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1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1329820, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590526

RESUMO

The immune system of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is poorly studied, compared to that of livestock, rodents or humans. The innate immune response has become a focus of interest in relation to Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs). EEHVs cause a fatal hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) and are a significant threat to captive Asian elephant populations worldwide. Similar to other herpesvirus infections, nearly all animals become infected, but only some develop disease. As progression to EEHV-HD is often acute, a robust innate immune response is crucial to control EEHV infections. This is invariably true of the host in the first instance, but it can also potentially be modulated by intervention strategies. Here, two immunostimulant veterinary medicinal products, authorized for use in domestic species, were tested for their ability to induce innate anti-viral immune responses in Asian elephant blood cells. Sequence data were obtained for a range of previously unidentified Asian elephant immune genes, including C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and myxovirus GTPase 1 (Mx1), and were employed in the design of species-specific qPCR assays. These assays were subsequently used in analyses to determine fold changes in gene expression over a period of 24 hours. This study demonstrates that both immunostimulant medications are capable of inducing significant innate anti-viral immune responses which suggests that both could be beneficial in controlling EEHV infections in Asian elephants.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Elefantes/genética , DNA Bacteriano , Células Sanguíneas , Imunidade Inata , Plasmídeos , Imunização , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Expressão Gênica
3.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299404, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446776

RESUMO

Otariid gammaherpesvirus 1 (OtGHV1) is associated with high rates of urogenital carcinoma in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus; CSL), and until recently was reported only in the Northern Hemisphere. The objective of this study was to survey free-ranging South American sea lions (Otaria byronia; SASL) and South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis: SAFS) in Punta San Juan, Peru for OtGHV1 and to determine prevalence characteristics. Twenty-one percent (14/67) of urogenital swabs collected over three years (2011, 2014, 2015) from live pinnipeds of both species tested positive with a pan-herpesvirus conventional PCR. Sequencing of SAFS amplicons revealed 100% homology to OtGHV1 at the DNA polymerase, glycoprotein B, and viral bcl2-like genes. Sequencing of SASL amplicons revealed a novel related virus, herein called Otariid gammaherpesvirus 8 (OtGHV8). For comparison of sample sites, urogenital, conjunctival, and oropharyngeal swabs collected from 136 live pinnipeds of both species at Punta San Juan between 2011-2018 were then assayed using quantitative PCR for a segment of the OtGHV1/8 DNA polymerase gene using a qPCR assay now determined to cross-react between the two viruses. In total, across both species, 38.6% (51/132) of urogenital swabs, 5.6% (4/71) of conjunctival swabs, and 1.1% (1/90) of oropharyngeal swabs were positive for OtGHV1/8, with SASL only positive on urogenital swabs. Results from SASL were complicated by the finding of OtGHV8, necessitating further study to determine prevalence of OtGHV1 versus OtGHV8 using an alternate assay. Results from SAFS suggest a potential relationship between OtGHV1 in SAFS and CSL. Though necropsy surveillance in SAFS is very limited, geographic patterns of OtGHV1-associated urogenital carcinoma in CSL and the tendency of herpesviruses to cause more detrimental disease in aberrant hosts suggests that it is possible that SAFS may be the definitive host of OtGHV1, which gives further insight into the diversity and phyogeography of this clade of related gammaherpesviruses.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Carcinoma , Otárias , Gammaherpesvirinae , Herpesviridae , Leões-Marinhos , Animais , Humanos , Prevalência , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Peru/epidemiologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 182-194, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453501

