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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e078227, 2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diagnostic imaging is vital in emergency departments (EDs). Accessibility and reporting impacts ED workflow and patient care. With radiology workforce shortages, reporting capacity is limited, leading to image interpretation delays. Turnaround times for image reporting are an ED bottleneck. Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms can improve productivity, efficiency and accuracy in diagnostic radiology, contingent on their clinical efficacy. This includes positively impacting patient care and improving clinical workflow. The ACCEPT-AI study will evaluate Qure.ai's qER software in identifying and prioritising patients with critical findings from AI analysis of non-contrast head CT (NCCT) scans. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre trial, spanning four diverse sites, over 13 months. It will include all individuals above the age of 18 years who present to the ED, referred for an NCCT. The project will be divided into three consecutive phases (pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation of the qER solution) in a stepped-wedge design to control for adoption bias and adjust for time-based changes in the background patient characteristics. Pre-implementation involves baseline data for standard care to support the primary and secondary outcomes. The implementation phase includes staff training and qER solution threshold adjustments in detecting target abnormalities adjusted, if necessary. The post-implementation phase will introduce a notification (prioritised flag) in the radiology information system. The radiologist can choose to agree with the qER findings or ignore it according to their clinical judgement before writing and signing off the report. Non-qER processed scans will be handled as per standard care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of East Midlands (Leicester Central), in May 2023 (REC (Research Ethics Committee) 23/EM/0108). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated in scientific findings (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT06027411) TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT06027411.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Algoritmos
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e944315, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eyeball exercise and cervical stabilization programs to patients with chronic neck pain, tension-type headache (TTH), and forward head posture (FHP). MATERIAL AND METHODS The design of this study was a randomized controlled trial. A total of 40 participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: the experimental group (n=20) and the control group (n=20). Both groups received cervical manual therapy and biofeedback-guided stabilization exercises (30 min/session, 3 sessions/week, 6 weeks). In addition to the regular treatments, the participants in the experimental group also performed eyeball exercises for 20 minutes per session, 3 sessions per week, for a total of 6 weeks. Changes in neck pain (numeric rating scale, NRS), neck disability index (NDI), quality of life (Short Form-12 Health Survey Questionnaire, SF-12), headache impact test-6 (HIT-6), craniovertebral angle (CVA), cranial rotation angle (CRA), and muscle tone were measured. RESULTS Both groups showed significant improvements in NRS, NDI, SF-12, HIT-6 scores, CVA, CRA, and muscle tone (p<0.05). The experimental group had significant differences in NDI, SF-12, HIT-6 scores, and suboccipital muscle tone compared to the control (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Combining the eyeball exercise program with commonly used manual therapy and stabilization exercises for patients with chronic neck pain can help reduce nerve compression and promote muscle relaxation in the eye and neck areas. The method is thus proposed as an effective intervention to enhance function and quality of life in patients with chronic neck pain patients, TTH, and FHP.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Terapia por Exercício , Cervicalgia , Postura , Qualidade de Vida , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional , Humanos , Cervicalgia/terapia , Cervicalgia/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/terapia , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Postura/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cabeça , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20240311, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864337

RESUMO

Halteres are multifunctional mechanosensory organs unique to the true flies (Diptera). A set of reduced hindwings, the halteres beat at the same frequency as the lift-generating forewings and sense inertial forces via mechanosensory campaniform sensilla. Though haltere ablation makes stable flight impossible, the specific role of wing-synchronous input has not been established. Using small iron filings attached to the halteres of tethered flies and an alternating electromagnetic field, we experimentally decoupled the wings and halteres of flying Drosophila and observed the resulting changes in wingbeat amplitude and head orientation. We find that asynchronous haltere input results in fast amplitude changes in the wing (hitches), but does not appreciably move the head. In multi-modal experiments, we find that wing and gaze optomotor responses are disrupted differently by asynchronous input. These effects of wing-asynchronous haltere input suggest that specific sensory information is necessary for maintaining wing amplitude stability and adaptive gaze control.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Voo Animal , Asas de Animais , Animais , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Sensilas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
4.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(6): e14676, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Describe head acceleration events (HAEs) experienced by professional male rugby union players during tackle, ball-carry, and ruck events using instrumented mouthguards (iMGs). DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort. METHODS: Players competing in the 2023 Currie Cup (141 players) and Super Rugby (66 players) seasons wore iMGs. The iMG-recorded peak linear acceleration (PLA) and peak angular acceleration (PAA) were used as in vivo HAE approximations and linked to contact-event data captured using video analysis. Using the maximum PLA and PAA per contact event (HAEmax), ordinal mixed-effects regression models estimated the probabilities of HAEmax magnitude ranges occurring, while accounting for the multilevel data structure. RESULTS: As HAEmax magnitude increased the probability of occurrence decreased. The probability of a HAEmax ≥15g was 0.461 (0.435-0.488) (approximately 1 in every 2) and ≥45g was 0.031 (0.025-0.037) (1 in every 32) during ball carries. The probability of a HAEmax >15g was 0.381 (0.360-0.404) (1 in every 3) and >45g 0.019 (0.015-0.023) (1 in every 53) during tackles. The probability of higher magnitude HAEmax occurring was greatest during ball carries, followed by tackles, defensive rucks and attacking rucks, with some ruck types having similar profiles to tackles and ball carries. No clear differences between positions were observed. CONCLUSION: Higher magnitude HAEmax were relatively infrequent in professional men's rugby union players. Contact events appear different, but no differences were found between positions. The occurrence of HAEmax was associated with roles players performed within contact events, not their actual playing position. Defending rucks may warrant greater consideration in injury prevention research.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Futebol Americano , Cabeça , Protetores Bucais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Gravação em Vídeo
5.
Exp Dermatol ; 33(6): e15108, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855891

