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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 201, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of acquisition of multidrug resistant organisms due to higher rates of predisposing factors. The gut microbiome is the main reservoir of the collection of antimicrobial resistance determinants known as the gut resistome. In PLWH, changes in gut microbiome have been linked to immune activation and HIV-1 associated complications. Specifically, gut dysbiosis defined by low microbial gene richness has been linked to low Nadir CD4 + T-cell counts. Additionally, sexual preference has been shown to strongly influence gut microbiome composition in PLWH resulting in different Prevotella or Bacteroides enriched enterotypes, in MSM (men-who-have-sex-with-men) or no-MSM, respectively. To date, little is known about gut resistome composition in PLWH due to the scarcity of studies using shotgun metagenomics. The present study aimed to detect associations between different microbiome features linked to HIV-1 infection and gut resistome composition. RESULTS: Using shotgun metagenomics we characterized the gut resistome composition of 129 HIV-1 infected subjects showing different HIV clinical profiles and 27 HIV-1 negative controls from a cross-sectional observational study conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Most no-MSM showed a Bacteroides-enriched enterotype and low microbial gene richness microbiomes. We did not identify differences in resistome diversity and composition according to HIV-1 infection or immune status. However, gut resistome was more diverse in MSM group, Prevotella-enriched enterotype and gut micorbiomes with high microbial gene richness compared to no-MSM group, Bacteroides-enriched enterotype and gut microbiomes with low microbial gene richness. Additionally, gut resistome beta-diversity was different according to the defined groups and we identified a set of differentially abundant antimicrobial resistance determinants based on the established categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a significant correlation between gut resistome composition and various host variables commonly associated with gut microbiome, including microbiome enterotype, microbial gene richness, and sexual preference. These host variables have been previously linked to immune activation and lower Nadir CD4 + T-Cell counts, which are prognostic factors of HIV-related comorbidities. This study provides new insights into the relationship between antibiotic resistance and clinical characteristics of PLWH.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Metagenômica , Prevotella/genética , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Sexual , Espanha
2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830802

RESUMO

AIMS: The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing annually, leading to substantial medical and health burdens. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential effectiveness of intestinal probiotics as a treatment strategy for NAFLD. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify a probiotic for the treatment of NAFLD. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, blood and fecal samples were collected from 41 healthy volunteers and 44 patients diagnosed with NAFLD. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequencing data and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed a significant reduction in the abundance of Coprococcus in NAFLD patients. Subsequent animal experiments demonstrated that Coprococcus was able to effectively reverse liver lipid accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first in vivo evidence that Coprococcus is a beneficial bacterium capable of preventing NAFLD and has the same probiotic effect in mice as Lactobacillus GG (LGG), a positive control. Therefore, Coprococcus has the potential to serve as a probiotic for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD in humans.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Probióticos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Adulto , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais de Doenças
3.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(6): 547-549, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858205

RESUMO

Hymenolepis diminuta is a common parasite of rats and mice, but is very rare in humans with cases reported from various parts of the world. Here, we reported a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection involving both the respiratory and digestive tracts in a 49-year-old male patient whose initial imaging and symptoms were strikingly similar to pneumonia. Since no disease-causing pathogens were found during routine examinations, we considered respiratory infection by specific pathogens before metagenomic next-generation sequencing of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid confirmed the diagnosis of Hymenolepis diminuta. After confirming the diagnosis, we retested the patient's stool repeatedly and found Hymenolepis diminuta eggs finally. To help doctors better understand this condition and avoid misdiagnosis, this article provided a summary of the clinical characteristics, diagnostic techniques, and therapeutic options for infection by Hymenolepis diminuta.


