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2.
Nature ; 597(7875): 250-255, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497389

RESUMO

The cellular landscape of the human intestinal tract is dynamic throughout life, developing in utero and changing in response to functional requirements and environmental exposures. Here, to comprehensively map cell lineages, we use single-cell RNA sequencing and antigen receptor analysis of almost half a million cells from up to 5 anatomical regions in the developing and up to 11 distinct anatomical regions in the healthy paediatric and adult human gut. This reveals the existence of transcriptionally distinct BEST4 epithelial cells throughout the human intestinal tract. Furthermore, we implicate IgG sensing as a function of intestinal tuft cells. We describe neural cell populations in the developing enteric nervous system, and predict cell-type-specific expression of genes associated with Hirschsprung's disease. Finally, using a systems approach, we identify key cell players that drive the formation of secondary lymphoid tissue in early human development. We show that these programs are adopted in inflammatory bowel disease to recruit and retain immune cells at the site of inflammation. This catalogue of intestinal cells will provide new insights into cellular programs in development, homeostasis and disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/citologia , Feto/citologia , Saúde , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfonodos/citologia , Linfonodos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/embriologia , Humanos , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/inervação , Linfonodos/embriologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organogênese , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Rev. Saúde Pública Paraná (Online) ; 4(2): 25-40, Ago 18, 2021.
Artigo em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SESA-PR | ID: biblio-1284433

RESUMO

Para garantir assistência de qualidade a gestante e ao neonato, o estado do Paraná, conta com a Rede Mãe Paranaense. Sendo assim, o estudo objetivou analisar a assistência pré-natal entre mulheres de extremo de idade, atendidas pela Rede, realizado em duas Regionais de Saúde, uma fronteiriça e outra no interior do Estado, entre julho de 2017 a fevereiro de 2018. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo e transversal, os dados foram coletados no prontuário, na Carteira de Saúde da gestante e entrevista. Os resultados revelaram que mulheres ≥35 anos foram mais classificadas como alto risco gestacional, por antecedentes clínicos, como doenças hipertensivas (p<0,004), entre as ≤18 anos ocorreu menor adesão ao pré-natal (p<0,012). A regional fronteiriça apresentou menos acompanhamento efetivo de pré-natal, também realizaram menos exames (p<0,020). Concluindo-se que ocorreram divergências na assistência pré-natal entre os grupos etários, como também entre as regionais de saúde. (AU)


To ensure quality care for pregnant women and newborns, the state of Paraná has the Rede Mãe Paranaense . Therefore, this study aimed to analyze prenatal care among extremely age women, assisted by the Rede, held in two Health Regional Offices, one on the border and another in the interior of the state, between July 2017 and February 2018. This is a quantitative and cross-sectional study; data were collected from the medical record, from the pregnant woman's Health Card and from an interview. The results revealed that women aged ≥35 years were more classified as having high gestational risk due to clinical history such as hypertensive diseases (p<0.004), among those aged ≤18 years, there was less adherence to prenatal care (p<0.012). The regional border showed less effective prenatal care, also performed fewer tests (p < 0.020). In conclusion, there were divergences in prenatal care between age groups, as well as between regional health groups. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Saúde , Risco , Estudos Transversais , Gestão da Qualidade , Gestantes
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 209, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With trends towards longer life expectancy, lifetime with disability has also been prolonged. It is increasingly recognized that not only the person with disability but also those around them are affected. The relationship between functional limitation (FL) of the older adults and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of their spouse is of interest. So too is the determination of the factors aside from FL that influence HRQoL. METHODS: The sample was derived from the 2013 National Health Service Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province in China. Married couples aged ≥ 60 years were selected (n = 3463). The European quality of life five dimensions (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale were used to measure HRQoL. RESULTS: Both wife and husband reported lower HRQoL if either the male or female partner had some or serious FLs (P < 0.001). Other factors associated with lower HRQoL of the spouse included age, lower educational level, presence of chronic disease, and lower household economic status. Family size was associated with wife's HRQoL only when the male had no FL and lived with another 1-2 persons, or when the male had some FLs and lived in a larger family (n ≥ 5). Residential status did not relate to the HRQoL of spouses regardless of FL status. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults in Shaanxi province who have partners with FLs tend to report poorer EQ-5D, suggesting that couples amongst whom one has FL may be particularly vulnerable to lower HRQoL.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Cônjuges , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Estatal , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443606

