Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.704
Filtrar
1.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 40, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532469

RESUMO

The interaction between viral components and cellular proteins plays a crucial role in viral replication. In a previous study, we showed that the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) is an essential element for the replication of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1). However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To gain a deeper understanding of this mechanism, we used an RNA pull-down and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay to identify new host factors that interact with the 3'-UTR. We selected interleukin-2 enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) for further analysis. We showed that ILF2 interacts specifically with both the 3'-UTR and the 3D polymerase (3Dpol) of DHAV-1 through in vitro RNA pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, respectively. We showed that ILF2 negatively regulates viral replication in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs), and that its overexpression in DEFs markedly suppresses DHAV-1 replication. Conversely, ILF2 silencing resulted in a significant increase in viral replication. In addition, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activity of 3Dpol facilitated viral replication by enhancing viral RNA translation efficiency, whereas ILF2 disrupted the role of RdRP in viral RNA translation efficiency to suppress DHAV-1 replication. At last, DHAV-1 replication markedly suppressed the expression of ILF2 in DEFs, duck embryo hepatocytes, and different tissues of 1 day-old ducklings. A negative correlation was observed between ILF2 expression and the viral load in primary cells and different organs of young ducklings, suggesting that ILF2 may affect the viral load both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Interleucina-2/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Viral/genética , Patos/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária
2.
Antiviral Res ; 224: 105835, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401714

RESUMO

Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are an attractive treatment modality for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), with REP2139 and REP2165 having shown efficacy in CHB patients. A subset of patients achieve functional cure, whereas the others exhibit a moderate response or are non-responders. NAP efficacy has been difficult to recapitulate in animal models, with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model showing some promise but remaining underexplored for NAP efficacy testing. Here we report on an optimized in vivo DHBV duck model and explore several characteristics of NAP treatment. REP2139 was efficacious in reducing DHBV DNA and DHBsAg levels in approximately half of the treated ducks, whether administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Intrahepatic or serum NAP concentrations did not correlate with efficacy, nor did the appearance of anti-DHBsAg antibodies. Furthermore, NAP efficacy was only observed in experimentally infected ducks, not in endogenously infected ducks (vertical transmission). REP2139 add-on to entecavir treatment induced a deeper and more sustained virological response compared to entecavir monotherapy. Destabilized REP2165 showed a different activity profile with a more homogenous antiviral response followed by a faster rebound. In conclusion, subcutaneous administration of NAPs in the DHBV duck model provides a useful tool for in vivo evaluation of NAPs. It recapitulates many aspects of this class of compound's efficacy in CHB patients, most notably the clear division between responders and non-responders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hepadnaviridae , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato , Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite Viral Animal , Ácidos Nucleicos , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ácidos Nucleicos/uso terapêutico , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Patos/genética , DNA Viral , Hepatite Viral Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/veterinária , Fígado
3.
Poult Sci ; 103(3): 103416, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301494

RESUMO

As the most prevalent pathogen of duck viral hepatitis (DVH), duck hepatitis A virus genotype 3 (DHAV-3) has caused huge economic losses to the duck industry in China. Herein, we obtained whole-transcriptome sequencing data of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Pekin duckling samples at 0 h, 12 h, and 24 h after DHAV-3 infection. We found that DHAV-3 infection induces 5,396 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 85 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs), and 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) at 24 hpi in S vs. R ducks, those upregulated genes were enriched in inflammation and cell communications pathways and downregulated genes were related to metabolic processes. Upregulated genes showed high connectivity with the miR-33, miR-193, and miR-11591, and downregulated genes were mainly regulated by miR-2954, miR-125, and miR-146b. With the construction of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA axis, we further identified a few aberrantly expressed lncRNAs (e.g., MSTRG.36194.1, MSTRG.50601.1, MSTRG.34328.7, and MSTRG.29445.1) that regulate expression of hub genes (e.g., THBD, CLIC2, IL8, ACOX2, GPHN, SMLR1, and HAO1) by sponging those highly connected miRNAs. Altogether, our findings defined a dual role of ncRNAs in immune and metabolic regulation during DHAV-3 infection, suggesting potential new targets for treating DHAV-3 infected ducks.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , MicroRNAs , Infecções por Picornaviridae , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/fisiologia , Patos/genética , Transcriptoma , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas/genética , Genótipo , MicroRNAs/genética
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109987, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246107

