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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361739

RESUMO

Objetivos: contribuir para a compreensão do desenvolvimento histórico do conceito de ansiedade, das classificações dos transtornos ansiosos e suas manifestações clínicas, bem como para a atualização sobre o processo de avaliação diagnóstica. Métodos: todas as edições das classificações da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) - CID e da Associação Psiquiátrica Americana (APA) - DSM foram examinadas, além de livros-texto de referência de psiquiatria clínica, de publicações sobre a história e a evolução desses diagnósticos e de publicações produzidas pelas equipes responsáveis pela revisão das classificações atuais. Resultados: entende-se por ansiedade um estado afetivo normal, como um sintoma ou um termo para nomear um grupo de transtornos mentais. Nas primeiras e subsequentes edições das classificações da OMS e da APA, entre 1948 e 1975, os quadros ansiosos faziam parte do grupo das psiconeurose/neuroses. A partir do DSM-III (1980), o grupo das neuroses foi fragmentado em diversos outros, entre os quais os transtornos de ansiedade, o que foi seguido pela CID-10 (1992), apesar de alguma distinção na composição dos subtipos. Para as últimas versões, houve um empenho de compatibilização entre as duas, contudo restaram diferenças: o DSM-5 (2013) adota critérios diagnósticos; a CID-11 (2019) utiliza descrições clínicas e diretrizes diagnósticas, além de abordagens dimensionais para alguns transtornos. Conclusão: ocorreram modificações nas classificações psiquiátricas atuais, no grupo dos transtornos de ansiedade, que precisam ser disseminadas e agregadas a estratégias de formação e qualificação profissionais, incrementando habilidades diagnósticas e permitindo uma comunicação mais uniforme e precisa na prática clínica.


Objectives: to contribute to the understanding of the historical development of the concept of anxiety, the classifications of anxiety disorders and their clinical manifestations, as well as to update on the diagnostic evaluation process. Methods: all editions of the classifications of the World Health Organization (WHO) - ICD and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) - DSM were examined, in addition to reference textbooks on clinical psychiatry, publications on the history and evolution of these diagnoses, and scientific articles produced by the teams responsible for reviewing the current classifications. Results: anxiety is understood as a normal affective state, as a symptom, or as a term to name a group of mental disorders. In the first and subsequent editions of the WHO and APA classifications, between 1948 and 1975, anxiety disorders were part of the psychoneuroses/neuroses group. As of DSM-III (1980) onwards, the neuroses group was fragmented into several others, including anxiety disorders, which was followed by ICD-10 (1992), despite some different choices of subtypes. For the latest versions, there was a compatibility effort between them. However, differences remained: DSM-5 (2013) adopts diagnostic criteria; ICD-11 (2019) uses clinical description and diagnostic guidelines, in addition to dimensional approaches for some disorders. Conclusion: modifications have occurred in current psychiatric classifications, in the group of anxiety disorders, which need to be disseminated and added to professional training and qualification strategies, increasing diagnostic skills and providing for more uniform and accurate communication in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Psiquiatria , Saúde , Estratégias de Saúde , Diagnóstico , História , Transtornos Mentais
3.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2022. 106 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1399675

RESUMO

La norma contiene el esquema completo, ordenado y cronológico de vacunación, de cumplimiento obligatorio a nivel nacional para disminuir las tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad causadas por enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, logrando el control, la eliminación y erradicación de estas enfermedades


Assuntos
Saúde , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Vacinação , Erradicação de Doenças
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2022. 39 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1399992

RESUMO

El documento detalla los requisitos, condiciones y otras especificaciones necesarias para el procedimiento de reasignación bajo el régimen especial de contratación administrativa de servicios - CAS, tercera convocatoria, conforme a los numerales 27.7 y 27.8 del artículo 27 de la Ley N° 31538; así como; promover que las unidades ejecutoras del Ministerio de Salud, unidades ejecutoras del salud de los gobiernos regionales, Instituto Nacional de Salud e Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, conduzcan el procedimiento bajo los principios establecidos en el presente lineamiento


Assuntos
Gestão de Recursos Humanos , Saúde , Doença , Pessoal de Saúde , Contratos
5.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 4(2): 43-49, 28-10-2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1400231

RESUMO

Introducción: La salud cardiovascular comprende un conjunto de variables que interactúan entre sí (entre factores no modificables y factores modificables) para modificar el riesgo de padecer un evento cardiovascular (EVC). Material y Métodos: Se realizóuna encuesta en línea basada en Google Forms para medir la salud cardiovascular en la población adulta en la República Dominicana. Se utilizó un cuestionario confeccionado por los autores basado en los criterios DUCTH de hipercolesterolemia. Resultados: Las características sociodemográficas de los participantes fueron heterogéneas, 60% de los participantes tenía antecedente familiar patológico, 55% reportó inactividad física, las prácticas dietéticas de nuestra muestra no fueron apropiadas, observando que 70% no ingería oingería pocas veces yogur, patrón observado en el 44% con respecto a la ingesta de leche, sin embargo, el 94% ingería con frecuencia carne. Conclusión: La salud cardiovascular de los dominicanos posee una menor calidad asociada a un mayor consumo de carnes y tabaco y menor cantidad de ejercicio; dicho comportamiento puede haber estado influido por la pandemia del COVID-19 o las características de la región.