RESUMO

Prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a member of the Cactaceae family originally grown in South America, and the plant is now distributed to many parts of the world, including the Middle East. The chemical composition and biological activities of different parts of prickly pear, including cladodes, flowers, fruit, seeds and seed oil, were previously investigated. Oil from the seeds has been known for its nutritive value and can be potentially used for health promotion. This review is an effort to cover what is actually known to date about the prickly pear seeds oil extraction, characteristics, chemical composition and potential health benefits to provide inspiration for the need of further investigation and future research. Prickly pear seeds oil has been extracted using different extraction techniques from conventional to advanced. Chemical characterization of the oil has been sufficiently studied, and it is sufficiently understood that the oil is a high linoleic oil. Its composition is influenced by the variety and environment and also by the method of extraction. The health benefits of the prickly pear seed oil were reported by many researchers. For future research, additional studies are warranted on mechanisms of action of the reported biological activities to develop nutraceutical products for the prevention of various chronic human diseases.


Assuntos
Saúde , Opuntia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443625

RESUMO

Black garlic (BG) is a form of aged garlic obtained from raw garlic (Allium sativum) via Millard reaction under high temperature (60-90 °C) and humidity (70-90%) for a period of time. Several studies reported higher contents of water-soluble antioxidants compounds (S-allyl cysteine, S-allyl-mercapto cysteine), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, organosulfur compounds, polyphenol, volatile compounds, and products of other Millard reactions compared to fresh garlic after the thermal processing. Recent studies have demonstrated that BG and its bioactive compounds possess a wide range of biological activities and pharmacological properties that preserve and show better efficacy in preventing different types of diseases. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, hepatoprotection, hypolipidemia, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, immunomodulation, nephroprotection, cardiovascular protection, and neuroprotection. Substantial studies have been conducted on BG and its components against different common human diseases in the last few decades. Still, a lot of research is ongoing to find out the therapeutic effects of BG. Thus, in this review, we summarized the pre-clinical and clinical studies of BG and its bioactive compounds on human health along with diverse bioactivity, a related mode of action, and also future challenges.


Assuntos
Doença , Alho/química , Saúde , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444647

RESUMO

The fundamental role of magnesium in human health is extensively discussed in the review by Fiorentini and colleagues [...].


Assuntos
Saúde , Magnésio/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência de Magnésio/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443541

RESUMO

Cordycepin is an adenosine derivative isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, which has been used as an herbal complementary and alternative medicine with various biological activities. The general anti-cancer mechanisms of cordycepin are regulated by the adenosine A3 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3ß, leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Notably, cordycepin also induces autophagy to trigger cell death, inhibits tumor metastasis, and modulates the immune system. Since the dysregulation of autophagy is associated with cancers and neuron, immune, and kidney diseases, cordycepin is considered an alternative treatment because of the involvement of cordycepin in autophagic signaling. However, the profound mechanism of autophagy induction by cordycepin has never been reviewed in detail. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed the anti-cancer and health-promoting effects of cordycepin in the neurons, kidneys, and the immune system through diverse mechanisms, including autophagy induction. We also suggest that formulation changes for cordycepin could enhance its bioactivity and bioavailability and lower its toxicity for future applications. A comprehensive understanding of the autophagy mechanism would provide novel mechanistic insight into the anti-cancer and health-promoting effects of cordycepin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Saúde , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/química
10.
Life Sci ; 284: 119898, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453942

