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1.
Environ Int ; 187: 108708, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703447

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to urban dust containing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) poses detrimental impacts on human health. However, studies estimating human health risks in urban dusts from a global perspective are scarce. We evaluated data for twelve PTEs in urban dusts across 59 countries from 463 published articles, including their concentrations, input sources, and probabilistic risks to human health. We found that 34.1 and 60.3% of those investigated urban dusts have been heavily contaminated with As and Cd, respectively. The input of PTEs was significantly correlated with economic structure due to emissions of industrial activities and traffic emissions being the major sources. Based on the Monte Carlo simulation, we found that the mean hazard index below the safe threshold (1.0) could still cause non-negligible risks to human health. Arsenic and Cr were the major PTEs threatening human health, and relatively high risk levels were observed in cities in China, Korea, Chile, Malaysia, and Australia. Importantly, our analysis suggested that PTEs threaten the health of approximately 92 million adults and 280 million children worldwide. Overall, our study provides important foundational understanding and guidance for policy decision-making to reduce the potential risks associated with PTE exposure and to promote sustainable development of urban economies.


Assuntos
Cidades , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Arsênio/análise , China , Substâncias Perigosas/análise
2.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731512

RESUMO

Bioremediation uses the degradation abilities of microorganisms and other organisms to remove harmful pollutants that pollute the natural environment, helping return it to a natural state that is free of harmful substances. Organism-derived enzymes can degrade and eliminate a variety of pollutants and transform them into non-toxic forms; as such, they are expected to be used in bioremediation. However, since enzymes are proteins, the low operational stability and catalytic efficiency of free enzyme-based degradation systems need improvement. Enzyme immobilization methods are often used to overcome these challenges. Several enzyme immobilization methods have been applied to improve operational stability and reduce remediation costs. Herein, we review recent advancements in immobilized enzymes for bioremediation and summarize the methods for preparing immobilized enzymes for use as catalysts and in pollutant degradation systems. Additionally, the advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of immobilized enzymes in bioremediation are discussed.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Reatores Biológicos , Substâncias Perigosas/metabolismo
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 506, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702588

RESUMO

Industrial cities are hotspots for many hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which are detrimental to human health. We devised an identification method to determine priority HAP monitoring areas using a comprehensive approach involving monitoring, modeling, and demographics. The methodology to identify the priority HAP monitoring area consists of two parts: (1) mapping the spatial distribution of selected categories relevant to the target pollutant and (2) integrating the distribution maps of various categories and subsequent scoring. The identification method was applied in Ulsan, the largest industrial city in South Korea, to identify priority HAP monitoring areas. Four categories related to HAPs were used in the method: (1) concentrations of HAPs, (2) amount of HAP emissions, (3) the contribution of industrial activities, and (4) population density in the city. This method can be used to select priority HAP monitoring areas for intensive monitoring campaigns, cohort studies, and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , República da Coreia , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias , Humanos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise
4.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 54(5): 315-329, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808643

RESUMO

To accurately characterize human health hazards, human, animal, and mechanistic data must be integrated and the relevance to the research question of all three lines of evidence must be considered. Mechanistic data are often critical to the full integration of animal and human data and to characterizing relevance and uncertainty. This novel evidence integration framework (EIF) provides a method for synthesizing data from comprehensive, systematic, quality-based assessments of the epidemiological and toxicological literature, including in vivo and in vitro mechanistic studies. It organizes data according to both the observed human health effects and the mechanism of action of the chemical, providing a method to support evidence synthesis. The disease-based component uses the evidence of human health outcomes studied in the best quality epidemiological literature to organize the toxicological data according to authors' stated purpose, with the pathophysiology of the disease determining the potential relevance of the toxicological data. The mechanism-based component organizes the data based on the proposed mechanisms of effect and data supporting events leading to each endpoint, with the epidemiological data potentially providing corroborating information. The EIF includes a method to cross-classify and describe the concordance of the data, and to characterize its uncertainty. At times, the two methods of organizing the data may lead to different conclusions. This facilitates identification of knowledge gaps and shows the impact of uncertainties on the strength of causal inference.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade
5.
Anal Chem ; 96(23): 9325-9331, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758929