RESUMO

Head and neck atopic dermatitis (HNAD) is a subtype of atopic dermatitis (AD), a common inflammatory skin condition with a distinctive clinical appearance. Malassezia spp., a predominant skin yeast, is considered to exacerbate HNAD. In this study, we investigate the prevalence of Malassezia-specific IgE among HNAD patients. A comprehensive search was performed for observational studies analysing the association between Malassezia-specific IgE and HNAD. This study was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 checklist and quality was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Fourteen observational studies (840 patients) were included in the analysis. 58% of HNAD patients were male (95% CI: 45.2-69.7). Overall prevalence of Malassezia-specific IgE among HNAD patients was 79.3% (95% CI: 57.5-91.5). Prevalence of Malassezia-specific IgE among HNAD patients varied significantly between geographical regions (p = 0.0441), with 88% in non-Asian regions (95% CI: 61.06-97.17) and 54.73% in Asian regions (95% CI: 34.36-73.63). Malassezia-specific IgE prevalence among HNAD patients varied significantly among studies of higher and lower NOS quality score (p = 0.0386), with 95.42% in studies with NOS ≥7 (95% CI: 63.54-99.60) and 58.05% in studies with NOS <7 (95% CI: 41.44-73.01). Malassezia-specific IgE prevalence among HNAD patients did not vary significantly between more and less predominant Malassezia species (p = 0.1048). Malassezia spp. plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HNAD, and IgE anti-Malassezia antibodies appeared to be a common marker for HNAD. Understanding the pathophysiology of Malassezia in HNAD can help develop more targeted therapeutic approaches in managing AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Imunoglobulina E , Malassezia , Malassezia/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Prevalência , Eczema/imunologia , Eczema/microbiologia , Masculino , Pescoço/microbiologia , Feminino , Cabeça/microbiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12994, 2024 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844574

RESUMO

Women frequently express heightened neck discomfort even though they exhibit smaller neck flexion (NF) during smartphone use. Differences in natural posture while using smartphones may result in varying muscle activation patterns between genders. However, no study focused on this issue. This study investigated the influence of gender on neck muscle activity and NF when using smartphones, ranging from slight (20°) to nearly maximal forward head flexion, across different postures. We analyzed smartphone usage patterns in 16 men and 16 women and examined these behaviors across different scenarios: standing, supported sitting, and unsupported sitting, at 20°, 30°, 40°, and the maximum head angles. During data collection, muscle activity was measured, expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC), in the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UTZ), along with NF. Results show significant influences of gender, head angle, and posture on all measures, with notable interactions among these variables. Women displayed higher muscle activities in CES and UTZ, yet exhibited lesser NF, while using smartphones in both standing (12.3%MVC, 10.7% MVC, and 69.0°, respectively) and unsupported sitting (10.8%MVC, 12.3%MVC, and 71.8°, respectively) compared to men (standing: 9.5%MVC, 8.8%MVC, and 76.1°; unsupported sitting: 9.7%MVC, 10.8%MVC, and 76.1°). This study provides a potential rationale for gender-related disparities in injury outcomes, emphasizing that women experience higher neck and shoulder discomfort level, despite their smaller NF during smartphone use, as found in previous research. Additionally, the cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon may occur when the head angle exceeded 40°. The near-maximum head angle during smartphone use might induce the cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon, potentially aggravating neck issues. We recommend limiting smartphone usage postures that exceed the near-maximum head angle, as they are commonly adopted by individuals in the daily smartphone activities.


