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1.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 249-259, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of salivary gland tumors is mainly unknown. The anatomical location of the salivary glands, with the mucosal pathway to the oral cavity and its rich microbiome, raises the question of potential viral background. OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the potential presence of herpes-, polyoma- and parvoviruses in pleomorphic adenoma (PA), recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (RPA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CaxPA). METHODS: Thirty different viruses were analyzed by PCR-based assays in 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded salivary gland tumors (25 PA, 31 RPA and 12 CaxPA). RESULTS: Virus DNA was detected altogether in 19/68 (28%) tumor samples. Human herpesviruses 6B and 7 (HHV-6B and HHV-7) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were frequently and almost exclusively found in CaxPA (5/12, 7/12, and 3/12, respectively). Within the 7 CaxPA that were virus-positive, 3 samples contained 3, and 1 sample even 4, different viruses. Infrequent viral positivity was shown for parvovirus B19 and cutavirus, as well as Merkel cell and Malawi polyomaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Our unexpected finding of herpesvirus DNA almost exclusively in CaxPA tissues deserves further in-depth studies.


Assuntos
Adenoma Pleomorfo/virologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândulas Salivares/virologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502533

RESUMO

Various intrinsic and extrinsic factors can interfere with the process of protein folding, resulting in protein aggregates. Usually, cells prevent the formation of aggregates or degrade them to prevent the cytotoxic effects they may cause. However, during viral infection, the formation of aggregates may serve as a cellular defense mechanism. On the other hand, some viruses are able to exploit the process of aggregate formation and removal to promote their replication or evade the immune response. This review article summarizes the process of cellular protein aggregation and gives examples of how different viruses exploit it. Particular emphasis is placed on the ribonucleotide reductases of herpesviruses and how their additional non-canonical functions in viral immune evasion are closely linked to protein aggregation.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Agregados Proteicos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Vírus/imunologia , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/virologia , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/imunologia , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372576

RESUMO

Virus-induced infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most serious problems in public health and can be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, where these manifestations have been neglected. Typically, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella-zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for a high number of cases in immunocompetent hosts, whereas other herpesviruses (for example, cytomegalovirus) are the most common in immunocompromised individuals. Arboviruses have also been associated with outbreaks with a high burden of neurological disorders, such as the Zika virus epidemic in Brazil. There is a current lack of understanding in Brazil about the most common viruses involved in CNS infections. In this review, we briefly summarize the most recent studies and findings associated with the CNS, in addition to epidemiological data that provide extensive information on the circulation and diversity of the most common neuro-invasive viruses in Brazil. We also highlight important aspects of the prion-associated diseases. This review provides readers with better knowledge of virus-associated CNS infections. A deeper understanding of these infections will support the improvement of the current surveillance strategies to allow the timely monitoring of the emergence/re-emergence of neurotropic viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Doenças Priônicas/epidemiologia , Alphavirus/patogenicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Enterovirus/patogenicidade , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Herpesviridae/patogenicidade , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Doenças Priônicas/fisiopatologia , Príons/metabolismo , Príons/patogenicidade , Simplexvirus/patogenicidade , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zika virus/patogenicidade
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6116-6123, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375002

RESUMO

Virus invasion activates the host's innate immune response, inducing the production of numerous cytokines and interferons to eliminate pathogens. Except for viral DNA/RNA, viral proteins are also targets of pattern recognition receptors. Membrane-bound receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR10 relate to the recognition of viral proteins. Distinct TLRs perform both protective and detrimental roles for a specific virus. Here, we review viral proteins serving as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and their corresponding TLRs. These viruses are all enveloped, including respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis C virus, measles virus, herpesvirus human immunodeficiency virus, and coronavirus, and can encode proteins to activate innate immunity in a TLR-dependent way. The TLR-viral protein relationship plays an important role in innate immunity activation. A detailed understanding of their pathways contributes to a novel direction for vaccine development.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Viroses/imunologia , Vírus/imunologia , Animais , HIV/imunologia , HIV/metabolismo , HIV/patogenicidade , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Herpesviridae/patogenicidade , Humanos , Vírus do Sarampo/imunologia , Vírus do Sarampo/metabolismo , Vírus do Sarampo/patogenicidade , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/química , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/imunologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/metabolismo , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/química , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/metabolismo , Vírus/patogenicidade
5.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113061, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348430