Assuntos
Himenolepíase , Hymenolepis diminuta , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Himenolepíase/diagnóstico , Himenolepíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
4.
Trop Biomed ; 41(1): 1-13, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852128

RESUMO

Understanding the normal physiology of the body is the key to study the changes that occur due to any infection. It is known that enteric infections play a considerable role in affecting normal body status. Thus, this study was designed for investigating the enteric infections in Arabian camels in Al-Muthanna Province. In this investigation, 588 fecal and blood serum samples (for diarrheic camels only) were collected from the camels in different areas of Al-Muthanna Province, Iraq from both sexes of different ages during the period from October 2020 up to the end of August 2021. The samples were examined using routine microscopic examination techniques, hematological techniques, and ELISA for parasitic and viral identification. Eimeria rajasthani, Isospora orlovi were recorded for the first time in Iraqi camels with clinical signs of diarrhea, dehydration, and emaciation. The study recorded four types of protozoa: Eimeria spp., Isospora, Cryptosporidium and Balantidium coli. The recorded types of Eimeria were E. dromedarii, E. cameli, and E. rajasthani. There was a significant effect of age on infection rates with Eimeria spp. as the highest Eimeria ratio was in ages of less than two years animals. The infection rates were also affected with months which reached the highest ratios of Eimeria in October while the lowest ratio of Eimeria was recorded in July. BVDV infection rate was found in camels that suffered from diarrhea. There is no significant effect of sex on the onset of the viral disease in camels. For hematological parameters, there were significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, Hb, and PCV values in protozoal and BVDV infections. In conclusion, different kinds of protozoal and viral infections were recorded. Some of the recorded infections were associated with acute clinical signs and have zoonotic importance.


Assuntos
Camelus , Coccidiose , Diarreia , Eimeria , Fezes , Animais , Camelus/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Isosporíase/epidemiologia , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304599, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829840

RESUMO

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an emerging pathogen of high concern given its resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Broiler chicken, which is the number one consumed meat in the United States and worldwide, can be a reservoir of ESBL E. coli. Backyard poultry ownership is on the rise in the United States, yet there is little research investigating prevalence of ESBL E. coli in this setting. This study aims to identify the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles (phenotypically and genotypically) of ESBL E. coli in some backyard and commercial broiler farms in the U.S. For this study ten backyard and ten commercial farms were visited at three time-points across flock production. Fecal (n = 10), litter/compost (n = 5), soil (n = 5), and swabs of feeders and waterers (n = 6) were collected at each visit and processed for E. coli. Assessment of ESBL phenotype was determined through using disk diffusion with 3rd generation cephalosporins, cefotaxime and ceftazidime, and that with clavulanic acid. Broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing were used to investigate both phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles, respectively. ESBL E. coli was more prevalent in backyard farms with 12.95% of samples testing positive whereas 0.77% of commercial farm samples were positive. All isolates contained a blaCTX-M gene, the dominant variant being blaCTX-M-1, and its presence was entirely due to plasmids. Our study confirms concerns of growing resistance to fourth generation cephalosporin, cefepime, as roughly half (51.4%) of all isolates were found to be susceptible dose-dependent and few were resistant. Resistance to non-beta lactams, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, was also detected in our samples. Our study identifies prevalence of blaCTX-M type ESBL E. coli in U.S. backyard broiler farms, emphasizing the need for interventions for food and production safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Plasmídeos , beta-Lactamases , Animais , beta-Lactamases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Prevalência , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fezes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fazendas
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 367, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850297