RESUMO

This study examined the viral shedding kinetics of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) compared to viral shedding behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Little is known about the transmission dynamics and epidemiology of this disease in African elephants. In light of recent clinical cases and mortalities, this paper aims to identify trends in viral biology. Trunk wash samples were collected from 22 African elephants from four North American zoological institutions that had recently experienced herd viremias or translocations. Processing of these samples included DNA extraction followed by qPCR to quantitate viral DNA load. The results were then compared with available literature that chronicled similar cases in Asian and African elephants. Minimal EEHV shedding was detected in response to varied herd translocations. Increased shedding was recorded in herds in which an elephant experienced an EEHV viremia when compared to baseline shedding. These index infections were followed by subsequent viremias in other elephants, although it is not known if these were recrudescence, transient controlled viremias, and/or primary infections via transmission to other elephants. When compared to historically published data, it was observed that EEHV3 cases in African elephants and EEHV1A cases in Asian elephants had consistently higher levels of viral DNA in the blood than were shed in trunk secretions, a fact that is seemingly inconsistent with such severe cases of disease and the high mortality rates associated with those respective types. The findings produced in this study highlight the need for more routine monitoring of viral shedding in African elephant herds to elucidate possible EEHV transmission and recrudescence factors for ex situ population management.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , DNA Viral/genética , Viremia/veterinária , Animais de Zoológico/genética , Herpesviridae/genética , Recidiva
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 164-172, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453499

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can induce fatal hemorrhagic disease (HD) in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Once clinical signs develop, progression is rapid, even with aggressive treatment. There is a critical need to develop point-of-care diagnostic tests to aid in identification of EEHV-HD prior to the onset of overt clinical signs. Study objectives were to investigate a novel, point-of-care viscoelastic coagulation monitor (VCM Vet), compare the results to thromboelastography (TEG), and report traditional hemostatic analytes in adult African elephants. Whole blood was collected from seven clinically healthy elephants (four females and three males, 18-47 yr) and analyzed in duplicate via VCM Vet and kaolin-activated TEG 1-3 and 30 min following collection, respectively. Separated plasma was frozen for ancillary coagulation testing. Both analyses generated quantifiable clotting reactions with variables (median [range]) describing clot formation rate (VCM Vet, clot time = 682 s [530-987 s], clot formation time = 244 s [186-744 s], Alpha = 40° [14-47°]; TEG, reaction time = 6.2 min [3.7-11.8 min], kinetic time = 1.3 min [0.9-2.6 min], Alpha = 70° [57-77°]), clot strength (VCM Vet, maximum clot formation = 34 units [20-45 units]; TEG, maximum amplitude = 75 mm [69-80 mm], shear elastic modulus strength = 14.7 Kdynes/s [11.3-19.5 Kdynes/s]), and clot lysis (VCM Vet, lysis index at 30 min = 100% [100-99%], lysis index at 45 min = 98% [95-100%]; TEG, lysis index at 30 min = 0% [0-0.4%], lysis index at 60 min = 1.4% [0-2.6%]) recorded. Additional testing (median [range]) included D-dimer concentration (33 ng/ml [28-94 ng/ml]), prothrombin time (12.4 s [12.2-13.2 s]), activated partial thromboplastin time (17.2 s [14.2-18.8 s]), and fibrinogen concentration (297 [282-383] mg/dL). Tracings generated by VCM Vet and TEG were clinically similar, and there was visual agreement and minimal difference between quantitative variables for duplicate tests. VCM Vet is a promising, user-friendly tool for use in identification and management of coagulopathies in African elephants.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Herpesviridae , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Tromboelastografia/veterinária , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Coagulação Sanguínea , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/veterinária
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 290-294, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453514