RESUMO

The duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) causes rapid death in ducklings by triggering a severe cytokine storm. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death that is directly related to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Only a few studies have explored the mechanisms underlying pyroptosis in virus-infected avian cells. In this study, we established an avian infection model in vitro by infecting duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) with the virulent DHAV-1 LY0801 strain. DHAV-1 infection induced pyroptosis in the DEFs by activating gasdermin E (GSDME) protein via caspase-3-mediated cleavage. The genes encoding the different structural and non-structural DHAV-1 proteins were cloned into eukaryotic expression plasmids, and the 2A2 protein was identified as the key protein involved in pyroptosis. The HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analysis established that DHAV-1 2A2 directly interacted with the mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein (MAVS) both intracellularly and in vitro. Furthermore, we got the results that N-terminal 1-130 aa of 2A2 was involved in the interaction with MAVS and the C-terminal TM domain of MAVS is necessary for the interaction with 2A2 by Co-IP analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal that DHAV-1 protein interacts with host proteins to induce pyroptosis. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of DHAV-1 infection, and a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of duck viral hepatitis.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Patos , Gasderminas , Piroptose , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária , Fibroblastos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária
5.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103265, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042039

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) can cause severe liver damage in infected ducklings and is a fatal and contagious pathogen that endangers the Chinese duck industry. The objective of this study was to explore the correlation mechanism of liver metabolism-gut microbiota in DHAV-1 infection. Briefly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing combined with multivariate statistical analysis were used to evaluate the effects of DHAV-1 infection on liver metabolism, gut microbiota regulation, and other potential mechanisms in ducklings. In DHAV-1-infected ducklings at 72 h postinfection, changes were found in metabolites associated with key metabolic pathways such as lipid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism, which participated in signaling networks and ultimately affecting the function of the liver. The abundance and composition of gut microbiota were also changed, and gut microbiota is significantly involved in lipid metabolism in the liver. The evident correlation between gut microbiota and liver metabolites indicates that DHAV-host gut microbiome interactions play important roles in the development of duck viral hepatitis (DVH).


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/fisiologia , Patos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 5): 127095, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37758112

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus genotype 3 (DHAV-3) is the most popular pathogen of duck viral hepatitis (DVH) and has led to a huge economic threat to the Asian duck industry. In this work, we investigated the differences in the LC-MS/MS-based dynamic lipid profiles between susceptible and resistant Pekin duck lines with DHAV-3 infection. We found that the plasma lipidome of the two duck lines was characterized differently in expression levels of lipids during the infection, such as decreased levels of glycerolipids and increased levels of cholesteryl esters and glycerophospholipids in susceptible ducks compared with resistant ducks. By integrating lipidomics and transcriptomics analysis, we showed that the altered homeostasis of lipids was potentially regulated by a variety of differentially expressed genes including CHPT1, PI4K2A, and OSBP2 between the two duck lines, which could account for liver dysfunction, apoptosis, and illness upon DHAV-3 infection. Using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) approach, we determined a total of 25 infection-related lipids that were able to distinguish between the infection states of susceptible and resistant ducks. This study provides molecular clues for elucidating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of DHAV-3 infection in ducklings, which has implication for the development of resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Patos , Lipidômica , Cromatografia Líquida , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Genótipo , Lipídeos
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 179, 2023 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37773135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a single-stranded, positive-strand small RNA virus that causes a very high mortality rate in ducklings. The DHAV-3 subtype incidence rate has recently increased in China, causing great economic losses to the waterfowl breeding industry. We analyzed the protection rate of DHAV vaccines used in mainland China from 2009 to 2021 and evaluated the effectiveness of vaccine prevention and control to reduce the economic losses caused by DHAV to the waterfowl breeding industry. We screened five electronic research databases and obtained 14 studies and patents on the protection efficiency of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 vaccines. RESULTS: Meta-analysis demonstrated that immunized ducklings produced higher antibody levels and had a significantly higher survival rate than non-immunized ducklings [relative risk (RR) = 12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6-26, P < 0.01]. The age of the ducks and vaccine valence did not affect protection efficiency. Data source analysis of the vaccine protection rate demonstrated that the vaccines conferred immune protection for ducklings in both small-scale experiments and large-scale clinical conditions. The analysis results revealed that although the vaccines conferred protection, the immune protective effect differed between small-scale experimental conditions and large-scale clinical conditions. This might have been due to non-standard vaccination and environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS: Domestic DHAV vaccines can protect ducklings effectively. The subjects immunized (breeding ducks or ducklings) and vaccine valence had no effect on the protective effect. Both small-scale experiments and large-scale clinical conditions conferred immune protection on ducklings, but vaccine immunization under small-scale experimental conditions had slightly better protective effects than large-scale clinical immunization.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas , Animais , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Patos
8.
Can J Vet Res ; 87(3): 169-175, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37397641