RESUMO

Recent microbiome research has incorporated a higher number of samples through more participants in a study, longitudinal studies, and metanalysis between studies. Physical limitations in a sequencing machine can result in samples spread across sequencing runs. Here we present the results of sequencing nearly 1000 16S rRNA gene sequences in fecal (stabilized and swab) and oral (swab) samples from multiple human microbiome studies and positive controls that were conducted with identical standard operating procedures. Sequencing was performed in the same center across 18 different runs. The simplified mock community showed limitations in accuracy, while precision (e.g., technical variation) was robust for the mock community and actual human positive control samples. Technical variation was the lowest for stabilized fecal samples, followed by fecal swab samples, and then oral swab samples. The order of technical variation stability was inverse of DNA concentrations (e.g., highest in stabilized fecal samples), highlighting the importance of DNA concentration in reproducibility and urging caution when analyzing low biomass samples. Coefficients of variation at the genus level also followed the same trend for lower variation with higher DNA concentrations. Technical variation across both sample types and the two human sampling locations was significantly less than the observed biological variation. Overall, this research providing comparisons between technical and biological variation, highlights the importance of using positive controls, and provides semi-quantified data to better understand variation introduced by sequencing runs. KEY POINTS: • Mock community and positive control accuracy were lower than precision. • Samples with lower DNA concentration had increased technical variation across sequencing runs. • Biological variation was significantly higher than technical variation due to sequencing runs.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano , Fezes , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Boca/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
7.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849305

RESUMO

AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder, encompassing diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Here, we utilized 16S rDNA gene sequencing to identify potential microbial drivers of IBS-D. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 30 healthy relatives and 27 patients with IBS-D were recruited. Clinical data and fecal samples were collected from patients and controls. 16S rDNA gene sequencing was performed to obtain fecal bacterial data. Differences in community composition were evaluated utilizing analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare differences in taxa and functional pathways. Finally, the key gut microbiota was identified using the random forest algorithm. Gut microbiota diversity, estimated through the Observe, Chao1, and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) indices, was significantly lower in the IBS-D patients than in the healthy relatives. ANOSIM analysis further confirmed significant differences in the composition of the gut microbiota between IBS-D patients and healthy relatives, with an R value of 0.106 and a P-value of 0.005. Notably, the IBS-D patients exhibited a significant enrichment of specific bacterial genera, including Fusicatenibacter, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella, which may possess potential pathogenic properties. In particular, the bacterial genus Klebsiella demonstrated a positive correlation with irritable bowel syndrome severity scoring system scores. Conversely, healthy subjects showed enrichment of bacterial genera such as Alistipes, Akkermansia, and Dialister, which may be beneficial bacteria in IBS-D. Utilizing the random forest model, we developed a discriminative model for IBS-D based on differential bacterial genera. This model exhibited impressive performance, with an area under the curve value of 0.90. Additionally, our analysis did not reveal any gender-specific differences in the microbiota community composition among IBS-D patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer preliminary insights into the potential relationship between intestinal microbiota and IBS-D. The identification model for IBS-D, grounded in gut microbiota, holds promising prospects for improving early diagnosis of IBS-D.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Diarreia , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Humanos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Adulto , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 52, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has indicated a link between the gut microbiota and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the acute changes in gut microbiota during chemotherapy and the predictive value of baseline gut microbiota in infectious complication remain largely unknown. METHODS: Faecal samples (n = 126) from children with ALL (n = 49) undergoing induction chemotherapy were collected at three timepoints, i.e., initiation of chemotherapy (baseline, T0), 7 days (T1) and 33 days (T2) after initiation of chemotherapy. Gut microbiome profile was performed via metagenomic shotgun sequencing. The bioBakery3 pipeline (Kneaddata, Metaphlan 3 and HUMAnN) was performed to assign taxonomy and functional annotations. Gut microbiome at T0 were used to predict infection during chemotherapy. RESULTS: The microbial diversities and composition changed significantly during chemotherapy, with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bifidobacterium longum being the most prominent species. The microbial metabolic pathways were also significantly altered during chemotherapy, including the pathway of pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate, and assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models based on Bifidobacterium longum at T0 could predict infectious complications during the first month of chemotherapy with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.720. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the acute changes in microbial and functional characteristics in children with ALL during chemotherapy. The baseline gut microbiota could be potential biomarkers for infections during chemotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University (2021-KY-171-01) and registered on http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2200065406, Registration Date: November 4, 2022).