RESUMO

Multiple species of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) have caused fatal hemorrhagic disease in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. To date, EEHV7 has been detected only in benign pulmonary and skin nodules and in saliva of African elephants and has not been associated with clinical illness. Low-level viremia due to EEHV7A was detected via qPCR in two subadult African elephants during routine surveillance. Hematologic changes were noted in both elephants, including leukopenia, lymphopenia, monocytopenia, and band heterophilia. Treatment was initiated with famciclovir, antimicrobials, and rectal fluids, and one elephant received plasma transfusions due to a progressive decrease in platelet count. Both elephants remained asymptomatic throughout the viremias, with rapid resolution of hematologic abnormalities. These cases add to the current understanding of the epidemiology of EEHV in African elephants; to the authors' knowledge, they represent the first documentation of clinical disease due to EEHV7 infection in any elephant.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Humanos , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Famciclovir/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Viremia/veterinária
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 106, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV) and Feline calicivirus (FCV) are the primary co-infecting pathogens that cause upper respiratory tract disease in cats. However, there are currently no visual detection assays available for on-site testing. Here, we develop an ultrasensitive and visual detection method based on dual recombinase polymerase amplification (dRPA) reaction and the hybrid Cas12a/Cas13a trans-cleavage activities in a one-tube reaction system, referred to as one-tube dRPA-Cas12a/Cas13a assay. RESULTS: The recombinant plasmid DNAs, crRNAs, and RPA oligonucleotides targeting the FCV ORF1 gene and FHV-1 TK gene were meticulously prepared. Subsequently, dual RPA reactions were performed followed by screening of essential reaction components for hybrid CRISPR-Cas12a (targeting the FHV-1 TK gene) and CRISPR-Cas13a (targeting the FCV ORF1 gene) trans-cleavage reaction. As a result, we successfully established an ultra-sensitive and visually detectable method for simultaneous detection of FCV and FHV-1 nucleic acids using dRPA and CRISPR/Cas-powered technology in one-tube reaction system. Visual readouts were displayed using either a fluorescence detector (Fluor-based assay) or lateral flow dipsticks (LDF-based assay). As expected, this optimized assay exhibited high specificity towards only FHV-1 and FCV without cross-reactivity with other feline pathogens while achieving accurate detection for both targets with limit of detection at 2.4 × 10- 1 copies/µL for the FHV-1 TK gene and 5.5 copies/µL for the FCV ORF1 gene, respectively. Furthermore, field detection was conducted using the dRPA-Cas12a/Cas13a assay and the reference real-time PCR methods for 56 clinical samples collected from cats with URTD. Comparatively, the results of Fluor-based assay were in exceptional concordance with the reference real-time PCR methods, resulting in high sensitivity (100% for both FHV-1 and FCV), specificity (100% for both FHV-1 and FCV), as well as consistency (Kappa values were 1.00 for FHV-1 and FCV). However, several discordant results for FHV-1 detection were observed by LDF-based assay, which suggests its prudent use and interpretaion for clinical detection. In spite of this, incorporating dRPA-Cas12a/Cas13a assay and visual readouts will facilitate rapid and accurate detection of FHV-1 and FCV in resource-limited settings. CONCLUSIONS: The one-tube dRPA-Cas12a/Cas13a assay enables simultaneously ultrasensitive and visual detection of FHV-1 and FCV with user-friendly modality, providing unparalleled convenience for FHV-1 and FCV co-infection surveillance and decision-making of URTD management.


Assuntos
Calicivirus Felino , Herpesviridae , Varicellovirus , Gatos , Animais , Recombinases/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474070

RESUMO

The herpesviral nuclear egress represents an essential step of viral replication efficiency in host cells, as it defines the nucleocytoplasmic release of viral capsids. Due to the size limitation of the nuclear pores, viral nuclear capsids are unable to traverse the nuclear envelope without a destabilization of this natural host-specific barrier. To this end, herpesviruses evolved the regulatory nuclear egress complex (NEC), composed of a heterodimer unit of two conserved viral NEC proteins (core NEC) and a large-size extension of this complex including various viral and cellular NEC-associated proteins (multicomponent NEC). Notably, the NEC harbors the pronounced ability to oligomerize (core NEC hexamers and lattices), to multimerize into higher-order complexes, and, ultimately, to closely interact with the migrating nuclear capsids. Moreover, most, if not all, of these NEC proteins comprise regulatory modifications by phosphorylation, so that the responsible kinases, and additional enzymatic activities, are part of the multicomponent NEC. This sophisticated basis of NEC-specific structural and functional interactions offers a variety of different modes of antiviral interference by pharmacological or nonconventional inhibitors. Since the multifaceted combination of NEC activities represents a highly conserved key regulatory stage of herpesviral replication, it may provide a unique opportunity towards a broad, pan-antiherpesviral mechanism of drug targeting. This review presents an update on chances, challenges, and current achievements in the development of NEC-directed antiherpesviral strategies.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus , Herpesviridae , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Simplexvirus/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(11): e2309841121, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442151