RESUMO

AIMS: Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is a popular form of tobacco smoking. This is due to the misperception that WPS is less detrimental than cigarette smoking. This review aimed to present the adverse effects of WPS on health outcomes through utilizing animal models. MAIN METHODS: The design of the current study is systematic review. PubMed, HINARI, Google, and SCOPUS databases were searched for the adverse effects of WPS on general health in rodents. Certain key information was extracted and collected from the included studies. KEY FINDINGS: After screening different databases and removal of duplicates, 43 papers were included in this review. It was found that WPS was able to negatively affect the oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in mice. Furthermore, WPS increased the levels of Tumor necrosis factor-α and 8-isoprostane, and DNA damage in mice lung homogenates. Additionally, chronic exposure to WPS increased the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in mice; indicating injury to renal tissues. The negative effect of WPS extends to affect offspring rats following prenatal WPS, in which WPS in utero lead to remarkable increase in the levels of testosterone, estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormones in WPS exposed animals. SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review highlighted the adverse effects of WPS on health outcomes at cellular and biochemical levels in different tissues and organs of rodents. The current reviews' findings highlighted the great hazards presented by WPS in the selected rodents' model and the essential necessity for future improved management of WPS indoor consumption.


Assuntos
Saúde , Fumaça , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Animais , Humanos , Memória , Modelos Animais , Roedores
11.
Lima; Perú. Acuerdo Nacional; 20210800. 36 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1284235

RESUMO

El Acuerdo Nacional contiene lineamientos prioritarios para el corto y mediano plazo en los temas de Salud, Educación, Lucha contra la Pobreza y Pobreza Extrema, Crecimiento Económico Sostenible con Empleo Digno, Reforma Política y Reforma del Sistema de Administración de Justicia. En tal sentido, son considerados como desarrollos de las políticas de Estado, y apuntan hacia la consecución de la Visión del Perú al 2050 y de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible que el Perú se ha comprometido a adoptar como Estado miembro de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Nações Unidas , Saúde , Estado , Política Nacional de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação , Política de Inovação e Desenvolvimento , Políticas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Crescimento
12.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443668

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, there has been an alarming decline in the number of honey bee colonies. This phenomenon is called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Bee products play a significant role in human life and have a huge impact on agriculture, therefore bees are an economically important species. Honey has found its healing application in various sectors of human life, as well as other bee products such as royal jelly, propolis, and bee pollen. There are many putative factors of CCD, such as air pollution, GMO, viruses, or predators (such as wasps and hornets). It is, however, believed that pesticides and microorganisms play a huge role in the mass extinction of bee colonies. Insecticides are chemicals that are dangerous to both humans and the environment. They can cause enormous damage to bees' nervous system and permanently weaken their immune system, making them vulnerable to other factors. Some of the insecticides that negatively affect bees are, for example, neonicotinoids, coumaphos, and chlorpyrifos. Microorganisms can cause various diseases in bees, weakening the health of the colony and often resulting in its extinction. Infection with microorganisms may result in the need to dispose of the entire hive to prevent the spread of pathogens to other hives. Many aspects of the impact of pesticides and microorganisms on bees are still unclear. The need to deepen knowledge in this matter is crucial, bearing in mind how important these animals are for human life.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Colapso da Colônia/microbiologia , Meio Ambiente , Saúde
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203830

RESUMO

Insulin is a polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by ß cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. The hormone potentially coordinates with glucagon to modulate blood glucose levels; insulin acts via an anabolic pathway, while glucagon performs catabolic functions. Insulin regulates glucose levels in the bloodstream and induces glucose storage in the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue, resulting in overall weight gain. The modulation of a wide range of physiological processes by insulin makes its synthesis and levels critical in the onset and progression of several chronic diseases. Although clinical and basic research has made significant progress in understanding the role of insulin in several pathophysiological processes, many aspects of these functions have yet to be elucidated. This review provides an update on insulin secretion and regulation, and its physiological roles and functions in different organs and cells, and implications to overall health. We cast light on recent advances in insulin-signaling targeted therapies, the protective effects of insulin signaling activators against disease, and recommendations and directions for future research.