Assuntos
Cabeça , Músculos do Pescoço , Postura , Smartphone , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Cabeça/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Pescoço/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Eletromiografia , Caracteres Sexuais , Cervicalgia/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
7.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 24(6): 670-681, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874970

RESUMO

Instrumented mouthguards (iMGs) are a novel technology being used within rugby to quantify head acceleration events. Understanding practitioners' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to their use is important to support implementation and adoption. This study assessed men's and women's rugby union and league iMG managers' perceptions of staff and player interest in the technology, data and barriers to use. Forty-six iMG managers (men's rugby union and league n = 20 and n = 9 and women's rugby union and league n = 7 and n = 10) completed an 18-question survey. Perceived interest in data varied across staff roles with medical staff being reported as having the most interest. The iMG devices were perceived as easy to use but uncomfortable. Several uses of data were identified, including medical applications, player monitoring and player welfare. The comfort, size and fit of the iMG were reported as the major barriers to player use. Time constraints and a lack of understanding of data were barriers to engagement with the data. Continued education on how iMG data can be used is required to increase player and staff buy-in, alongside improving comfort of the devices. Studies undertaken with iMGs investigating player performance and welfare outcomes will make data more useful and increase engagement.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Protetores Bucais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Protetores Bucais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aceleração , Adulto , Cabeça
8.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 24(6): 750-757, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874996

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to clarify the temporal coordination between gaze, head, and arm movements during forehand rallies in table tennis. Collegiate male table tennis players (n = 7) conducted forehand rallies at a constant tempo (100, 120, and 150 bpm) using a metronome. In each tempo condition, participants performed 30 strokes (a total of 90 strokes). Gaze, head, and dominant arm (shoulder, elbow, and wrist) movements were recorded with an eye-tracking device equipped with a Gyro sensor and a 3-D motion capture system. The results showed that the effect of head movements relative to gaze movements was significantly higher than that of eye movements in the three tempo conditions. Our results indicate that head movements are closely associated with gaze movements during rallies. Furthermore, cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) between head and arm movements were more than 0.96 (maximum coefficient: 0.99). In addition, head and arm movements were synchronized during rallies. Finally, CCs between gaze and arm movements were more than 0.74 (maximum coefficient: 0.99), indicating that gaze movements are temporally coordinated with arm movements. Taken together, head movements could play important roles not only in gaze tracking but also in the temporal coordination with arm movements during table tennis forehand rallies.


Assuntos
Braço , Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos da Cabeça , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tênis , Humanos , Masculino , Braço/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia
9.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 39: 565-571, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to compare forward head posture (FHP) in natural and corrected head postures between patients with nonspecific neck pain (NSNP) and controls and to clarify the relationship between natural and corrected head posture angle differences and deep cervical flexor function. This study aimed to provide useful evidence for postural assessment and treatment in patients with NSNP. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 19 patients with NSNP reporting a pain score of 3-7 for at least 3 months and 19 participants with no neck pain within the previous 12 months were recruited. To evaluate FHP, the cranial rotation and vertical angles were measured using lateral head and neck photographs. The craniocervical flexion test was used to evaluate deep cervical flexor activation and endurance. We evaluated the head and neck alignment in natural and corrected head postures and the relationship between the degree of change and deep cervical flexor function. RESULTS: FHP in the natural head posture did not differ between groups. In the corrected head posture, FHP was significantly smaller in the NSNP group than in the control group. In the NSNP group, the cranial rotation and vertical angles were significantly different between the natural and corrected head postures, and the angle difference correlated significantly with deep cervical flexor function. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NSNP show hypercorrection in the corrected head posture, which may be correlated with deep cervical flexor dysfunction. Further investigation into the causal relationship between hypercorrection, deep neck flexor dysfunction, and neck pain is required.