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Fezes/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia de Indução , Biomarcadores , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Metagenoma , Escherichia coli/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13516, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866797

RESUMO

Diarrhea and constipation are common health concerns in children. Numerous studies have identified strong association between gut microbiota and digestive-related diseases. But little is known about the gut microbiota that simultaneously affects both diarrhea and constipation or their potential regulatory mechanisms. Stool samples from 618 children (66 diarrhea, 138 constipation, 414 healthy controls) aged 0-3 years were collected to investigate gut microbiota changes using 16S rRNA sequencing. Compared with healthy, children with diarrhea exhibited a significant decrease in microbial diversity, while those with constipation showed a marked increase (p < 0.05). Significantly, our results firstly Ruminococcus increased in constipation (p = 0.03) and decreased in diarrhea (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Pathway analysis revealed that Ruminococcus highly involved in the regulation of five common pathways (membrane transport, nervous system, energy metabolism, signal transduction and endocrine system pathways) between diarrhea and constipation, suggesting a potential shared regulatory mechanism. Our finding firstly reveals one core microorganisms that may affect the steady balance of the gut in children with diarrhea or constipation, providing an important reference for potential diagnosis and treatment of constipation and diarrhea.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Diarreia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Constipação Intestinal/microbiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido , China , Estudos de Casos e Controles , População do Leste Asiático
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13513, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866914

RESUMO

Fecal calprotectin is an established marker of gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Elevated levels of fecal calprotectin as well as gut microbial dysbiosis have also been observed in other clinical conditions. However, systemic and multi-omics alterations linked to elevated fecal calprotectin in older individuals remain unclear. This study comprehensively investigated the relationship between fecal calprotectin levels, gut microbiome composition, serum inflammation and targeted metabolomics markers, and relevant lifestyle and medical data in a large sample of older individuals (n = 735; mean age ± SD: 68.7 ± 6.3) from the TREND cohort study. Low (0-50 µg/g; n = 602), moderate (> 50-100 µg/g; n = 64) and high (> 100 µg/g; n = 62) fecal calprotectin groups were stratified. Several pro-inflammatory gut microbial genera were significantly increased and short-chain fatty acid producing genera were decreased in high vs. low calprotectin groups. In serum, IL-17C, CCL19 and the toxic metabolite indoxyl sulfate were increased in high vs. low fecal calprotectin groups. These changes were partially mediated by the gut microbiota. Moreover, the high fecal calprotectin group showed increased BMI and a higher disease prevalence of heart attack and obesity. Our findings contribute to the understanding of fecal calprotectin as a marker of gut dysbiosis and its broader systemic and clinical implications in older individuals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Disbiose , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 585, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the presence of Chlamydia psittaci in poultry and the environment in live poultry wholesale markets in Changsha during 2021-2022 and conducted a phylogenetic analysis to understand its distribution in this market. METHODS: In total, 483 samples were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and 17 C. psittaci-positive samples using high-throughput sequencing, BLAST similarity, and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-two out of 483 poultry and environmental samples were positive for C. psittaci (overall positivity rate: 4.55%) with no difference in positivity rates over 12 months. Chlamydia psittaci was detected at 11 sampling points (overall positivity rate: 27.5%), including chicken, duck, and pigeon/chicken/duck/goose shops, with pigeon shops having the highest positivity rate (46.67%). The highest positivity rates were found in sewage (12.5%), poultry fecal (7.43%), cage swab (6.59%), avian pharyngeal/cloacal swab (3.33%), and air (2.29%) samples. The ompA sequences were identified in two strains of C. psittaci, which were determined to bear genotype B using phylogenetic analysis. Thus, during monitoring, C. psittaci genotype B was detected in the poultry and environmental samples from the poultry wholesale market in Changsha. CONCLUSIONS: To address the potential zoonotic threat, C. psittaci monitoring programs in live poultry markets should be enhanced.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Aves Domésticas , Psitacose , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Patos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
12.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(6): 661-8, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture on blood pressure, fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and to explore the mechanism of acupuncture for anti-hypertension. METHODS: Twenty-four male SHR of SPF grade were randomly divided into a model group, a western medication group, an acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group, with 6 rats in each group, and 6 male Wistar-Kyoto rats were selected as the blank group additionally. Hydrochlorothiazide solution was given by gavage in the western medication group; acupuncture was applied at bilateral "Renying" (ST 9) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the acupuncture group, 20 min a time; acupuncture was applied at the non-meridian and non-acupoint points close to bilateral "Renying" (ST 9) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the sham acupuncture group, 20 min a time. The intervention was adopted once a day for 4 weeks continuously in each group. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the caudal artery was measured before intervention and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of intervention. After intervention, the morphology of colonic tissue was observed by HE staining; the fecal level of SCFAs was detected by gas chromatography; the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ßand tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA; the protein expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in the mesenteric artery was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the SBP was increased (P<0.05), significant pathological changes could be found in the colonic tissue, the fecal SCFAs level was decreased (P<0.05), the serum levels of IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α were increased (P<0.05), the protein expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in the mesenteric artery was increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the SBP after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of intervention was decreased (P<0.05), the serum levels of IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α were decreased (P<0.05) in the acupuncture group and the western medication group; the mucosal epithelium of colonic tissue was intact, the number of intestinal glands was abundant, the fecal SCFAs level was increased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in the mesenteric artery was decreased (P<0.05) in the acupuncture group. Compared with the sham acupuncture group, the SBP after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of intervention was decreased (P<0.05), the fecal SCFAs level was increased (P<0.05), the serum levels of IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α were decreased (P<0.05), the protein expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in the mesenteric artery was decreased (P<0.05) in the acupuncture group. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at bilateral "Renying" (ST 9) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) can effectively play an anti-hypertensive role in SHR. Its mechanism may be related to regulating fecal SCFAs level and inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , NF-kappa B , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Masculino , Ratos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Humanos , Fezes/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hipertensão/terapia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Pontos de Acupuntura
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1397402, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872962