Introduction:Cardiovascular health comprises a set of variables that interact with each other (between non-modifiable factors and modifiable factors) to modify the risk of sufferinga cardiovascular event (CVD). Material and Methods: An online survey based on Google Forms was conducted to measure cardiovascular health in the adult population in the Dominican Republic. A questionnaire prepared by the authors based on the DUCTH criteria for hypercholesterolemia was used. Results: The sociodemographic characteristics of the participants were heterogeneous, 60% of the participants had a pathological family history, 55% were physical inactive, observing 70% had no or minimum intake of yogurt, same behavior was observed in 44% of the sample related to milk intake, yet 94% had a frequent intake of meat. Conclusion: The cardiovascular health of Dominicans has a lower quality associated with a higher consumption of meat and tobacco and a lower amount of exercise; This behavior may have been influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic or the characteristics of the region.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Tabagismo , Hipercolesterolemia , Exercício Físico , Saúde , Ingestão de Alimentos
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 998769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203673
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231846

RESUMO

Health literacy (HL) is associated with short- and long-term health outcomes, and this is particularly relevant in Hispanics, who are disproportionally affected by lower HL. Hispanics have become the largest minority population in the United States. Also, Hispanics experience higher burdens of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than non-Hispanic whites. Thus, effectively choosing culturally appropriate validated instruments that measure a marker found in health assessments should be a serious consideration. Using a systemized approach, we identified and reviewed 33 publications and found eight different HL and numeracy (separate or combined) instruments. We assessed the study designs and instrument structures to determine how HL was measured across these studies. We categorized the results into direct and indirect measurements of HL. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) family of HL instruments was favored for direct measures of HL, while the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) instrument was favored for indirect measures. Despite identified trends in instruments used, more comprehensive measurement tools have been developed but not validated in Hispanic populations. In conclusion, further validation of more comprehensive HL instruments in adult Hispanic populations with T2DM could better assess HL levels and improve health promotion efforts.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Saúde , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(3): 658-675, jul.-set. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398924

RESUMO

O trabalho que fundamenta este artigo traçou dois caminhos metodológicos para analisar a divulgação científica sobre a relação entre desmatamento, mudanças climáticas e saúde em uma experiência selecionada. Foi realizada revisão de literatura para identificar como o tema emergia em artigos científicos publicados no Brasil entre 2020 e 2021. A partir do referencial temático identificado por meio de palavras-chave, foram analisados 42 vídeos publicados pelo canal Ciência com Certeza no YouTube. Considerando os conceitos de divulgação científica e comunicação científica segundo Bueno (2010), é possível afirmar que o projeto caracteriza-se como de comunicação científica extrapares por estar direcionado ao público especializado de diversas áreas do conhecimento. A disponibilização pública das gravações das palestras não o caracteriza como um projeto de divulgação científica, embora tenha potencial de ampliar seu direcionamento para públicos leigos. Também foi constatado que a relação entre meio ambiente e saúde não foi tema central das palestras no período analisado


In the work on which this article is based, two methodological paths were used to analyze scientific dissemination about the relationship between deforestation, climate change and health in a selected project. A literature review was carried out to identify how the theme emerged in scientific articles published in Brazil between 2020 and 2021. Based on the thematic framework identified through keywords, 42 videos published by the Ciência com Certeza project on its YouTube channel were analyzed. Considering Bueno's (2010) concepts of scientific communication and scientific dissemination, it can be said that the project is characterized as a multidisciplinary scientific communication project as it is aimed at specialised audiences from different areas of knowledge. The public availability of recordings of lectures does not characterize it as a scientific dissemination project, although it has the potential to broaden its targeting to lay audiences. It was also found that the relationship between environment and health was not a central theme of the lectures during the analyzed period