RESUMO

The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a key player in the major histocompatibility class I-restricted antigen presentation and an attractive target for immune evasion by viruses. Bovine herpesvirus 1 impairs TAP-dependent antigenic peptide transport through a two-pronged mechanism in which binding of the UL49.5 gene product to TAP both inhibits peptide transport and triggers its proteasomal degradation. How UL49.5 promotes TAP degradation has, so far, remained unknown. Here, we use high-content siRNA and genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to identify CLR2KLHDC3 as the E3 ligase responsible for UL49.5-triggered TAP disposal. We propose that the C terminus of UL49.5 mimics a C-end rule degron that recruits the E3 to TAP and engages the cullin-RING E3 ligase in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Herpesviridae , Apresentação de Antígeno , Citomegalovirus , Degradação Associada com o Retículo Endoplasmático , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Peptídeos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Herpesviridae/fisiologia
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 173-181, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453500

RESUMO

Detailed knowledge of biological variation can facilitate accurate interpretation of clinical pathology parameters. A recent biological variation study in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) found that hematology parameters had high individuality, which suggests that population-derived reference intervals may be an insensitive diagnostic tool. In elephant medicine, sensitive hematology-related diagnostics are crucial for clinical decision-making, particularly in elephants at risk for elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD). The objective of this study was to assess biological variation of hematology parameters in African elephants to determine whether population-derived reference intervals are a sensitive diagnostic tool for interpreting results and to provide a useful alternative. Eight healthy African elephants had blood collected under behavioral training every other week for 8 wk. Complete blood cell count (CBC) analysis was performed in duplicate to assess analytical variation. Previous methods were used to determine between-individual variation, within-individual variation, index of individuality, and reference change values (RCV). This study found that most hematology parameters displayed intermediate-to-high individuality, which suggests that alternatives to population-derived reference intervals are necessary to detect pathologic changes. To test the results of our biological variation data, a case of EEHV-HD was retrospectively evaluated. Individual normal values and calculated RCV detected a clinically significant monocytopenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia associated with EEHV2 viremia. However, none of these parameters fell outside a population-derived reference interval. This study highlights the utility of biological variation in clinical decision-making and demonstrates that individual normal values and RCV may be important diagnostic tools for CBC interpretation in African elephants.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Hematologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 157: 129-133, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546196

RESUMO

Mass mortality of farmed 1 yr old common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred at a carp farm in April 2022. In addition to high mortality, diseased fish exhibited papillomatous growths on the skin and fins, characteristic of carp pox. To investigate a possible viral cause, tissue samples were collected and nucleic acid was extracted using standard procedures. In a pooled sample from the gills and kidneys, carp edema virus (CEV) was detected by real-time PCR. In a skin tissue sample with papillomatous growths, cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV1) was detected by a conventional PCR targeting a conserved region of the DNA polymerase of cyprinid herpesviruses. PCR products were visualized through agarose gel electrophoresis, and the presence of CyHV1 DNA was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This represents the first molecular confirmation of CyHV1 in common carp in Serbia.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Herpesviridae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária
12.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 157: 113-127, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546195