RESUMO

Graphene-based warm uterus acupoint paste (GWUAP) is an emerging non-drug alternative therapy for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea (PD), but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. SD female rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and treatment group to explore the mechanism of GWUAP in the treatment of PD. Combined with 16S rDNA and fecal metabolomics, the diversity of microbiota and metabolites in each group was comprehensively evaluated. In this study, GWUAP reduced the torsion score of PD model rats, improved the pathological morphology of uterine tissue, reduced the pathological damage score of uterine tissue, and reversed the expression levels of inflammatory factors, pain factors and sex hormones. The 16 S rDNA sequencing of fecal samples showed that the abundance of Lactobacillus in the intestinal flora of the model group decreased and the abundance of Romboutsia increased, while the abundance of Lactobacillus in the intestinal flora of the treatment group increased and the abundance of Romboutsia decreased, which improved the imbalance of flora diversity in PD rats. In addition, 32 metabolites related to therapeutic effects were identified by metabolomics of fecal samples. Moreover, there is a close correlation between fecal microbiota and metabolites. Therefore, the mechanism of GWUAP in the treatment of PD remains to be further studied.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Dismenorreia , Metabolômica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Animais , Feminino , Dismenorreia/terapia , Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética
14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 742, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enrichment activities may influence the microbiomes of captive tigers', affecting their health, digestion, and behavior. Currently, there are few studies that address the impact of enrichment activity on tigers' health. This study aimed to determine the diversity of the gut microbiome in captive Malayan tigers at Zoo Melaka and Night Safari during the environmental enrichment phase using a metabarcoding approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study utilized different enrichment activities which catered for food, sensory, and cognitive enrichment. Eleven fresh fecal samples from captive Malayan tigers at Zoo Melaka and Night Safari were collected under different conditions. All samples were extracted and 16S rRNA V3-V4 region amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the gut microbiome of captive Malayan tigers subjected to various enrichment activities. Firmicutes, Actinobacteriota, and Fusobacteriota were the dominant phyla observed in the gut microbiome of captive Malayan tigers during enrichment activities. This study revealed ß-diversity significantly varied between normal and enrichment phase, however no significant differences were observed in α-diversity. This study demonstrates that environmental enrichment improves the gut microbiome of Malayan tigers because gut microbes such as Lachnoclostridium, which has anti-inflammatory effects and helps maintain homeostasis, and Romboutsia, which has a probiotic effect on the gut microbiome. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides valuable insights into the effects of enrichment activities on the gut microbiome of captive Malayan tigers, offering guidance for enhancing captive management practices aimed at promoting the health and well-being of Malayan tiger in captivity.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tigres , Animais , Tigres/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(2): 301-312, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875187