RESUMO

Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) was first reported from the serum and liver tissue of a horse diagnosed with Theiler's disease in the United States in 2018. Theiler's disease, also known as equine serum hepatitis, is a severe hepatitis with fulminant hepatic necrosis. The disease has most frequently been reported following the administration of equine-origin biological products; however, it has also been reported in in-contact horses with no prior biologic administration. EqPV-H has been detected in clinically healthy horses in North America (USA, Canada), Europe (Germany, Austria, Slovenia), Asia (China, South Korea), and South America (Brazil). Previous prevalence studies conducted worldwide have shown the presence of EqPV-H DNA in serum or plasma ranging from 3.2 to 19.8%. This study investigated the prevalence of EqPV-H DNA in 170 healthy broodmares of various breeds located on 37 farms in southern Ontario, Canada. The occurrence of EqPV-H infection was determined by quantitative PCR for EqPV-H DNA in serum samples. The effects of age, breed, season, pregnancy status, and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) vaccination history on EqPV-H status were also investigated. There was a prevalence of 15.9% (27/170) with viral loads of EqPV-H ranging from detectable to 2900 copies/mL. Statistical analysis showed that increasing age was a significant factor in the detection of EqPV-H DNA. Neither breed, season, pregnancy status, nor EHV-1 vaccination history was significant in predicting EqPV-H infection status.


L'hépatite à parvovirus équin (EqPV-H) a été signalée pour la première fois à partir du sérum et du tissu hépatique d'un cheval diagnostiqué avec la maladie de Theiler aux États-Unis en 2018. La maladie de Theiler, également connue sous le nom d'hépatite sérique équine, est une hépatite sévère avec nécrose hépatique fulminante. La maladie a été le plus souvent rapportée à la suite de l'administration de produits biologiques d'origine équine; cependant, il a également été signalé chez des chevaux en contact sans administration préalable de produit biologique. EqPV-H a été détecté chez des chevaux cliniquement sains en Amérique du Nord (États-Unis, Canada), en Europe (Allemagne, Autriche, Slovénie), en Asie (Chine, Corée du Sud) et en Amérique du Sud (Brésil). Des études de prévalence antérieures menées dans le monde entier ont montré la présence d'ADN EqPV-H dans le sérum ou le plasma allant de 3,2 à 19,8 %. Cette étude a examiné la prévalence de l'ADN EqPV-H chez 170 poulinières en bonne santé de différentes races situées dans 37 fermes du sud de l'Ontario, au Canada. La survenue d'une infection par EqPV-H a été déterminée par PCR quantitative pour l'ADN d'EqPV-H dans des échantillons de sérum. Les effets de l'âge, de la race, de la saison, de l'état de grossesse et des antécédents de vaccination contre l'herpèsvirus équin-1 (EHV-1) sur le statut EqPV-H ont également été étudiés. Il y avait une prévalence de 15,9 % (27/170) avec des charges virales d'EqPV-H allant de détectable à 2900 copies/mL. L'analyse statistique a montré que l'augmentation de l'âge était un facteur significatif dans la détection de l'ADN EqPV-H. Ni la race, ni la saison, ni l'état de grossesse, ni les antécédents de vaccination contre l'EHV-1 n'étaient significatifs pour prédire l'état de l'infection par l'EqPV-H.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepatite , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Doenças dos Cavalos , Infecções por Parvoviridae , Parvovirus , Animais , Cavalos , Gravidez , Feminino , Parvovirus/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 245: 125419, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37364809