RESUMO

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are an invasive species of the rivers and waterways of south-eastern Australia, implicated in the serious decline of many native fish species. Over the past 50 years a variety of control options have been explored, all of which to date have proved either ineffective or cost prohibitive. Most recently the use of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biocontrol agent, but to assess the risks and benefits of this, as well as to develop a strategy for the release of the virus, a knowledge of the fundamental processes driving carp distribution and abundance is required. To this end, we developed a novel process-based modelling framework that integrates expert opinion with spatio-temporal datasets via the construction of a Bayesian Network. The resulting weekly networks thus enabled an estimate of the habitat suitability for carp across a range of hydrological habitats in south-eastern Australia, covering five diverse catchment areas encompassing in total a drainage area of 132,129 km2 over a period of 17-27 years. This showed that while suitability for adult and subadult carp was medium-high across most habitats throughout the period, nevertheless the majority of habitats were poorly suited for the recruitment of larvae and young-of-year (YOY). Instead, high population abundance was confirmed to depend on a small number of recruitment hotspots which occur in years of favourable inundation. Quantification of the underlying ecological drivers of carp abundance thus makes possible detailed planning by focusing on critical weaknesses in the population biology of carp. More specifically, it permits the rational planning for population reduction using the biocontrol agent, CyHV-3, targeting areas where the total population density is above a "damage threshold" of approximately 100 kg/ha.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Animais , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Herpesviridae , Espécies Introduzidas
6.
Schizophr Res ; 233: 24-30, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra high-risk (UHR) criteria were introduced to identify people at imminent risk of developing psychosis. To improve prognostic accuracy, additional clinical and biological risk factors have been researched. Associations between psychotic disorders and infections with Toxoplasma gondii and Herpesviridae have been found. It is unknown if exposure to those pathogens increases the risk of transition to psychosis in UHR cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a long-term follow-up of 96 people meeting UHR criteria, previously seen at the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) clinic, a specialized service in Melbourne, Australia. Transition to psychosis was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of the At-Risk Mental State (CAARMS) and state public mental health records. The relationship between IgG antibodies to Herpesviridae (HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, EBV, VZV) and Toxoplasma gondii and risk for transition was examined with Cox regression models. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 6.46 (±3.65) years. Participants who transitioned to psychosis (n = 14) had significantly higher antibody titers for Toxoplasma gondii compared to those who did not develop psychosis (p = 0.03). After adjusting for age, gender and year of baseline assessment, seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii was associated with a 3.6-fold increase in transition hazard in multivariate Cox regression models (HR = 3.6; p = 0.036). No significant association was found between serostatus for Herpesviridae and risk of transition. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii may contribute to the manifestation of positive psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of transitioning to psychosis in UHR individuals.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Transtornos Psicóticos , Toxoplasma , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2348: 243-253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160812

RESUMO

Viruses, like their metazoan hosts, have evolved to utilize intricate transcriptional mechanisms to generate a vast array of both coding and noncoding RNA transcripts. The resolution of specific noncoding RNA transcripts produced by viruses, particularly herpesviruses, presents a particularly difficult challenge due to their highly dense dsDNA genomes and their complex, overlapping, and context-dependent network of transcripts. While new long read sequencing platforms have facilitated the resolution of some noncoding transcripts from virus genomes, empirical molecular validation of transcripts from individual regions is essential. Herein, we demonstrate that the use of strand specific northern blots is essential for true validation of specific viral noncoding RNAs, and provide here a detailed molecular method for such an approach.