RESUMO

Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and its microvariants (µVars) cause economically devastating mass mortalities of oysters and pose a threat to the shellfish aquaculture industry globally. OsHV-1 outbreaks can cause up to 100% mortality in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. However, OsHV-1 and its variants have a broad host range and can infect at least 7 bivalve species, including bay scallops Argopecten irradians and eastern oysters C. virginica. Determining the susceptibility of economically and ecologically important bivalve species to OsHV-1 is critical for improving biosecurity and disease management to protect the aquaculture industry. Surveys of eastern oysters were conducted in June to August 2021 in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay to determine the prevalence and viral load of OsHV-1 at 5 aquaculture farms. Using quantitative PCR, OsHV-1 was not detected at any sites. Experiments examined the susceptibility of single stocks of eastern oysters and hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria to the virus and their ability to horizontally transmit it using OsHV-1 µVar SD (San Diego, California) and OsHV-1 µVar FRA (Marennes-Olreon, France). Results showed that OsHV-1 µVars did not cause mortality or symptomatic infection in the single stocks of eastern oysters and hard clams used in these experiments using natural infection pathways. However, the eastern oyster stock, when injected with OsHV-1, did transmit the virus to naïve Pacific oysters. Further experimentation using additional stocks and lines and establishment of surveillance programs along the east and Gulf coasts of the USA are necessary to prepare for the potential spread and impact of OsHV-1 related disease.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Vírus de DNA , Herpesviridae , Animais , Maryland , Frutos do Mar , Aquicultura
13.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543746

RESUMO

Koi herpesvirus (KHV, CyHV-3) causes severe economic losses in carp farms. Its eradication is challenging due to the establishment of latency in blood leukocytes and other tissues. To understand the molecular mechanisms leading to KHV infection in leukocytes, common carp were bath-exposed to KHV at 17 °C. After confirming the presence of viral transcripts in blood leukocytes at ten days post infection, RNA-Seq was performed on peripheral blood leukocytes on the Illumina NovaSeq. KHV infection triggered a robust immune response mediated by pattern recognition receptors, mainly toll-like receptors (tlr2, tlr5, tlr7, and tlr13), urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor-like, galectin proteins, and lipid mediators such as leukotriene B4 receptor 1. Enriched pathways showed increased mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation and the activation of signalling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). KHV-infected leukocytes showed low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione metabolism, high iron export and phagocytosis activity, and low autophagy. Macrophage polarization was deduced from the up-regulation of genes such as arginase non-hepatic 1-like, macrophage mannose receptor-1, crem, il-10, and il-13 receptors, while markers for cytotoxic T cells were observed to be down-regulated. Further work is required to characterise these leukocyte subsets and the molecular events leading to KHV latency in blood leukocytes.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Herpesviridae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos
14.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543829

RESUMO

Pseudorabies is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. Currently, PRV is predominantly endemoepidemic and has caused significant economic losses among domestic pigs. Other animals have been proven to be susceptible to PRV, with a mortality rate of 100%. In addition, 30 human cases of PRV infection have been reported in China since 2017, and all patients have shown severe neurological symptoms and eventually died or developed various neurological sequelae. In these cases, broad-spectrum anti-herpesvirus drugs and integrated treatments were mostly applied. However, the inhibitory effect of the commonly used anti-herpesvirus drugs (e.g., acyclovir, etc.) against PRV were evaluated and found to be limited in this study. It is therefore urgent and important to develop drugs that are clinically effective against PRV infection. Here, we constructed a high-throughput method for screening antiviral drugs based on fluorescence-tagged PRV strains and multi-modal microplate readers that detect fluorescence intensity to account for virus proliferation. A total of 2104 small molecule drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were studied and validated by applying this screening model, and 104 drugs providing more than 75% inhibition of fluorescence intensity were selected. Furthermore, 10 drugs that could significantly inhibit PRV proliferation in vitro were strictly identified based on their cytopathic effects, virus titer, and viral gene expression, etc. Based on the determined 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), the selectivity index (SI) was calculated to be 26.3-3937.2 for these 10 drugs, indicating excellent drugability. The antiviral effects of the 10 drugs were then assessed in a mouse model. It was found that 10 mg/kg brincidofovir administered continuously for 5 days provided 100% protection in mice challenged with lethal doses of the human-origin PRV strain hSD-1/2019. Brincidofovir significantly attenuated symptoms and pathological changes in infected mice. Additionally, time-of-addition experiments confirmed that brincidofovir inhibited the proliferation of PRV mainly by interfering with the viral replication stage. Therefore, this study confirms that brincidofovir can significantly inhibit PRV both in vitro and in vivo and is expected to be an effective drug candidate for the clinical treatment of PRV infections.