RESUMO

In order to ascertain the mechanism underlying the therapeutic efficacy of Bush sophora root polysaccharides (BSRPS) and phosphorylated Bush sophora root polysaccharides (pBSRPS) in the treatment of in duck viral hepatitis (DVH), an investigation was conducted to assess the protective impact of BSRPS and pBSRPS against duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) induced mitochondrial dysfunction both in vivo and vitro. The BSRPS underwent modification through the utilization of the sodium trimetaphosphate - sodium tripolyphosphate method, and was subsequently characterized though Fourier infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Following this, the degree of mitochondrial oxidative damage and dysfunction was described through the use of fluorescence probes and various antioxidative enzyme assay kits. Furthermore, the utilization of transmission electron microscopy facilitated the observation of alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure within the liver tissue. Our findings demonstrated that both BSRPS and pBSRPS effectively mitigated mitochondrial oxidative stress and conserved mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by heightened antioxidant enzyme activity, augmented ATP production, and stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential. Meanwhile, the histological and biochemical examinations revealed that the administration of BSRPS and pBSRPS resulted in a reduction of focal necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells, thereby mitigating liver injury. Additionally, both BSRPS and pBSRPS exhibited the ability to maintain liver mitochondrial membrane integrity and enhance the survival rate of ducklings infected with DHAV-1. Notably, pBSRPS demonstrated superior performance in all aspects of mitochondrial function compared to BSRPS. The findings indicated that maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis is a crucial factor in DHAV-1 infections, and the administration of BSRPS and pBSRPS may mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction and safeguard liver function.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepatite Viral Humana , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Sophora , Animais , Hepatite Viral Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Patos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sophora/química , Mitocôndrias , Polissacarídeos/química , Hepatite Viral Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Poult Sci ; 102(7): 102724, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37207573

RESUMO

The placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) gene, also known as ONZIN or C15, codes for a cysteine-rich peptide originally identified in mouse placental tissue and subsequently identified in a variety of epithelial tissues and immune cells. PLAC8 is also expressed in birds, such as ducks, where its functional roles remain unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the mRNA and protein expression profiles and the functional role of duck PLAC8 during the infection of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1). We found that the duck PLAC8 is also a cysteine-rich polypeptide composed of 114 amino acid residues, with no signal peptide. Duck PLAC8 is highly expressed in the immune organs of young cherry valley ducks, including the thymus, bursa fabricius, and spleen. However, it has negligible expression level in liver, brain, kidney, and heart. Additionally, PLAC8 expression was considerably induced after DHAV-1 infection both in vitro and in vivo, especially in the immune organs of ducklings. This tissue expression distribution and induction upon infection suggest that PLAC8 might play a critical role in innate immunity. Our data showed that PLAC8 significantly suppressed the expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), leading to decreased expression of downstream signaling molecules including myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). This ultimately resulted in low levels of type I interferon and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Additionally, PLAC8 positively regulated DHAV-1 replication levels. RNAi against PLAC8 in duck embryo fibroblasts considerably inhibited DHAV-1 propagation, while PLAC8 overexpression significantly facilitated DHAV-1 replication.


Assuntos
Patos , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Cisteína , Patos/genética , Patos/virologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Placenta , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos
11.
Arch Virol ; 168(3): 85, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36763177

RESUMO

Research into disease pathogens can greatly benefit from viral metagenomics technology. Using this technique, we investigated potential disease pathogens that resulted in the death of many ducks on a duck farm. Two duck circoviruses (DuCV) and one duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were detected and identified, and all three strains were closely related to avian-associated viruses. Two duck circoviruses had 81.64%-97.65% genome-wide sequence identity to some reference strains, and duck hepatitis B virus shared 75.85%-98.92% identity with other strains. Clinical characteristics of the diseased ducks, including ruffled feathers, lethargy, and weight loss, were comparable to those observed in cases of DuCV infection. Further research is needed to determine whether coinfection with DHBV leads to liver damage and exacerbation of the disease.