Assuntos
Northern Blotting , Homologia de Genes , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Northern Blotting/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Herpesviridae/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Vírus/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067854

RESUMO

Numerous viruses hijack cellular protein trafficking pathways to mediate cell entry or to rearrange membrane structures thereby promoting viral replication and antagonizing the immune response. Adaptor protein complexes (AP), which mediate protein sorting in endocytic and secretory transport pathways, are one of the conserved viral targets with many viruses possessing AP-interacting motifs. We present here different mechanisms of viral interference with AP complexes and the functional consequences that allow for efficient viral propagation and evasion of host immune defense. The ubiquity of this phenomenon is evidenced by the fact that there are representatives for AP interference in all major viral families, covered in this review. The best described examples are interactions of human immunodeficiency virus and human herpesviruses with AP complexes. Several other viruses, like Ebola, Nipah, and SARS-CoV-2, are pointed out as high priority disease-causative agents supporting the need for deeper understanding of virus-AP interplay which can be exploited in the design of novel antiviral therapies.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , HIV-1/metabolismo , Herpesviridae/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Ebolavirus/metabolismo , Endocitose , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Liberação de Vírus , Replicação Viral
10.
Georgian Med News ; (313): 89-93, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103437

RESUMO

Herpesvirus infections (HI) are the most common HIV-associated diseases. Due to the development of the HIV pandemic, the incidence of HI against the background of HIV infection is steadily increasing, and the implantation of HAART makes certain changes in the course of diseases of this category. The aim of the study was to compare clinical and immunological data in different forms of HI in HIV-positive patients and in patients with normal immune status. From March, 2019 to April 2021, 59 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative patients were included in the study. The study used clinical and laboratory methods: ELISA, PCR (HIV RNA, HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-8), immunological studies (CD3 +, CD4 +, CD8 +, CD4 +/CD8 +, CD20 +). The data were statistically processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics statistical package. The clinical features of herpesvirus skin diseases associated with HIV is closely related to the immune status. The spectrum of clinical manifestations and the incidence of skin and mucous membrane diseases in HIV-infected people are influenced by the severity of immunodeficiency and the systemic use of antiretroviral drugs. The severity of manifestations correlates with the level of CD4 + cells: with a value below 349 cells/µl, an atypical course was observed, and with a value of less than 200 cells/µl, a generalized infectious process.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Humanos
11.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 15-20, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080579

RESUMO

Bufonid herpesvirus 1 (BfHV1) was initially described in 2014 from cases of mortalities and dermatitis in Swiss populations of the common toad Bufo bufo. We identified a closely related herpesvirus strain in a German common toad population affected by an ongoing epidemic of multifocal proliferative to ulcerative skin disease since 2018.


Assuntos
Bufo bufo , Herpesviridae , Animais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Pele
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 815-819, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130430

RESUMO

While herpesviruses are well-known pathogens in a wide variety of chelonian species, they have only sporadically been documented in squamate reptiles. Those that have been described have most often been associated with hepatic disease and oral lesions. During a study on infectious disease in pet reptiles in Poland, herpesviruses were detected in swabs from three green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from two different owners that were presented to two different veterinary clinics in Warsaw. One iguana was presented for abscesses on the head, while the other two were partner animals and remained clinically healthy throughout the course of this study. Virus was detected in oral swabs as well as combined swab samples from the oral cavity and cloaca using a panherpesvirus PCR. PCR products from all three animals were sequenced, and the detected viruses were most closely related to iguanid herpesvirus 2 from a San Esteban chuckwalla (Sauromalus varius) in the United States (GenBank accession No. AY236869.1). The single animal was retested again 1 y later and remained clinically healthy and continued to shed the same herpesvirus. This is the first description of a herpesvirus infection in pet iguanas in Europe. While the clinical relevance of the infection is not known, it is of interest that the infected animals appeared to continue to shed virus over an extended period of time.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Iguanas/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 237: 110270, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015681