RESUMO

Various hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are frequently released into environments during accidental events that cause many hazards to ecosystems and humans. Therefore, rapid, sensitive, and on-site detection of hazardous VOCs is crucial to understand their compositions, characteristics, and distributions in complex environments. However, manual handling of hazardous VOCs remains a challenging task, because of the inaccessible environments and health risk. In this work, we designed a quadruped robotic sampler to reach different complex environments for capturing trace hazardous VOCs using a needle trap device (NTD) by remote manipulation. The captured samples were rapidly identified by portable mass spectrometry (MS) within minutes. Rapid detection of various hazardous VOCs including toxicants, chemical warfare agents, and burning materials from different environments was successfully achieved using this robot-MS system. On-site detection of 83 typical hazardous VOCs was examined. Acceptable analytical performances including low detection limits (at subng/mL level), good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 20%, n = 6), excellent quantitative ability (R2 > 0.99), and detection speed (within minutes) were also obtained. Our results show that the robot-MS system has excellent performance including safety, controllability, applicability, and robustness under dangerous chemical conditions.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Robótica , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção
6.
Talanta ; 275: 126116, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640518

RESUMO

Fragmentation characteristics are crucial for nontargeted screening to discover and identify unknown exogenous chemical residues in animal-derived foods. In this study, first, fragmentation characteristics of 51 classes of exogenous chemical residues were summarized based on experimental mass spectra of standards in reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and mass spectra from the MassBank of North America (MoNA) library. According to the proportion of fragmentation characteristics to the total number of chemical residues in each class, four screening levels were defined to classify 51 classes of chemical residues. Then, a nontargeted screening method was developed based on the fragmentation characteristics. The evaluation results of 82 standards indicated that more than 90 % of the chemical residues with MS/MS spectra can be identified at concentrations of 100 and 500 µg/kg, and about 80 % can be identified at 10 µg/kg. Finally, the nontargeted screening method was applied to 16 meat samples and 21 egg samples as examples. As a result, eight chemical residues and transformation products (TPs) of 5 classes in the exemplary samples were found and identified, in which 3 TPs of azithromycin were identified by fragmentation characteristics-assisted structure interpretation. The results demonstrated the practicability of the nontargeted screening method for routine risk screening of food safety.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Substâncias Perigosas , Espectrometria de Massa com Cromatografia Líquida , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Ovos/análise , Carne/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Agroquímicos/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Animais
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299959, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656995

RESUMO

Hazardous chemical vehicles are specialized vehicles used for transporting flammable gases, medical waste, and liquid chemicals, among other dangerous chemical substances. During their transportation, there are risks of fire, explosion, and leakage of hazardous materials, posing serious threats to human safety and the environment. To mitigate these possible hazards and decrease their probability, this study proposes a lightweight object detection method for hazardous chemical vehicles based on the YOLOv7-tiny model.The method first introduces a lightweight feature extraction structure, E-GhostV2 network, into the trunk and neck of the model to achieve effective feature extraction while reducing the burden of the model. Additionally, the PConv is used in the model's backbone to effectively reduce redundant computations and memory access, thereby enhancing efficiency and feature extraction capabilities. Furthermore, to address the problem of performance degradation caused by overemphasizing high-quality samples, the model adopts the WIoU loss function, which balances the training effect of high-quality and low-quality samples, enhancing the model's robustness and generalization performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the improved model achieves satisfactory detection accuracy while reducing the number of model parameters, providing robust support for theoretical research and practical applications in the field of hazardous chemical vehicle object detection.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Substâncias Perigosas , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Humanos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 929: 172674, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657808