Assuntos
Avihepadnavirus , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Animais , Patos , Fazendas , DNA Viral , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Fígado
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 277: 109621, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525908

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) infection causes an acute and highly fatal disease in young ducklings. Exosomes are nano-sized small extracellular vesicles secreted by various cells, which participate in intercellular communication and play a key role in the physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of exosomes in DHAV-1 transmission remains unknown. In this study, through RT-PCR, WB analysis and TEM observation, the complete DHAV-1 genomic RNA, partial viral proteins, and virions were respectively identified in the exosomes derived from DHAV-1-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). The productive DHAV-1 infection was transmitted by exosomes in DEFs, duck embryos, and ducklings, and high titers of neutralizing antibodies completely blocked DHAV-1 infection but did not significantly neutralize exosome-mediated DHAV-1 infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that exosome-mediated DHAV-1 infection was resistant to antibody neutralization in vivo and in vitro, which might be an immune evasion mechanism of DHAV-1.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/genética , Exossomos/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Patos
13.
Avian Pathol ; 52(2): 89-99, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571394

RESUMO

Duck viral hepatitis (DVH), mainly caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), is a highly fatal and rapidly spreading infectious disease of young ducklings that seriously jeopardizes the duck industry worldwide. DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) is the main genotype responsible for disease outbreaks since 1945, and the disease situation is complicated by the emergence and dissemination of a novel genotype (DHAV-3) in some countries in Asia and Africa. Live attenuated DHAV vaccines are widely used to induce a considerable degree of protection in ducklings. Breeder ducks are immunized with inactivated or/and live DHAV vaccines to achieve satisfactory levels of passive immunity in progeny. In addition, novel characteristics of virus transmission, pathogenicity and pathogenesis of DHAV were recently characterized, necessitating the development of new vaccines and effective vaccination programmes against DVH. Therefore, a systematic dissection of the profiles, strengths and shortcomings of the available DHAV vaccines is essential. Moreover, to further increase the efficiency of vaccine production and administration, the development of next-generation DHAV vaccines using cutting-edge technologies is also required. In this review, based on a comprehensive summary of the research advances in the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and genomic features of DHAV, we focus on reviewing and analysing the features of the commercial and experimental DHAV vaccines. We also propose perspectives for disease control based on the specific disease situations in different countries. This review provides essential information for vaccine development and disease control of DVH.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinação/veterinária , Patos
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21743, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526693