RESUMO

The accuracy of quantitative real time PCR (RTqPCR) can be attained only when a suitable reference gene is used. The gene expression for a particular gene may vary within different cells at different conditions. Hence, the suitability and stability of various potential reference genes have to be determined for expression studies. In this study, we have examined the potential of four different reference genes including ß-Actin (ACTB), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1AA) in seven different tissues including gill, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, muscle and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus). The housekeeping genes were analyzed from healthy fish and in CyHV-2 challenged fish. Based upon the real time PCR results the gene expression varied among the genes and in tissues. The expression levels of the housekeeping genes were then compared and evaluated with the RefFinder web tool which analyses results using four different algorithms - BestKeeper, delta Ct, geNorm and NormFinder. EF1AA was ranked to be the best gene in healthy fish by BestKeeper and geNorm analysis. The delta Ct and NormFinder algorithm have found 18S to be a stable gene in healthy fish but 18S was given to be least expressed in challenged fish. ACTB was also given as a stable gene by geNorm analysis in both healthy and challenged fish. Also, in CyHV-2 challenged fish, EF1AA was identified as the best gene by all the three analysis except by BestKeeper analysis, where it has ranked GADPH as the best housekeeping gene. Expression of the four candidate reference genes differed across all tissue types tested, inferring that a thorough study of the reference genes is necessary for cross tissue comparison. These results can be further used in the immune gene response study of goldfish infected with any viral pathogen to develop better health strategies in the disease management of goldfish aquaculture.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Genes Essenciais , Carpa Dourada/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Valores de Referência
14.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 22(4): 523-540, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008162

RESUMO

Viral venereal diseases remain difficult to treat. Human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are two common viral venereal diseases. HPV infections are characterized by anogenital warts and less commonly by premalignant or malignant lesions. HSV infections classically present as grouped vesicles on an erythematous base with associated burning or pain; however, immunosuppressed patients may have atypical presentations with nodular or ulcerative lesions. This review discusses the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of anogenital HPV and HSV infections with an emphasis on treatment modalities for the practicing dermatologist. Diagnosis of these diseases typically relies on clinical assessment, although multiple diagnostic techniques can be utilized and are recommended when diagnosis is uncertain or evaluating an individual with increased risk of malignancy. Management of HPV and HSV infections involves appropriate counseling, screening, and multiple treatment techniques. Particularly for HPV infections, a practitioner may need to use a combination of techniques to achieve the desired outcome.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Virais/diagnóstico , Alphapapillomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia Combinada/normas , Aconselhamento/normas , Dermatologia/métodos , Dermatologia/normas , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/terapia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/transmissão , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias Virais/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Virais/terapia , Dermatopatias Virais/transmissão
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037361

RESUMO

Recently, the problem of demyelinating diseases in children is still very acute. This occurs, on the one hand, by high access and specificity of diagnostic methods and, on the other hand - by high morbidity of children different neuroinfectious diseases which can lead to demyelinating diseases. This literature review presents the currently available information on the autoantibodies and neurospecific protein role in the development of multiple sclerosis and acute disseminative encephalitis in children. The authors also describe their experience of complex etiopatogenic therapy and cytoflavin use that helps to reduce frequency and expression of demyelinating process and endothelium dysfunction in case of active herpesvirus infection.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada , Encefalomielite , Herpesviridae , Esclerose Múltipla , Biomarcadores , Criança , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3040, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031403

RESUMO

All herpesviruses encode a conserved DNA polymerase that is required for viral genome replication and serves as an important therapeutic target. Currently available herpesvirus therapies include nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNI) that target the DNA-bound state of herpesvirus polymerase and block replication. Here we report the ternary complex crystal structure of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 DNA polymerase bound to DNA and a 4-oxo-dihydroquinoline NNI, PNU-183792 (PNU), at 3.5 Å resolution. PNU bound at the polymerase active site, displacing the template strand and inducing a conformational shift of the fingers domain into an open state. These results demonstrate that PNU inhibits replication by blocking association of dNTP and stalling the enzyme in a catalytically incompetent conformation, ultimately acting as a nucleotide competing inhibitor (NCI). Sequence conservation of the NCI binding pocket further explains broad-spectrum activity while a direct interaction between PNU and residue V823 rationalizes why mutations at this position result in loss of inhibition.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesviridae/enzimologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Exodesoxirribonucleases , Nucleotídeos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Virais , Replicação Viral
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 565, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980988