RESUMO

One way of recycling end-of-life tires is by shredding them to obtain crumb rubber, a microplastic material (<0.5 mm), used as infill in artificial turf sports fields or as playground flooring. There is emerging concern about the health and environmental consequences that this type of surfaces can cause. This research aims to develop an analytical methodology able to determine 11 compounds of environmental and health concern, including antiozonants such as N-1,3-dimethylbutyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (6PPD) or N, N´-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD), and vulcanization and crosslinking agents, such as N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide (CBS), 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) or hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) from tire rubber. Ultrasound assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UAE-LC-MS/MS) is validated demonstrating suitability. The methodology is applied to monitor the target compounds in forty real crumb rubber samples of different origin including, football pitches, outdoor and indoor playgrounds, urban pavements, commercial samples, and tires. Several alternative infill materials, such as sand, cork granulates, thermoplastic elastomers and coconut fibres, are also collected and analysed. All the target analytes are identified and quantified in the crumb rubber samples. The antiozonant 6PPD is present at the highest concentrations up to 0.2 % in new synthetic fields. The tire rubber-derived chemical 6PPD-quinone (2-((4-methylpentan-2-yl)amino)-5-(phenylamino)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione), recently linked to acute mortality in salmons, is found in all types of crumb rubber samples attaining concentrations up to 40 µg g-1 in football pitches. The crosslinking agent HMMM is detected in most of the playing surfaces, at concentrations up to 36 µg g-1. The tested infill alternatives are free of most of the target compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the largest study considering the target compounds in tire rubber particles and the first to focus on these compounds in playgrounds including the analysis of HMMM, 6PPD-quinone and DTG in crumb rubber used as an infill material.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Borracha , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 356: 141946, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604518

RESUMO

End-of-life electric and electronic devices stand as one of the fastest growing wastes in the world and, therefore, a rapidly escalating global concern. A relevant fraction of these wastes corresponds to polymeric materials containing a plethora of chemical additives. Some of those additives fall within the category of hazardous organic compounds (HOCs). Despite the significant advances in the capabilities of analytical methods, the comprehensive characterization of WEEE plastic remains as a challenge. This research strives to identify the primary additives within WEEE polymers by implementing a non-target and suspect screening approach. Gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS), using electron ionization (EI), was applied for the detection and identification of more than 300 substances in this matrix. A preliminary comparison was carried out with nominal resolution EI-MS spectra contained in the NIST17 library. BPA, flame retardants, UV-filters, PAHs, and preservatives were among the compounds detected. Fifty-one out of 300 compounds were confirmed by comparison with authentic standards. The study establishes a comprehensive database containing m/z ratios and accurate mass spectra of characteristic compounds, encompassing HOCs. Semi-quantification of the predominant additives was conducted across 48 WEEE samples collected from handling and dismantling facilities in Galicia. ABS plastic demonstrated the highest median concentrations, ranging from 0.154 to 4456 µg g-1, being brominated flame retardants and UV filters, the families presenting the highest concentrations. Internet router devices revealed the highest concentrations, containing a myriad of HOCs, such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tribromophenol (TBrP), triphenylphosphate (TPhP), tinuvin P and bisphenol A (BPA), most of which are restricted in Europe.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Plásticos , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/análise
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(4): 45002, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to hazardous chemicals found in consumer products. In 2019, the Pollution Prevention for Healthy People and Puget Sound Act was passed in Washington State. This law is meant to reduce hazardous chemicals in consumer products and protect human health and the environment. The law directs the Washington State Department of Ecology to assess chemicals and chemical classes found in products, determine whether there are safer alternatives, and make regulatory determinations. OBJECTIVES: To implement the law, the Department of Ecology developed a hazard-based framework for identifying safer alternatives to classes of chemicals. METHODS: We developed a hazard-based framework, termed the "Criteria for Safer," to set a transparent bar for determining whether new chemical alternatives are safer than existing classes of chemicals. Our "Criteria for Safer" is a framework that builds on existing hazard assessment methodologies and published approaches for assessing chemicals and chemical classes. DISCUSSION: We describe implementation of our criteria using a case study on the phthalates chemical class in two categories of consumer products: vinyl flooring and fragrances used in personal care and beauty products. Additional context and considerations that guided our decision-making process are also discussed, as well as benefits and limitations of our approach. This paper gives insight into our development and implementation of a hazard-based framework to address classes of chemicals in consumer products and will aid others working to build and employ similar approaches. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13549.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Ácidos Ftálicos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Washington , Humanos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cosméticos/análise
12.
Environ Int ; 186: 108585, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521044