Assuntos
Cabeça , Músculos do Pescoço , Cervicalgia , Postura , Humanos , Cervicalgia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Adulto , Postura/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Pescoço/fisiologia
10.
J Comp Neurol ; 532(6): e25628, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852042

RESUMO

Gastropod molluscs such as Aplysia, Lymnaea, and Tritonia have been important for determining fundamental rules of motor control, learning, and memory because of their large, individually identifiable neurons. Yet only a small number of gastropod neurons have known molecular markers, limiting the ability to establish brain-wide structure-function relations. Here we combine high-throughput, single-cell RNA sequencing with in situ hybridization chain reaction in the nudibranch Berghia stephanieae to identify and visualize the expression of markers for cell types. Broad neuronal classes were characterized by genes associated with neurotransmitters, like acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin, and GABA, as well as neuropeptides. These classes were subdivided by other genes including transcriptional regulators and unannotated genes. Marker genes expressed by neurons and glia formed discrete, previously unrecognized regions within and between ganglia. This study provides the foundation for understanding the fundamental cellular organization of gastropod nervous systems.


Assuntos
Gânglios dos Invertebrados , Gastrópodes , Animais , Gastrópodes/genética , Gânglios dos Invertebrados/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/química , Cabeça , Expressão Gênica
12.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4550, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811547

RESUMO

The emergence of new structures can often be linked to the evolution of novel cell types that follows the rewiring of developmental gene regulatory subnetworks. Vertebrates are characterized by a complex body plan compared to the other chordate clades and the question remains of whether and how the emergence of vertebrate morphological innovations can be related to the appearance of new embryonic cell populations. We previously proposed, by studying mesoderm development in the cephalochordate amphioxus, a scenario for the evolution of the vertebrate head mesoderm. To further test this scenario at the cell population level, we used scRNA-seq to construct a cell atlas of the amphioxus neurula, stage at which the main mesodermal compartments are specified. Our data allowed us to validate the presence of a prechordal-plate like territory in amphioxus. Additionally, the transcriptomic profile of somite cell populations supports the homology between specific territories of amphioxus somites and vertebrate cranial/pharyngeal and lateral plate mesoderm. Finally, our work provides evidence that the appearance of the specific mesodermal structures of the vertebrate head was associated to both segregation of pre-existing cell populations, and co-option of new genes for the control of myogenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cabeça , Anfioxos , Mesoderma , Vertebrados , Animais , Mesoderma/citologia , Mesoderma/embriologia , Anfioxos/embriologia , Anfioxos/genética , Cabeça/embriologia , Vertebrados/embriologia , Vertebrados/genética , Somitos/embriologia , Somitos/citologia , Somitos/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Transcriptoma
13.
Elife ; 132024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814703

RESUMO

To navigate their environment, insects need to keep track of their orientation. Previous work has shown that insects encode their head direction as a sinusoidal activity pattern around a ring of neurons arranged in an eight-column structure. However, it is unclear whether this sinusoidal encoding of head direction is just an evolutionary coincidence or if it offers a particular functional advantage. To address this question, we establish the basic mathematical requirements for direction encoding and show that it can be performed by many circuits, all with different activity patterns. Among these activity patterns, we prove that the sinusoidal one is the most noise-resilient, but only when coupled with a sinusoidal connectivity pattern between the encoding neurons. We compare this predicted optimal connectivity pattern with anatomical data from the head direction circuits of the locust and the fruit fly, finding that our theory agrees with experimental evidence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our predicted circuit can emerge using Hebbian plasticity, implying that the neural connectivity does not need to be explicitly encoded in the genetic program of the insect but rather can emerge during development. Finally, we illustrate that in our theory, the consistent presence of the eight-column organisation of head direction circuits across multiple insect species is not a chance artefact but instead can be explained by basic evolutionary principles.


Insects, including fruit flies and locusts, move throughout their environment to find food, interact with each other or escape danger. To navigate their surroundings, insects need to be able to keep track of their orientation. This tracking is achieved through visual cues and integrating information about their movements whilst flying so they know which direction their head is facing. The set of neurons responsible for relaying information about the direction of the head (also known as heading) are connected together in a ring made up of eight columns of cells. Previous studies showed that the level of activity across this ring of neurons resembles a sinusoid shape: a smooth curve with one peak which encodes the animal's heading. Neurons downstream from this eight-column ring, which relay velocity information, also display this sinusoidal pattern of activation. Aceituno, Dall'Osto and Pisokas wanted to understand whether this sinusoidal pattern was an evolutionary coincidence, or whether it offers a particular advantage to insects. To answer this question, they established the mathematical criteria required for neurons in the eight-column ring to encode information about the heading of the animal. This revealed that these conditions can be satisfied by many different patterns of activation, not just the sinusoidal shape. However, Aceituno, Dall'Osto and Pisokas show that the sinusoidal shape is the most resilient to variations in neuronal activity which may impact the encoded information. Further experiments revealed that this resilience only occurred if neurons in the circuit were connected together in a certain pattern. Aceituno, Dall'Osto and Pisokas then compared this circuit with experimental data from locusts and fruit flies and found that both insects exhibit the predicted connection pattern. They also discovered that animals do not have to be born with this neuronal connection pattern, but can develop it during their lifetime. These findings provide fresh insights into how insects relay information about the direction of their head as they fly. They suggest that the structure of the neuronal circuit responsible for encoding head direction was not formed by chance but instead arose due to the evolutionary benefits it provided.