RESUMO

Pathogen-induced cancers account for 15% of human tumors and are a growing concern for endangered wildlife. Fibropapillomatosis is an expanding virally and environmentally co-induced sea turtle tumor epizootic. Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) is implicated as a causative virus, but its transmission method and specific role in oncogenesis and progression is unclear. We applied environmental (e)DNA-based viral monitoring to assess viral shedding as a direct means of transmission, and the relationship between tumor burden, surgical resection and ChHV5 shedding. To elucidate the abundance and transcriptional status of ChHV5 across early, established, regrowth and internal tumors we conducted genomics and transcriptomics. We determined that ChHV5 is shed into the water column, representing a likely transmission route, and revealed novel temporal shedding dynamics and tumor burden correlations. ChHV5 was more abundant in the water column than in marine leeches. We also revealed that ChHV5 is latent in fibropapillomatosis, including early stage, regrowth and internal tumors; higher viral transcription is not indicative of poor patient outcome, and high ChHV5 loads predominantly arise from latent virus. These results expand our knowledge of the cellular and shedding dynamics of ChHV5 and can provide insights into temporal transmission dynamics and viral oncogenesis not readily investigable in tumors of terrestrial species.


Assuntos
DNA Ambiental/análise , Herpesviridae/genética , Tartarugas/virologia , Verrugas/transmissão , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , DNA/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Herpesviridae/patogenicidade , Sanguessugas/genética , Sanguessugas/patogenicidade , Papiloma/etiologia , Papiloma/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Tartarugas/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/genética , Verrugas/veterinária , Verrugas/virologia
19.
J Fish Dis ; 44(8): 1229-1236, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973665

RESUMO

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a highly contagious virus that causes KHV disease (KHVD) inducing high mortality in carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio L.). In the late stage, latency occurs with very low, often non-detectable virus concentrations, which represents a challenge for virus detection. After validation according to OIE recommendations, an antibody ELISA was established to recognize antibodies of C. carpio against KHV infection. In this study, the ELISA was modified to detect anti-KHV antibodies from a non-cyprinid fish. Experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were able to transmit KHV to naïve carp at two different temperatures, demonstrating their potential as a reservoir host. At 20°C, KHVD was induced in carp but not at 15°C. Unexpectedly, rainbow trout developed humoral response against KHV at both temperatures. In contrast to carp, at 15°C trout produced neutralizing antibodies but not at 20°C. While antibodies obtained from infected carp sera reacted in a similar way against all KHV, antibodies from rainbow trout sera reacted differently to the same isolates by ELISA. The data show that even when non-cyprinid fish species are infected with KHV, they can produce antibodies that differ from those observed in carp.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia
20.
Vet Pathol ; 58(4): 713-729, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813961

RESUMO

A comparative study was carried out on common and agile frogs (Rana temporaria and R. dalmatina) naturally infected with ranid herpesvirus 3 (RaHV3) and common toads (Bufo bufo) naturally infected with bufonid herpesvirus 1 (BfHV1) to investigate common pathogenetic pathways and molecular mechanisms based on macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural pathology as well as evaluation of gene expression. Careful examination of the tissue changes, supported by in situ hybridization, at different stages of development in 6 frogs and 14 toads revealed that the skin lesions are likely transient, and part of a tissue cycle necessary for viral replication in the infected hosts. Transcriptomic analysis, carried out on 2 naturally infected and 2 naïve common frogs (Rana temporaria) and 2 naturally infected and 2 naïve common toads (Bufo bufo), revealed altered expression of genes involved in signaling and cell remodeling in diseased animals. Finally, virus transcriptomics revealed that both RaHV3 and BfHV1 had relatively high expression of a putative immunomodulating gene predicted to encode a decoy receptor for tumor necrosis factor in the skin of the infected hosts. Thus, the comparable lesions in infected frogs and toads appear to reflect a concerted epidermal and viral cycle, with presumptive involvement of signaling and gene remodeling host and immunomodulatory viral genes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Dermatopatias , Animais , Anuros , Bufonidae , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Dermatopatias/veterinária
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