En el trabajo que fundamenta este artículo se utilizaron dos caminos metodológicos para analizar la divulgación científica sobre la relación entre deforestación, cambio climático y salud en una experiencia seleccionada. Se realizó una revisión de literatura para identificar cómo surgía el tema en los artículos científicos publicados en Brasil entre 2020 y 2021. A partir del marco temático identificado a través de palabras clave, se analizaron 42 videos publicados por el proyecto Ciência com Certeza en su canal en el YouTube. Considerando los conceptos de comunicación científica y divulgación científica presentados por Bueno (2010), se puede decir que el proyecto se caracteriza como comunicación científica multidisciplinar, ya que está dirigido a públicos especializados de diferentes áreas del conocimiento. La disponibilidad pública de las grabaciones de conferencias no lo caracteriza como un proyecto de divulgación científica, aunque tiene el potencial de ampliar su focalización en el gran público. También se ha constatado que la relación entre medio ambiente y salud no fue el tema central de las conferencias durante el período analizado


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Ambiente , Comunicação e Divulgação Científica , Ciência , Comunicação , Poluição Ambiental , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
12.
Theor Med Bioeth ; 43(5-6): 375-400, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114828

RESUMO

Elselijn Kingma argues that Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory does not show how the reference classes it uses-namely, age groups of a sex of a species-are objective and naturalistic. Boorse has replied that this objection is of no concern, because there are no examples of clinicians' choosing to use reference classes other than the ones he suggests. Boorse argues that clinicians use the reference classes they do because these reflect the natural classes of organisms to which their patients belong. Drawing on a thorough exploration of how the disease osteoporosis is defined in adults, I argue that clinicians do indeed make choices about which reference classes to use in diagnosis. Clinicians use young adult reference classes to diagnose osteoporosis in elderly patients. They also use young female reference classes to diagnose osteoporosis in elderly males. Clinicians adjust their reference classes so that the diagnosis of osteoporosis reflects a person's risk of sustaining a fragility fracture. The ethical intuition that people with the same risk of fracture should receive the same diagnosis overwhelms the naturalistic intuition that reference classes should reflect natural classes of organisms of uniform functional design. Clinicians construct a variety of reference class types, including pathological reference classes and epidemiological population-specific reference classes, to serve this ethical intuition. I show how clinicians use several reference classes at once so that they can more accurately predict risk of fracture. Ultimately, the reference classes chosen and used in medical practice are quite different from those proposed in naturalistic philosophy of medicine.


Assuntos
Doença , Osteoporose , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Filosofia Médica , Saúde , Princípios Morais , Osteoporose/diagnóstico
15.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 12(2): 38-51, Jul-Dec. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397169

RESUMO

Objetivo: identifcar, con base en la literatura disponible, la cosmovisión de la salud oral para los pueblos indígenas. Métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura a través de diferentes bases de datos. Resultados: las creencias y prácticas de las comunidades indígenas responden a la cosmovisión del proceso de salud-enfermedad oral, las cuales dan cuenta de una perspectiva mítica, espiritual y en muchas ocasiones se aborda desde un punto de vista naturalista. Conclusión: las creencias y prácticas de la salud oral para las comunidades indígenas han trascendido, en gran medida, la perspectiva mágica y se ubican actualmente en una óptica tanto técnica como medicinal.


Objective: To identify, based on the available literature, the worldview of oral health for indigenous peoples. Methods: A literature search was carried out through diferent databases. Results: The cosmovision of the oral health-disease process revolves around a mythical, spiritual perspective and in many occasions, it is approached from a naturalistic perspective. Conclusion: The worldview of oral health-disease for indigenous communities has largely transcended the magical perspective and is currently located in a technical as well as a medicinal perspective.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Povos Indígenas , Saúde , Cultura , Cosmovisão
16.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 144-153, mayo-ago. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1377463

RESUMO

Introducción: La depresión es una problemática de salud pública responsable de alta carga de mortalidad, afecta principalmente a jóvenes universitarios. La evidencia sugiere que la participación en actividad física genera beneficios en salud mental. Resulta importante estudiar esta asociación teniendo en cuenta otra serie de factores como variables sociodemográficas y el tipo de carrera universitaria. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de sintomatología depresiva y evaluar si el nivel de actividad física podría ser un factor protector en estudiantes de una universidad con enfoque deportivo. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con muestra representativa de 291 estudiantes. Se aplicó cuestionario Beck II y versión larga del International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Se realizó análisis univariado y bivariado con razones de prevalencia para depresión, según nivel de actividad física ajustadas mediante modelos de regresión generalizados con vínculo logarítmico de distribución binomial. Resultados: Las prevalencias de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física son respectivamente 27% y 22%. La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión es 46% mayor en quienes no son suficientemente activos (RP: 1,46 IC95%:0,95-2,25). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física más bajas comparadas con poblaciones similares, probablemente se relacionan con el enfoque deportivo de la institución.


