to study the physiological processes involved in the oxidative stress induced by PGS when subjected to ROS attack. The findings of this study demonstrate the potential of R-CDs as a highly promising anti-algal agent. This elucidation of the mechanism contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the efficacy and effectiveness of such agents in combating algal growth, further inspiring the development of other anti-algal agents.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Haptófitas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Agricultura
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