RESUMO

The chemical burden on the environment and human population is increasing. Consequently, regulatory risk assessment must keep pace to manage, reduce, and prevent adverse impacts on human and environmental health associated with hazardous chemicals. Surveillance of chemicals of known, emerging, or potential future concern, entering the environment-food-human continuum is needed to document the reality of risks posed by chemicals on ecosystem and human health from a one health perspective, feed into early warning systems and support public policies for exposure mitigation provisions and safe and sustainable by design strategies. The use of less-conventional sampling strategies and integration of full-scan, high-resolution mass spectrometry and effect-directed analysis in environmental and human monitoring programmes have the potential to enhance the screening and identification of a wider range of chemicals of known, emerging or potential future concern. Here, we outline the key needs and recommendations identified within the European Partnership for Assessment of Risks from Chemicals (PARC) project for leveraging these innovative methodologies to support the development of next-generation chemical risk assessment.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos
13.
Environ Int ; 185: 108543, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452464

RESUMO

Exposure to environmentally hazardous substances is recognized as a significant risk factor for neurological associated disorders. Among these substances, polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs), widely utilized in various consumer products, have been reported to exhibit neurotoxicity. However, the potential association of PS-MPs with abnormal anxiety behaviors, along with the underlying molecular mechanisms and key proteins involved, remains insufficiently explored. Here, we delineated the potential mechanisms of PS-MPs-induced anxiety through proteomics and molecular investigations. We characterized the PS-MPs, observed their accumulation in the brain, leading to anxiety-like behavior in mice, which is correlated with microglia activation and pro-inflammatory response. Consistent with these findings, our studies on BV2 microglia cells showed that PS-MPs activated NF-κB-mediated inflammation resulting in the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1ß. Of particular significance, HRAS was identified as a key factor in the PS-MPs induced pro-inflammatory response through whole proteomics analysis, and knockdown of H-ras effectively inhibited PS-MPs induced PERK-NF-κB activation and associated pro-inflammatory response in microglia cells. Collectively, our findings highlight that PS-MPs induce anxiety of mice via the activation of the HRAS-derived PERK-NF-κB pathway in microlglia. Our results contribute valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of PS-MPs-induced anxiety, and may offer implications for addressing neurotoxicity and prevention the adverse effects of environmentally hazardous substances, including microplastics.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Camundongos , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Substâncias Perigosas , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
14.
Waste Manag ; 179: 99-109, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471253

RESUMO

Fast co-pyrolysis offers a sustainable solution for upcycling polymer waste, including scrap tyre and plastics. Previous studies primarily focused on slow heating rates, neglecting synergistic mechanisms and sulphur transformation in co-pyrolysis with tyre. This research explored fast co-pyrolysis of scrap tyre with polypropylene (PP), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polystyrene (PS) to understand synergistic effects and sulphur transformation mechanisms. A pronounced synergy was observed between scrap tyre and plastics, with the nature of the synergy being plastic-type dependent. Remarkably, blending 75 wt% PS or LDPE with tyre effectively eliminated sulphur-bearing compounds in the liquid product. This reduction in sulphur content can substantially mitigate the release of hazardous materials into the environment, emphasizing the environmental significance of co-pyrolysis. The synergy between PP or LDPE and tyre amplified the production of lighter hydrocarbons, while PS's interaction led to the creation of monocyclic aromatics. These findings offer insights into the intricate chemistry of scrap tyre and plastic interactions and highlight the potential of co-pyrolysis in waste management. By converting potential pollutants into valuable products, this method can significantly reduce the release of hazardous materials into the environment.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Polietileno , Polietileno/química , Pirólise , Polipropilenos , Poliestirenos , Enxofre , Substâncias Perigosas , Plásticos/química
15.
Environ Pollut ; 348: 123736, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458521