Introduction: Depression is a public health problem that has a burden of high mortality, mainly affecting the young university student population. The evidence suggests that participation in physical activity generates mental health benefits. It is important to study this association as well as the relationship between depression and sociodemographic variables and university program. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptomatology and assess whether physical activity levels can be a Protective factor in university students enrolled in sports programs. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 291 students. The Beck II questionnaire and long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were applied. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed with prevalence ratios for depression, according to the level of physical activity adjusted by generalized regression models with logarithmic link of binomial distribution. Results: The prevalence rates of depression symptoms and physical inactivity were 27% and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of depression symptoms is 46% higher in those who are not sufficiently active (RP: 1.46 IC95%:0.95-2.25). Conclusions: Prevalence of depressive symptoms and physical inactivity were lower compared to similar populations and are probably related to the sport focus of the institution.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Saúde Pública , Saúde , Saúde Mental , Depressão , Metabolismo Energético , Movimento
17.
O.F.I.L ; 32(3): 267-274, julio 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-208782

RESUMO

Objective: Determine implementation results of the Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM) offered to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who attended the Hospital Nephrology Service in Costa Rica.Methods: Mixed quantitative-qualitative, observative, descriptive and prospective study, in patients attending the Hospital Pharmaceutical Care Department through the CMM process, analysis of intermediate and preliminary results of health-related quality of life HRQOL using EQ 5D -5L.Results: Based on pilot study, 11 patients attended the first visit and 9 patients attended the third one. As result, 45 clinical conditions were analyzed, 1 of them was resolved, 20 were stable and 10 were improved. Total of 62 drug-therapy problems (DTP) were identified, with average of 5.6/patient. On regards to HRQOL, feedback obtained from kidney transplant patients indicated a better evaluation (mobility, personal care, daily activities, pain / discomfort), compared to CKD stage 5 5D dialysis patients (mobility impairment improvement). Utility measure reflected a change of 0.64±0.12 to 0.72±0.12, the health self-perception EQ VAS 68.18±23.58, to 87.22±8.53; and in terms of quality-adjusted life-year QALY, it showed a difference of 2.54±2.99.Conclusions: CMM implementation established in most health conditions improve or maintain patient stability. HRQOL was better for transplant patients compared to CKD 5D patients. Parameters such as utility, QALY, and EQ VAS were increased. (AU)


Objetivo: Determinar los resultados de la implantación del Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM) brindada a los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) que asistieron al Servicio de Nefrología de un Hospital en Costa Rica.Métodos: Estudio cuali-cuantitativo mixto, observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo, en pacientes que asisten al consultorio de Atención Farmacéutica de un hospital, mediante el proceso asistencial CMM, análisis de resultados intermedios y preliminares de calidad de vida relacionada con salud (CVRS) mediante EQ 5D-5L.Resultados: En el estudio piloto 11 pacientes completaron la primera visita y 9 pacientes la tercera visita; se analizaron 45 condiciones clínicas, y se obtuvo una condición clínica resuelta, 20 estables, 10 con mejoría. Se identificaron 62 problemas farmacoterapéuticos (DTP por sus siglas en inglés), media 5,6/paciente. Respecto a la CVRS los discursos de los pacientes trasplantados renales indicaron una mejor valoración (movilidad, cuidado personal, actividades cotidianas, dolor/malestar), en comparación con pacientes ERC estadio 5 diálisis 5D (mayor afectación movilidad). La utilidad cambió de una media 0,64±0,12 a 0,72±0,12, la autopercepción de salud EQ VAS 68,18±23,58, a 87,22±8,53; y respecto a los años de vida ganados ajustados por calidad de vida AVAC con una diferencia de 2,54±2,99.Conclusiones: La implantación de CMM logró en la mayoría de las condiciones de salud una mejoría o mantener la estabilidad. La CVRS fue mejor para los pacientes trasplantados, en comparación con los pacientes ERC 5D. Los parámetros como la utilidad, AVAC y EQ VAS aumentaron. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquema de Medicação , Pacientes , Qualidade de Vida , Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Costa Rica
19.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S93-S96, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781156

RESUMO

Behavioural economics (a combination of economics and psychology) provides keys to understand decisions made by politicians and citizens along the COVID-19 pandemic through the so-called cognitive biases. These biases can be offset by implementing behavioural interventions named "nudges" in order to promote responsible behaviours in the "new normality". This paper analyses, from a behavioural economics perspective, past, present and future of behavioural aspects surrounding the pandemic. Besides, this paper proposes different ways to formalize nudges according to law, which needs the fulfilment of three minimum requirements, namely: transparency, non-arbitrariness and efficiency. Furthermore, it is also suggested that protocols and contingency plans are set up to face future pandemics, in which both soft (nudge-type) interventions and hard legal regulations play different roles but complementary ones. Nudges can be implemented in a fast and less coercive way, so they are particularly suitable for changing mild misbehaviour, reserving legal sanctions for the more serious ones.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Economia Comportamental , Saúde , Humanos
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