Assuntos
Citosina/análogos & derivados , Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Organofosfonatos , Pseudorraiva , Doenças dos Suínos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Suínos , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Pseudorraiva/patologia , Replicação Viral , Proliferação de Células , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4677, 2024 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409362

RESUMO

Infectious diseases challenge health and welfare of humans and animals. Unlike for humans, breeding of genetically resistant animals is a sustainable solution, also providing unique research opportunities. Chances to survive a disease are improved by disease resistance, but depend also on chances to get infected and infect others. Considerable knowledge exists on chances of susceptible and resistant animals to survive a disease, yet, almost none on their infectivity and if and how resistance and infectivity correlate. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is widely produced in aquaculture, suffering significantly from a disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus type 3 (CyHV-3). Here, the infectivity of disease-resistant and susceptible fish types was tested by playing roles of shedders (infecting) and cohabitants (infected) in all four type-role combinations. Resistant shedders restricted spleen viral load and survived more than susceptible ones. However, mortality of susceptible cohabitants infected by resistant shedders was lower than that of resistant cohabitants infected by susceptible shedders. Virus levels in water were lower in tanks with resistant shedders leading to lower spleen viral loads in cohabitants. Thus, we empirically demonstrated that disease resistant fish survive better and infect less, with implications to epidemiology in general and to the benefit of aquaculture production.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Humanos , Resistência à Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças
17.
Acta Trop ; 252: 107127, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316240

RESUMO

Virus surveillance in wildlife is important to understanding ecosystem health, taxonomy, and evolution. Nevertheless, viruses in reptiles, and specifically in squamates, continue to be understudied. Herein, we conducted a health assessment on the critically endangered Galapagos pink land iguana (Conolophus marthae) and the vulnerable Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus). We collected oral and/or cloacal swabs from 47 clinically healthy iguanas and tested for adenovirus (cloacal swabs, n = 47) and herpesvirus (oral swabs, n = 45) using broad-spectrum PCRs. Two out of 38 (5.3 %) Galapagos pink land iguanas tested positive for herpesvirus, while no herpesvirus was detected in all Galapagos land iguanas (n = 7). Both herpesviral sequences were identical between them and divergent (61.9 % amino acid identity) when compared to the closest herpesvirus sequences available in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ. The genetic distance between this and other herpesviruses is consistent with its classification as a novel virus species. All iguanas were negative for adenovirus. This is the first description of a herpesvirus in iguanas of the Galapagos islands, and the first report of a potential pathogen for the iconic Galapagos pink land iguana. Further research is needed to understand the implications of this virus in the conservation and management of one of the most endangered iguana species in the world.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Iguanas , Lagartos , Animais , Iguanas/genética , Ecossistema , Herpesviridae/genética , Animais Selvagens , Equador
18.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400043