RESUMO

Processing sewage sludge can be problematic due to its potential environmental toxicity. It may contain high concentrations of pharmaceuticals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals, as well as pathogenic microorganisms. However, it is a good source of organic matter and rich in microbial communities and enzymatic activity. This study deals with composting and vermicomposting of pre-composted mixtures of two different kinds of sewage sludge blended with moulded pulp in an operating composting plant. Of the total number and concentration of pollutants detected in individual piles, a large percentage of them were reduced by the composting process. The composting 2 process resulted in the greatest reduction in contaminating substances--a total of 19 substances by 4.39-90.4%. Some pharmaceuticals accumulated in earthworm bodies during vermicomposting; a total of 11 substances were detected. Atorvastatin showed the highest percentage reduction in compost 2 (90.4%), vermicompost 1 (65.2%) and vermicompost 2 (97.3%). Both composting and vermicomposting appeared to be effective for removal of heavy metals. A higher content of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was found in composts than vermicomposts. There was a significant reduction in the content of pathogenic microorganisms in both processes, but the reduction in enterococci was not significant.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Animais , Esgotos , Substâncias Perigosas , Solo , Fungos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
16.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 68(4): 397-408, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted as an effort to develop a Korean construction job exposure matrix (KoConJEM) based on 60 occupations recently consolidated by the construction workers mutual aid association for use by the construction industry. METHODS: The probability, intensity, and prevalence of exposure to 26 hazardous agents for 60 consolidated occupations were evaluated as binary (Yes/No) or four categories (1 to 4) by 30 industrial hygiene experts. The score for risk was calculated by multiplying the exposure intensity by the prevalence of exposure. Fleiss' kappa for each hazardous agent and occupation was used to determine agreement among the 30 experts. The JEM was expressed on a heatmap and a web-based dashboard to facilitate comparison of factors affecting exposure according to each occupation and hazardous agent. RESULTS: Awkward posture, heat/cold, heavy lifting, and noise were hazardous agents regarded as exposure is probable by at least one or more experts in all occupations, while exposure to asphalt fumes was considered hazardous in the smallest number of occupations (n = 5). Based on the degree of agreement among experts, more than half of the harmful factors and most occupations showed fair to good results. The highest risk value was 16 for awkward posture for most occupations other than safety officer. CONCLUSIONS: The KoConJEM provides information on the probability, intensity, and prevalence of exposure to harmful factors, including most occupations employing construction workers; therefore, it may be useful in the conduct of epidemiological studies on assessment of health risk for construction workers.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Exposição Ocupacional , Ocupações , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , República da Coreia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Postura , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Julgamento , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Saúde Ocupacional , Prevalência
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 275: 116221, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547728

RESUMO

Photocatalysis is gaining prominence as a viable alternative to conventional biohazard treatment technologies. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have become crucial for fabricating novel photocatalysts due to their nanosheet architectures, large surface areas, and remarkable physicochemical properties. Furthermore, a variety of applications are possible with 2D nanomaterials, either in combination with other functional nanoparticles or by utilizing their inherent properties. Henceforth, the review commences its exploration into the synthesis of these materials, delving into their inherent properties and assessing their biocompatibility. Subsequently, an overview of mechanisms involved in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and the processes related to antimicrobial action is presented. As an integral part of our review, we conduct a systematic analysis of existing challenges and various types of 2D nanohybrid materials tailored for applications in the photocatalytic degradation of contaminants and the inactivation of pathogens through photocatalysis. This investigation will aid to contribute to the formulation of decision-making criteria and design principles for the next generation of 2D nanohybrid materials. Additionally, it is crucial to emphasize that further research is imperative for advancing our understanding of 2D nanohybrid materials.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas , Substâncias Perigosas , Análise de Sistemas
18.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; 30(2): 549-558, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504486