RESUMO

In 2019, outbreaks of hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were observed in six commercial layer chicken flocks, belonging to three different Polish farms, and characterized by increased mortality, hemorrhagic hepatitis with attached blood clots on the liver surface, and splenomegaly. Diseased flocks were initially investigated for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) - the etiological agent of HSS - by conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, which revealed aHEV sequences clustering separately from all known aHEV genotypes. Additionally, an aHEV genome was identified for the first time in common pheasants, from a flock in France, using Next Generation Sequencing. This genome clustered together with the Polish aHEVs here investigated. Complete genome aHEV sequences from the HSS outbreaks confirmed the divergent cluster, with a shared nucleotide sequence identity of 79.6-83.2% with other aHEVs, which we propose to comprise a novel aHEV genotype - genotype 7. Histology and immunohistochemistry investigations in the liver and spleen established an association between aHEV and the observed lesions in the affected birds, consolidating the knowledge on the pathogenesis of aHEV, which is still largely unknown. Thus, the present investigation extends the natural host range and genotypes of aHEV and strengthens knowledge on the pathogenesis of HSS.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Vírus de RNA , Animais , Hepevirus/genética , Galinhas , Esplenomegalia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Genótipo , Codorniz , Filogenia
15.
Virol J ; 19(1): 175, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Theiler's disease, a.k.a. equine serum hepatitis, is a devastating, highly fatal disease of horses. Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has been identified as the likely cause of this disease. While the incidence of Theiler's disease is low, the prevalence of EqPV-H DNA in horses is high, with up to 37% in some regions, suggesting that subclinical or persistent infection is common. METHODS: To determine the prevalence and pathogenicity of EqPV-H infection at New York racetracks, DNA was extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues from racehorses submitted for necropsy to the Animal Health Diagnostic Center as part of the New York State Gaming Commission-Cornell University postmortem examination program. A total of 191 liver samples from horses between 2 and 13 years old were evaluated. Extracted DNA was tested for EqPV-H using PCR and gel electrophoresis. PCR-positive samples were further assessed for tissue morphology using histology and detection of viral nucleic acid using in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Forty-two samples were PCR positive (22%). Of those, 31 samples had positive viral nucleic acid hybridization in hepatocytes with 11 samples showing positive hybridization in necrotic hepatocytes associated with inflammatory cells, indicating active hepatitis. Both individual hepatocyte necrosis and hepatitis were positively associated with EqPV-H detection (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0005, respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that presence of EqPV-H in the liver and parvoviral-associated hepatitis are prevalent in racehorses from New York racetracks, thus warranting additional studies examining potential associations between EqPV-H infection and racehorse performance.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepatite , Doenças dos Cavalos , Parvovirinae , Parvovirus , Cavalos , Animais , Prevalência , New York , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 36(6): 2238-2244, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine parvovirus hepatitis (EqPV-H) is highly prevalent and causes subclinical to fatal hepatitis, which can occur in outbreaks. Whereas iatrogenic transmission is well documented, the mode of horizontal transmission is not known. The virus is shed in nasal, oral and fecal secretions, and PO transmission has been reported in a single horse. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: Investigate the efficiency of PO and nasal transmission of EqPV-H in a larger cohort. METHODS: Prospective experimental transmission study. Eleven EqPV-H-negative horses were inoculated with 5 × 106 genome equivalents EqPV-H. Serum PCR and serology for EqPV-H were performed weekly and monthly, respectively. Horses first were inoculated PO, and then intranasally 8 weeks later. RESULTS: No horse became viremic or seroconverted within 8 weeks after PO inoculation. After intranasal inoculation, 5 horses became viremic within 6 to 12 weeks and seroconverted within 10 to 19 weeks. After a period without monitoring from 12 to 19 weeks postinoculation, another 5 horses were found to be viremic at 19 to 22 weeks. The second set of 5 horses could have been infected by horizontal transmission from the first 5 because of cohousing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: We demonstrated that EqPV-H can be transmitted nasally. The prolonged eclipse phase before detectable viremia indicates biosecurity measures to control spread could be impractical.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepatite , Doenças dos Cavalos , Infecções por Parvoviridae , Parvovirus , Cavalos , Animais , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(6): e3455-e3461, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271506

RESUMO

Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) is one of the etiological agents of Theiler's disease, causing fulminant hepatitis; however, its transmission route and pathogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine EqPV-H shedding in oral/nasal/vaginal swabs or semen samples from horses living in Korea using nested polymerase chain reaction. We then used the data obtained to investigate various risk factors associated with EqPV-H including viral shedding, hepatopathological changes, and genetic diversity. Our data revealed occurrence of EqPV-H shedding in these animals (oral: 3/102 [2.9%]; nasal: 3/102 [2.9%]; semen: 1/9 [11.1%]) and identified that both age and country of foaling were significantly associated with EqPV-H shedding (p < .05). In addition, we noted that one of the newly isolated strains clustered separately from the other strains in the phylogenetic tree, revealing unique nucleotide and amino acid substitutions. This is a field surveillance study providing evidence of natural and venereal shedding of EqPV-H and describing its presence in both oral/nasal fluids and semen. This epidemiological and clinical analysis may help specify the clinicopathological features of EqPV-H and facilitate the development of novel disease prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepatite , Doenças dos Cavalos , Infecções por Parvoviridae , Parvovirinae , Parvovirus , Feminino , Animais , Cavalos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Filogenia , Sêmen , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , República da Coreia
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 105: 105366, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115642