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs), of which eleven (sub)species are currently distinguished, infect either Asian (Elephas maximus) or African elephants (Loxodonta species). While all adult elephants are latently infected with at least one EEHV (sub)species, young elephants, specifically those with low to non-detectable EEHV-specific antibody levels, may develop fatal hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) upon infection. However, animals with high antibody levels against EEHV(1A) gB, an immunodominant antigen recognized by antibodies elicited against multiple (sub)species, may also occasionally succumb to EEHV-HD. To better define which animals are at risk of EEHV-HD, gB and gH/gL ELISAs were developed for each of the Asian elephant EEHV subspecies and assessed using 396 sera from 164 Asian elephants from European zoos. Antibody levels measured against gB of different (sub)species correlated strongly with one another, suggesting high cross-reactivity. Antibody levels against gH/gL of different subspecies were far less correlated and allowed differentiation between these (sub)species. Importantly, while high gB-specific antibody levels were detected in the sera of several EEHV-HD fatalities, all fatalities (n = 23) had low antibody levels against gH/gL of the subspecies causing disease. Overall, our data indicate that (sub)species-specific gH/gL ELISAs can be used to identify animals at risk of EEHV-HD when infected with a particular EEHV (sub)species.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Transtornos Hemorrágicos , Herpes Simples , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária
19.
Virol J ; 21(1): 49, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viruses within the γ-herpesviruses subfamily include the causative agents of Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) in several species of the order Artiodactyla. MCF is a usually fatal lymphoproliferative disease affecting non-adapted host species. In adapted host species these viruses become latent and recrudesce and transmit during times of stress or immunosuppression. The undetected presence of MCF-causing viruses (MCFVs) is a risk to non-adapted hosts, especially within non-sympatric zoological collections. This study investigated the presence of MCFVs in six different zoological collections in the UK, to evaluate the presence of subclinical/latent MCFVs in carrier animals. METHODS: One-hundred and thirty eight samples belonging to 54 different species of Artiodactyla were tested by Consensus Pan-herpes PCR. The positive samples were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses to understand their own evolutionary relationships and those with their hosts. RESULTS: Twenty-five samples from 18 different species tested positive. All viruses but one clustered in the γ-herpesvirus family and within the Macavirus as well as the non-Macavirus groups (caprinae and alcelaphinae/hippotraginae clusters, respectively). A strong association between virus and host species was evident in the Macavirus group and clustering within the caprinae group indicated potential pathogenicity. CONCLUSION: This study shows the presence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic MCFVs, as well as other γ-herpesviruses, in Artiodactyla species of conservation importance and allowed the identification of new herpesviruses in some non-adapted species.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Herpesviridae , Febre Catarral Maligna , Animais , Bovinos , Filogenia , Herpesviridae/genética , Ruminantes , Febre Catarral Maligna/patologia
20.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 157: 45-59, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299849

RESUMO

White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is the primary species used for caviar and sturgeon meat production in the USA. An important pathogen of white sturgeon is acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2). In this study, 4 archived isolates from temporally discrete natural outbreaks spanning the past 30 yr were sequenced via Illumina and Oxford Nanopore Technologies platforms. Assemblies of approximately 134 kb were obtained for each isolate, and the putative ATPase subunit of the terminase gene was selected as a potential quantitative PCR (qPCR) target based on sequence conservation among AciHV-2 isolates and low sequence homology with other important viral pathogens. The qPCR was repeatable and reproducible, with a linear dynamic range covering 5 orders of magnitude, an efficiency of approximately 96%, an R2 of 0.9872, and an analytical sensitivity of 103 copies per reaction after 35 cycles. There was no cross-reaction with other known viruses or closely related sturgeon species, and no inhibition by sturgeon DNA. Clinical accuracy was assessed from white sturgeon juveniles exposed to AciHV-2 by immersion. Viral culture (gold standard) and qPCR were in complete agreement for both cell culture negative and cell culture positive samples, indicating that this assay has 100% relative accuracy compared to cell culture during an active outbreak. The availability of a whole-genome sequence for AciHV-2 and a highly specific and sensitive qPCR assay for detection of AciHV-2 in white sturgeon lays a foundation for further studies on host-pathogen interactions while providing a specific and rapid test for AciHV-2 in captive and wild populations.


Assuntos
Peixes , Genoma Viral , Herpesviridae , Animais , Peixes/virologia , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação
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