RESUMO

Objectives. This study conducted a comparative analysis of two catastrophic pipeline accidents in China in order to identify some common mistakes and lessons learned to prevent similar accidents. Methods. The 24Model was used in this study, which provides a universal pathway for accident analysis from the individual level to the organizational level. Results. There were similarities between the two cases in the aspects of the occurrence, development, emergency and causation at different levels: both were caused by leaks of pipelines and evolved into multiple explosions during emergency response; both leaks were caused by the corrosion of pipelines in the confined space of a damp or salt-spray environment; both were classified as 'responsibility accidents', and unsafe acts, such as the failure to identify hidden hazards of pipelines that were the direct cause of accidents, reflected the shortcomings of individual safety habitual behaviour in terms of knowledge, awareness, habits and psychology; weaknesses in the organizational management mainly concerned hazard identification, pipeline maintenance, emergency disposal, etc.; and there is not a good safety climate within the organization. Conclusions. Organizations should develop a closed-loop management system and strengthen the construction of safety culture, and the government should supervise the implementation of procedures.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , China , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Explosões , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos
19.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 21(4): 287-309, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451466

RESUMO

Environmental services (EVS) workers are essential to preventing the spread of disease in hospitals. However, their exposure to hazardous chemicals and drugs is understudied. This scoping review will synthesize literature on hazardous chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes among EVS workers to identify research gaps and trends for further investigation. The scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to ensure complete and accurate reporting. The scoping review included 25 studies on occupational exposure to chemicals among EVS workers in hospitals. Most studies focused on exposure to cleaning products, which led to dermal, respiratory, and ocular symptoms, oxidative stress, and inflammation. While personal protective equipment (PPE), training, education, and policies have the potential to enhance safety, further research is required to examine the long-term impacts of exposure and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Future studies should utilize longitudinal approaches and self-reported data collection methods, such as diaries and interviews, to comprehensively assess exposure risks and develop effective interventions and policies. Future research is needed to understand the potential health risks faced by EVS workers from exposure to chemicals in hospitals. Longitudinal studies with objective exposure assessments and larger sample sizes should be conducted. Policies and interventions must be developed and implemented to improve safe work practices and reduce negative health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Hospitais , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403415

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct quantitative evaluation on the revise requirements of Specifications of Air Sampling for Hazardous Substances Monitoring in the Workplace (GBZ 159-2004) , clarify the problems and suggestions during its implementation for improvement, and provide a basis for the revision of the standard. Methods: From April to September 2021, stratified convenient sampling method was adopted and semi-open questionnaire was used to investigate the occupational health personnel in CDC, occupational prevention and control institutes, employers, third-party technical service institutions and universitie. The entropy weight of each index and the score based on entropy weight of GBZ 159 were calculated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to describe the correlation between the two indexes and radar chart was drawn for comprehensive evaluation. Results: A total of 151 questionnaires were received from the respondents, of which 147 were valid, with an effective recovery rate of 97.35%, involving 29 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. The median G scores of the necessity and urgency of GBZ 159 revision based on entropy weight were 2.84 and 3.17, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (M=-25.50, P<0.001) . The trend of the score G of necessity and urgency based on entropy weight was basically the same for all secondary items (r(s)=0.9998, P<0.001) , and the score G of urgency based on entropy weight was higher than that of necessity. The highest score G of necessity and urgency based on entropy weight was "3.13 long time sampling", which were 7.56 and 8.23 respectively. This was followed by "3.12 short time sampling", which were 7.19 and 7.13 respectively. Conclusion: GBZ 159 has encountered some new problems and challenges in the implementation process, and some of its technical indicators have been out of line with the actual practice of occupational health at present. These are the two items that urgently needs to be revised and improved, such as "3.13 long time sampling" and "3.12 short time sampling" and other items need to be revised and improved.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde Ocupacional , Humanos , Substâncias Perigosas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , Inquéritos e Questionários
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