Assuntos
Doença , Saúde , Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Secreção de Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200192

RESUMO

Vitamin E was identified as a lipophilic compound essential to maintain rat pregnancy. Low vitamin E intake during early pregnancy associates with congenital malformations and embryonic loss in animals and with miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction in humans. Vitamin E protects cell membranes from lipoperoxidation and exerts non-antioxidant activities. Its function can be restored by vitamin C; thus, intake and circulating levels of both micronutrients are frequently analyzed together. Although substantial vitamin E inadequacy was reported worldwide, its consumption in Latin America (LatAm) is mostly unknown. Using data from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud, ELANS), we evaluated vitamin E and C intake in women of reproductive age (WRA) from eight LatAm countries and identified their main food sources. Two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls in 3704 women aged from 15 to 49 years and living in urban locations showed low average intake of vitamin E (7.9 mg/day vs. estimated average requirement (EAR) of 12 mg/day) and adequate overall vitamin C consumption (95.5 mg/day vs. EAR of 60 mg/day). The mean regional inadequacy was 89.6% for vitamin E and 36.3% for vitamin C. The primary food sources of vitamin E were fats and oils, as well as vegetables. Vitamin C intake was explained mainly by the consumption of fruit juices, fruits, and vegetables. Combined deficient intake of both vitamins was observed in 33.7% of LatAm women. Although the implications of low antioxidant vitamins' consumption in WRA are still unclear, the combined deficient intake of both vitamins observed in one-third of ELANS participants underscores the need for further research on this topic.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Reprodução , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , América Latina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200398

RESUMO

Information regarding the spread and effect of coffee and caffeine intake by individuals with type II diabetes remains unclear. This study aims to identify the amount and sources of habitual caffeine intake by individuals with type II diabetes and to investigate its association with other health outcomes, especially HbA1c. This is a cross-sectional survey involving 100 people medically defined as having type II diabetes comprising both genders, recruited from a care centre. All participants completed a caffeine semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ) to estimate their caffeine consumption, a two day 24-h recall, and a detailed questionnaire. The average caffeine intake was calculated from all sources and the differences in mean by gender were tested using a regression model (adjusted to important confounders). Regression models were used to verify the association between average caffeine intake on HbA1c and other health outcomes with adjustment for important confounders. A p value < 0.05 represented statistical significance. Arabic coffee (gahwa) and tea were the most common sources of caffeine among Saudi adults living with diabetes. Average caffeine intake for the whole sample was 194 ± 165 mg/day, which is 2.3 ± 2 mg/kg. There was an inverse association between caffeine intake and age: difference in mean -3.26 mg/year (95%CI: -5.34, -1.18; p = 0.003). Males had significantly higher consumption of caffeine compared to females: difference in mean 90.7 mg/day (95%CI: 13.8, 167.6; p = 0.021). No association was found between average caffeine intake and HbA1C or any other cardiovascular risk factors. This information can help public health practitioners and policy makers when assessing the risk of caffeine consumption among this vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209241

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are important functional biomolecules in human breast milk. Understanding the factors influencing differences in HMO composition and changes in their concentration over lactation can help to design feeding strategies that are well-adapted to infant's needs. This review summarises the total and individual concentration of HMOs from data published from 1999 to 2019. Studies show that the HMO concentrations are highest in colostrum (average 9-22 g/L), followed by slightly lower concentrations in transitional milk (average 8-19 g/L), with a gradual decline in mature milk as lactation progresses, from 6-15 g/L in breast milk collected within one month of birth, to 4-6 g/L after 6 months. Significant differences in HMO composition have been described between countries. Different HMOs were shown to be predominant over the course of lactation, e.g., 3-fucosyllactose increased over lactation, whereas 2'-fucosyllactose decreased. Recent clinical studies on infant formula supplemented with 2'-fucosyllactose in combination with other oligosaccharides showed its limited beneficial effect on infant health.