Assuntos
Cabeça , Animais , Cabeça/fisiologia , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304040, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814896

RESUMO

This study investigates head nods in natural dyadic German Sign Language (DGS) interaction, with the aim of finding whether head nods serving different functions vary in their phonetic characteristics. Earlier research on spoken and sign language interaction has revealed that head nods vary in the form of the movement. However, most claims about the phonetic properties of head nods have been based on manual annotation without reference to naturalistic text types and the head nods produced by the addressee have been largely ignored. There is a lack of detailed information about the phonetic properties of the addressee's head nods and their interaction with manual cues in DGS as well as in other sign languages, and the existence of a form-function relationship of head nods remains uncertain. We hypothesize that head nods functioning in the context of affirmation differ from those signaling feedback in their form and the co-occurrence with manual items. To test the hypothesis, we apply OpenPose, a computer vision toolkit, to extract head nod measurements from video recordings and examine head nods in terms of their duration, amplitude and velocity. We describe the basic phonetic properties of head nods in DGS and their interaction with manual items in naturalistic corpus data. Our results show that phonetic properties of affirmative nods differ from those of feedback nods. Feedback nods appear to be on average slower in production and smaller in amplitude than affirmation nods, and they are commonly produced without a co-occurring manual element. We attribute the variations in phonetic properties to the distinct roles these cues fulfill in turn-taking system. This research underlines the importance of non-manual cues in shaping the turn-taking system of sign languages, establishing the links between such research fields as sign language linguistics, conversational analysis, quantitative linguistics and computer vision.


Assuntos
Fonética , Língua de Sinais , Humanos , Alemanha , Masculino , Cabeça/fisiologia , Feminino , Idioma , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 5(5): 101529, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703765

RESUMO

The size of the human head is highly heritable, but genetic drivers of its variation within the general population remain unmapped. We perform a genome-wide association study on head size (N = 80,890) and identify 67 genetic loci, of which 50 are novel. Neuroimaging studies show that 17 variants affect specific brain areas, but most have widespread effects. Gene set enrichment is observed for various cancers and the p53, Wnt, and ErbB signaling pathways. Genes harboring lead variants are enriched for macrocephaly syndrome genes (37-fold) and high-fidelity cancer genes (9-fold), which is not seen for human height variants. Head size variants are also near genes preferentially expressed in intermediate progenitor cells, neural cells linked to evolutionary brain expansion. Our results indicate that genes regulating early brain and cranial growth incline to neoplasia later in life, irrespective of height. This warrants investigation of clinical implications of the link between head size and cancer.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cabeça , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Variação Genética , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Predisposição Genética para Doença
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11757, 2024 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783000

RESUMO

Chronic imbalance is a frequent and limiting symptom of patients with chronic unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy. A full-body kinematic analysis of the movement of patients with vestibulopathy would provide a better understanding of the impact of the pathology on dynamic tasks such as walking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the global body movement during walking, its variability (assessed with the GaitSD), and the strategies to stabilise the head (assessed with the head Anchoring Index). The full-body motion capture data of 10 patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BV), 10 patients with unilateral vestibulopathy (UV), and 10 healthy subjects (HS) walking at several speeds (slow, comfortable, and fast) were analysed in this prospective cohort study. We observed only a few significant differences between groups in parts of the gait cycle (shoulder abduction-adduction, pelvis rotation, and hip flexion-extension) during the analysis of kinematic curves. Only BV patients had significantly higher gait variability (GaitSD) for all three walking speeds. Head stabilisation strategies depended on the plan of motion and walking speed condition, but BV and UV patients tended to stabilise their head in relation to the trunk and HS tended to stabilise their head in space. These results suggest that GaitSD could be a relevant biomarker of chronic instability in BV and that the head Anchoring Index tends to confirm clinical observations of abnormal head-trunk dynamics in patients with vestibulopathy while walking.