RESUMO

The wild rhinoceros populations have declined drastically in the past decades because the rhinoceros are heavily hunted for their horns. Zoological institutions aim to conserve rhinoceros populations in captivity, but one of the challenges of ex situ conservation is to provide food sources that resemble those available in the wild. Considering that the mammalian gut microbiota is a pivotal player in their host's health, the gut microbiota of rhinoceros may also play a role in the bioavailability of nutrients. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the fecal microbiome composition of grazing white rhinoceros (WR; Ceratotherium simum) and greater one-horned rhinoceros (GOHR; Rhinoceros unicornis) as well as the browsing black rhinoceros (BR; Diceros bicornis) kept in European zoos. Over the course of 1 yr, 166 fecal samples in total were collected from 9 BR (n = 39), 10 GOHR (n = 56), and 14 WR (n = 71) from 23 zoological institutions. The bacterial composition in the samples was determined using 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing. The fecal microbiomes of rhinoceros clustered by species, with BR clustering more distantly from GOHR and WR. Furthermore, the data report clustering of rhinoceros microbiota according to individual rhinoceros and institutional origin, showing that zoological institutions play a significant role in shaping the gut microbiome of rhinoceros species. In addition, BR exhibit a relatively higher microbial diversity than GOHR and WR. BR seem more susceptible to microbial gut changes and appear to have a more diverse microbiome composition among individuals than GOHR and WR. These data expand on the role of gut microbes and can provide baseline data for continued efforts in rhinoceros conservation and health status.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Perissodáctilos/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Europa (Continente) , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(6): e0012241, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833441

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis disproportionately affects children under five in low-income countries. However, epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) information at the children-animal interface is lacking. We hypothesized that Campylobacter is a major cause of enteritis in children in Ethiopia, and contact with animals is a potential source of transmission. The objective of the study was to determine Campylobacter occurrence and its AMR in children under five with diarrhea, backyard farm animals, and companion pets. Stool from 303 children and feces from 711 animals were sampled. Campylobacter was isolated through membrane filtration on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar plates under microaerobic incubation, and the technique showed to be feasible for use in regions lacking organized laboratories. Typical isolates were characterized with MALDI-TOF MS and multiplex PCR. Of 303 children, 20% (n = 59) were infected, with a higher proportion in the 6 to 11-month age group. Campylobacter occurred in 64% (n = 14) of dogs and 44% (n = 112) of poultry. Campylobacter jejuni was present in both a child and animal species in 15% (n = 23) of 149 households positive for Campylobacter. MICs using the gradient strip diffusion test of 128 isolates displayed resistance rates of 20% to ciprofloxacin and 11% to doxycycline. MICs of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline varied between C. coli and C. jejuni, with higher resistance in C. coli and poultry isolates. Campylobacter infection in children and its prevalent excretion from backyard poultry and dogs is a understudied concern. The co-occurrence of C. jejuni in animals and children suggest household-level transmission As resistance to ciprofloxacin and doxycycline was observed, therapy of severe campylobacteriosis should consider susceptibility testing. Findings from this study can support evidence-based diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment, and further investigations on the spread of AMR mechanisms for informed One Health intervention.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Antibacterianos , Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Diarreia , Fezes , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/transmissão , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Feminino , Fezes/microbiologia , Cães , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Recém-Nascido
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 420: 110768, 2024 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843647