RESUMO

In recent years, fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) continue to outbreak and cause huge economic losses to the poultry industry in China. The homologous recombination accounts for the diversity serotypes of adenovirus. However, the prevalence, recombination and pathogenicity of current FAdVs remain unclear. Herein, the prevalence, phylogenetic feature and pathogenicity of FAdVs in China in 2019 were characterized. Our findings showed that multiple species and serotypes of FAdVs currently circulate in China, including A, C, D and E species, and 1, 2, 4, 8a and 8b serotypes. Notably, the recombination occurred between FAdV-8a and FAdV-8b, and the recombination regions included Hexon, Fiber, ORF19 and ORF20. All five FAdVs replicated effectively in various chicken tissues, and viral shedding peaked at 4-8 dpi. Except CH/GDSZ/1905(FAdV-1/A), the remaining FAdVs caused obvious inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) in 3-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, of which CH/JSXZ/1905(FAdV-4/C) caused hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS) with a mortality rate of 62.5%. Taken together, our findings illustrate the prevalence, recombination and pathogenicity of current FAdVs in China and strengthen surveillance and further pathogenicity studies of FAdVs are extremely urgent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Aviadenovirus , Hepatite Viral Animal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Filogenia , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Sorogrupo , China/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 274: 109557, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088712

RESUMO

Theiler's disease (TD) is a (sub-)acute hepatitis in adult horses and one of the most common causes of acute hepatic failure. Recent findings indicate that equine parvovirus hepatitis (EqPV-H) likely causes TD and that its transmission occurs via iatrogenic and/or natural routes. Following the death of an EqPV-H positive mare with TD, close-contact mares and foals in the same paddock were monitored to evaluate if there was any evidence of EqPV-H. For this purpose, the serum of close contact horses was examined 6 and 42 days after the mare's death for the presence of EqPV-H DNA and changes in liver-associated serum biochemical parameters. The foals had higher EqPV-H viral loads than the mares. Apart from the mare that was euthanized, none of the horses included in this study showed signs of severe disease and nor did they have particularly elevated liver enzymes. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed no major differences between the viral DNA detected in the serum of the dead mare and any of the in-contact horses. In conclusion, our data confirmed previous findings that horizontal transmission of EqPV-H may occur through close contact between horses.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepatite , Doenças dos Cavalos , Infecções por Parvoviridae , Parvovirinae , Parvovirus , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Parvovirus/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , DNA Viral/genética
20.
Virus Res ; 322: 198930, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) has a significant economic impact on duck industry, and duck hepatitis A virus genotype 3 (DHAV-3) is the most prevalent pathogen of DVH in Asian duck industry. The detailed study connecting differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the differential resistance to DHAV-3 have not been accurately described, although a large numbers of DEGs have been identified by transcriptomic studies. RESULTS: Here, a resistant Pekin duck line (Z8R) and a susceptible Pekin duck line (Z8S) as models, high mortality and dramatically increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the expression of immune-related genes of Z8S group were shown to be noticeable signs of cases caused by DHAV-3 infection. Compared with the control (Con) group, 1117 down-regulated DEGs and 612 up-regulated DEGs were found in the Z8S group and 37 down-regulated DEGs and 82 up-regulated DEGs were found in the Z8R group. Ultimately, the expression patterns of 10 DEGs were found to be diametrically opposite in Z8R and Z8S group. Functional analysis revealed that IFITM1 was associated with cell growth suppression, which was considered a key candidate gene. Results of flow cytometry showed that the conserved regions of IFITM1 (213-317 bp) could affected the cell cycle of duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells after infection with DHAV-3. Transcriptome and western blot analysis suggested that the CCND1, CCNE1 and CDK6 were significantly up-regulated in susceptible ducks by comparing with Con group. CONCLUSIONS: The hepatic injury and pathogenic outcomes caused by DHAV-3 infection were more severe in Z8S group compared to Z8R. Results of transcriptomics analysis and flow cytometry suggested that DHAV-3 infection can induce cell cycle changes that may be associated with IFITM1 expression level. These data will greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of DHAV-3 infection in ducklings and have implications for development of resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Patos , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Transcriptoma
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...