Assuntos
Vestibulopatia Bilateral , Marcha , Cabeça , Caminhada , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caminhada/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Vestibulopatia Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Idoso , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Doença Crônica
17.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 18-23, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor posture and sedentary lifestyle cause Forward Head Posture (FHP). To correct this, a Posture Correction Band (PCB) is commonly used. However, the efficacy of PCB vs. McKenzie's Exercises on pulmonary function and chest expansion in asymptomatic individuals with FHP was not known. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of PCB vs. McKenzie's Exercises on the Pulmonary function and chest expansion in asymptomatic population with FHP. METHODOLOGY: A Randomized control trial was conducted on forty-two subjects with FHP. Subjects were divided in two groups. G1 group was educated as per McKenzie's exercises to perform once daily for a month. The Pulmonary function test and chest expansion of this group was performed before and after the McKenzie exercises. G2 group wore PCB for 2 h daily for a month and their PFT and chest expansion was recorded before and after the trial. FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEFR and Chest expansion were measured. RESULTS: The P-value of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR between the groups (treatment group) was significant as 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.02 respectively. The chest expansion was non-significant between the groups (treatment group) with P-value as 0.553, 0.493 and 0.699 at axillary, 4th intercostal and xiphisternum level respectively. The P-value of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR between the groups (control group) was non-significant as 0.682, 0.149, 0.424 and 0.414 respectively. The chest expansion was also non-significant between the groups (control group) with P-value as 0.853, 0.651 and 0.763 at axillary, 4th intercostal and xiphisternum level. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that there were significant effects of both Posture Correction Band and Mc'Kenzie exercises on pulmonary function with greater difference seen with PCB and non-significant effects on chest expansion in terms of P-values in treatment group.


Assuntos
Postura , Testes de Função Respiratória , Humanos , Postura/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tórax/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
F1000Res ; 13: 274, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725640

RESUMO

Background: The most recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) image reconstruction technology are Deep learning image reconstruction (DLIR) algorithms. Due to drawbacks in Iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques such as negative image texture and nonlinear spatial resolutions, DLIRs are gradually replacing them. However, the potential use of DLIR in Head and Chest CT has to be examined further. Hence, the purpose of the study is to review the influence of DLIR on Radiation dose (RD), Image noise (IN), and outcomes of the studies compared with IR and FBP in Head and Chest CT examinations. Methods: We performed a detailed search in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase to find the articles reported using DLIR for Head and Chest CT examinations between 2017 to 2023. Data were retrieved from the short-listed studies using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Out of 196 articles searched, 15 articles were included. A total of 1292 sample size was included. 14 articles were rated as high and 1 article as moderate quality. All studies compared DLIR to IR techniques. 5 studies compared DLIR with IR and FBP. The review showed that DLIR improved IQ, and reduced RD and IN for CT Head and Chest examinations. Conclusions: DLIR algorithm have demonstrated a noted enhancement in IQ with reduced IN for CT Head and Chest examinations at lower dose compared with IR and FBP. DLIR showed potential for enhancing patient care by reducing radiation risks and increasing diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Cabeça , Doses de Radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 177: 108633, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic strip craniectomy followed by helmet therapy (ESCH) is a minimally invasive approach for correcting sagittal craniosynostosis. The treatment involves a patient-specific helmet designed to facilitate lateral growth while constraining sagittal expansion. In this study, finite element modelling was used to predict post-treatment head reshaping, improving our comprehension of the necessary helmet therapy duration. METHOD: Six patients (aged 11 weeks to 9 months) who underwent ESCH at Connecticut Children's Hospital were enrolled in this study. Day-1 post-operative 3D scans were used to create skin, skull, and intracranial volume models. Patient-specific helmet models, incorporating areas for growth, were designed based on post-operative imaging. Brain growth was simulated through thermal expansion, and treatments were modelled according to post-operative Imaging available. Mechanical testing and finite element modelling were combined to determine patient-specific mechanical properties from bone samples collected from surgery. Validation compared simulated end-of-treatment skin surfaces with optical scans in terms of shape matching and cranial index estimation. RESULTS: Comparison between the simulated post-treatment head shape and optical scans showed that on average 97.3 ± 2.1 % of surface data points were within a distance range of -3 to 3 mm. The cranial index was also accurately predicted (r = 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, finite element models effectively predicted the ESCH cranial remodeling outcomes up to 8 months postoperatively. This computational tool offers valuable insights to guide and refine helmet treatment duration. This study also incorporated patient-specific material properties, enhancing the accuracy of the modeling approach.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Craniotomia , Simulação por Computador , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Endoscopia/métodos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça/cirurgia
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