RESUMO

The continuous detection of multi-drug-resistant enterococci in food source environments has aroused widespread concern. In this study, 198 samples from chicken products, animal feces, raw milk, and vegetables were collected in Japan and Egypt to investigate the prevalence of enterococci and virulence characterization. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was employed for species identification and taxonomic analysis of the isolates. The results showed that the rates of most virulence genes (efaA, gelE, asa1, ace, and hyl) in the Japanese isolates were slightly higher than those in the Egyptian isolates. The rate of efaA was the highest (94.9 %) among seven virulence genes detected, but the cylA gene was not detected in all isolates, which was in accordance with γ-type hemolysis phenotype. In Enterococcus faecalis, the rate of kanamycin-resistant strains was the highest (84.75 %) among the antibiotics tested. Moreover, 78 % of E. faecalis strains exhibited multi-drug resistance. Four moderately vancomycin-resistant strains were found in Egyptian isolates, but none were found in Japanese isolates. MALDI-TOF MS analysis correctly identified 98.5 % (68/69) of the Enterococcus isolates. In the principal component analysis dendrogram, strains isolated from the same region with the same virulence characteristics and similar biofilm-forming abilities were characterized by clustered distribution in different clusters. This finding highlights the potential of MALDI-TOF MS for classifying E. faecalis strains from food sources.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Enterococcus , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Fatores de Virulência , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Egito , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Japão , Galinhas , Leite/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13650, 2024 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871760