Assuntos
Saúde , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos
19.
Rev. Psicol., Divers. Saúde ; 10(2): 235-245, Julho 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283125

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: O aumento de publicações sobre a vida do estudante do Ensino Superior demonstra o interesse crescente da comunidade científica sobre o tema. Tais estudos apontam para alterações na saúde dessa população após ingresso nesse nível de ensino. OBJETIVO: Investigar mudanças nos hábitos de vida dos estudantes que ingressam na universidade e o impacto em sua saúde física e mental. MÉTODOS: Foi adotada uma pesquisa qualitativa, com o uso de entrevista semiestruturada, aplicada em oito estudantes. Os dados foram analisados mediante análise de conteúdo, o que resultou em três categorias temáticas: Mudanças nos hábitos (alimentação, sono, atividades físicas, lazer e descanso); Impactos (físicos e mentais); Determinantes envolvidos na formação de novos hábitos (socioeconômicos, acadêmicos, familiares e afetivos e outros). RESULTADOS: A alimentação foi uma das dimensões que mais apresentou alterações, assim como o sono. Quanto aos impactos físicos, foram apontadas dores musculares, cefaleias tensionais, enxaquecas e agravamento de distúrbios, como gastrite. Nos impactos mentais, registrou-se os sintomas de estresse, cansaço, desmotivação e sentimentos de solidão, impotência, isolamento, desejo de desistir e agravamento de sofrimentos psíquicos já existentes, como depressão e ansiedade. Os determinantes mais frequentes foram os sociais, que abrangem as condições socioeconômicas dos estudantes, seguido dos educacionais, que abrangem o ambiente acadêmico. CONCLUSÃO: A experiência no Ensino Superior, neste caso, na universidade, provoca mudanças nos hábitos dos estudantes após ingresso, o que resulta em impactos em sua saúde e sugere a necessidade de se repensar as formas de seu funcionamento.


INTRODUCTION: The increasing number of publications about university students' lives reveals the growing interest that the scientific community holds in this theme. Such studies point to changes in the health of this population after entering this level of education. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates changes in these students' daily habits after they start college and their impact on their physical and mental health. METHODS: A qualitative research was adopted, and semistructured interviews were applied to eight students. Data was verified using a content analysis technique, which resulted in three thematic categories: Habits variations (feeding, sleeping, physical activities practice, resting and leisure); life impacts (physical and mental); Determinants involved in these new habits acquisition (socioeconomic, academic, family and affective and others). RESULTS: Feeding and sleeping were dimensions that presented most transitions. The most common physical impacts were headache, migraine, muscle ache, and worsening of previous conditions such as gastritis. Regarding mental impacts, the following symptoms were registered: tiredness, stress, demotivation, loneliness, helplessness feelings, isolation, thoughts about giving up, and aggravation in previous psyche suffering as depression and anxiety. The noun determinants related to these changes were the social, which include the students' socioeconomic conditions, followed by the educational elements that comprehend the academic environment. CONCLUSION: A university's academic daily life generates multiple routine changes in their students, compromising their health. Therefore, restructuring universities organizations is needed.


Assuntos
Saúde , Estudantes , Hábitos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200819

RESUMO

Curcumin is one of the most frequently researched herbal substances; however, it has been reported to have a poor bioavailability and fast metabolism, which has led to doubts about its effectiveness. Curcumin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and has demonstrated favorable health effects. Nevertheless, well-reported in vivo pharmacological activities of curcumin are limited by its poor solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic profile. The bidirectional interactions between curcumin and gut microbiota play key roles in understanding the ambiguity between the bioavailability and biological activity of curcumin, including its wider health impact.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Curcumina/metabolismo , Doença , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Saúde , Humanos
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