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. While they are unlikely to cause severe disease and are self-limiting in healthy individuals, cancer patients are especially susceptible to opportunistic parasitic infections. The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in various aspects of health, including immune regulation and metabolic processes. Parasites occupy the same environment as bacteria in the gut. Recent research suggests intestinal parasites can disrupt the normal balance of the gut microbiota. However, there is limited understanding of this co-infection dynamic among cancer patients in Malaysia. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and relationship between intestinal parasites and gut microbiota composition in cancer patients. Stool samples from 134 cancer patients undergoing active treatment or newly diagnosed were collected and examined for the presence of intestinal parasites and gut microbiota composition. The study also involved 17 healthy individuals for comparison and control. Sequencing with 16S RNA at the V3-V4 region was used to determine the gut microbial composition between infected and non-infected cancer patients and healthy control subjects. The overall prevalence of IPIs among cancer patients was found to be 32.8%. Microsporidia spp. Accounted for the highest percentage at 20.1%, followed by Entamoeba spp. (3.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (3.0%), Cyclospora spp. (2.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). None of the health control subjects tested positive for intestinal parasites. The sequencing data analysis revealed that the gut microbiota diversity and composition were significantly different in cancer patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). A significant dissimilarity was observed in the bacterial composition between parasite-infected and non-infected patients based on Bray-Curtis (p = 0.041) and Jaccard (p = 0.021) measurements. Bacteria from the genus Enterococcus were enriched in the parasite-infected groups, while Faecalibacterium prausnitzii reduced compared to non-infected and control groups. Further analysis between different IPIs and non-infected individuals demonstrated a noteworthy variation in Entamoeba-infected (unweighted UniFrac: p = 0.008), Cryptosporidium-infected (Bray-Curtis: p = 0.034) and microsporidia-infected (unweighted: p = 0.026; weighted: p = 0.019; Jaccard: p = 0.031) samples. No significant dissimilarity was observed between Cyclospora-infected groups and non-infected groups. Specifically, patients infected with Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba showed increased obligate anaerobic bacteria. Clostridiales were enriched with Entamoeba infections, whereas those from Coriobacteriales decreased. Bacteroidales and Clostridium were found in higher abundance in the gut microbiota with Cryptosporidium infection, while Bacillales decreased. Additionally, bacteria from the genus Enterococcus were enriched in microsporidia-infected patients. In contrast, bacteria from the Clostridiales order, Faecalibacterium, Parabacteroides, Collinsella, Ruminococcus, and Sporosarcina decreased compared to the non-infected groups. These findings underscore the importance of understanding and managing the interactions between intestinal parasites and gut microbiota for improved outcomes in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Neoplasias , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Idoso , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Hospitais de Ensino , Prevalência , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/genética , Microsporídios/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
EBioMedicine ; 104: 105182, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), their determinants, infant gut microbiota and health are under extensive research; however, seldom jointly addressed. Leveraging data from the HELMi birth cohort, we investigated them collectively, considering maternal and infant secretor status. METHODS: HMO composition in breastmilk collected 3 months postpartum (n = 350 mothers) was profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography. Infant gut microbiota taxonomic and functional development was studied at 3, 6, and 12 months (n = 823 stool samples) via shotgun metagenomic sequencing, focusing on HMO metabolism via glycoside hydrolase (GH) analysis. Maternal and infant secretor statuses were identified through phenotyping and genotyping, respectively. Child health, emphasizing allergies and antibiotics as proxies for infectious diseases, was recorded until 2 years. FINDINGS: Mother's parity, irritable bowel syndrome, gestational diabetes, and season of milk collection associated with HMO composition. Neither maternal nor infant secretor status associated with infant gut microbiota, except for a few taxa linked to individual HMOs. Analysis stratified for birth mode revealed distinct patterns between the infant gut microbiota and HMOs. Child health parameters were not associated to infant or maternal secretor status. INTERPRETATION: This comprehensive exploration unveils intricate links between secretor genotype, maternal factors, HMO composition, infant microbiota, and child health. Understanding these nuanced relationships is paramount for refining strategies to optimize early life nutrition and its enduring impact on long-term health. FUNDING: Sweet Crosstalk EU H2020 MSCA ITN, Academy of Finland, Mary and Georg C. Ehrnrooth Foundation, Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, and Tekes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Leite Humano , Oligossacarídeos , Paridade , Estações do Ano , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Feminino , Finlândia , Lactente , Coorte de Nascimento , Metagenômica/métodos , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Metagenoma , Masculino , Fezes/microbiologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 941: 173659, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839015

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are found in a wide range of ecosystems, from the Arctic to the deep ocean. However, there is no data on their presence in terrestrial mammals that inhabit the Selva Maya. The aim of this study is to detect the presence of MPs in the feces of the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) from the region of Calakmul, located in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We analyzed 129 fecal samples collected during 2017 and 2018, obtaining 57 and 72 samples during the rainy and dry seasons respectively. Sixty-eight percent of the samples contained 743 MPs with a mean of 19.3 ± 28.1 MPs/kg of dry weight (DW) feces in both years. An inter-annual variation in the average abundance of microplastic was observed during the two-year period (2017-2018), with a 72 % increase in these plastic particles in feces. Fourteen polymers were identified, with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polypropylene (PP) and polyester (PES) being the most abundant during both years. Although the effects of MPs on the health of tapirs are not known, their presence is cause for concern. There is an urgent need for the implementation of appropriate plastic waste management programs in communities of the Selva Maya to diminish the consumption of MPs in species including humans where they pose a significant risk to health. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS: The use of plastics worldwide is increasing every day, so the presence of microplastics is and will continue to be a major environmental problem. It is known that contaminants can adhere to plastics, making them hazardous materials. Microplastics can contaminate remote areas such as Biosphere Reserves. Terrestrial species such as the tapir can ingest microplastics, putting their health at risk. Knowing the dispersion of microplastics is very important in order to manage them properly, taking into account their emission sources and type of polymer.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Microplásticos , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Microplásticos/análise , Fezes/química , México , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Plásticos/análise , Estações do Ano
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