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1.
J Virol Methods ; 311: 114627, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191664

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is the causative agent of EEHV-hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) in elephants worldwide. This disease is highly virulent and a predominant cause of fatalities in young Asian elephants. Rapid diagnosis and aggressive therapies have been determined to be a key strategy in the successful treatment of this disease. Herein, we have developed the immunochromatographic strip test for EEHV detection. Accordingly, 31.2 kDa of partial EEHV DNA polymerase (DNApol) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to generate rabbit polyclonal anti-EEHV DNApol antibodies. These were then used to develop an ICS test for EEHV antigen detection using the double-antibody sandwich colloidal gold method. Anti-EEHV DNApol antibodies conjugated with 40 nm colloidal gold solution were used as a detector, while rabbit anti-EEHV DNApol and goat anti-rabbit IgG antibodies immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane were used as the test and control lines, respectively. The test had a detection limit of 1.25 × 105 viral genome copies (vgc)/mL of EEHV obtained from blood samples. Moreover, no specialized equipment or laboratory infrastructure was required in the administration of this test. This developed ICS test for EEHV antigen detection can be used in field application for the rapid detection of EEHV in resource-limited environments.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Coelhos , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Antígenos Virais , Coloide de Ouro
2.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106740, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332674

RESUMO

THE FAMILY TRICHECHIDAE (ORDER SIRENIA) COMPRISES THREE SPECIES: African (Trichechus senegalenses), West Indian (T. manatus), WIM)], and the Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis, AMM). Whereas WIM inhabits both riverine and coastal systems in the western Atlantic, AMM is the only exclusively freshwater sirenian, endemic to the Amazon River Basin. The study of infectious agents is essential to species conservation, especially considering that both species are classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List and as Endangered by the Brazilian Red List. The current knowledge about viral agents in sirenians is scarce. Herpesviruses and adenovirus are DNA viruses able to infect and cause disease in a wide range of hosts. Herein, we used panPCR protocols to survey herpesvirus and adenovirus in blood samples of wild WIM (n = 23) and AMM (n = 26) under human care in Brazil. Herpesvirus DNA was detected in one juvenile female WIM (1/23; 4.3%; 95% CI -4.7 - 13.3) from Ceará state and in four AMM (two juvenile females, a juvenile male, and an adult female; 4/26; 15.4%; 95% CI 0.5 - 30.3) from Amazonas state. The two different gammaherpesvirus DNA polymerase sequence types identified (one per species, a sequence type in a WIM and another one in three AMM) were highly similar (99% nucleotide identity) to Trichechid herpesvirus 1, reported in West Indian manatees of Florida (USA), and 100% identical when translated into amino acids. A herpesviral glycoprotein B sequence was identified in two AMM. None of the samples was positive to adenovirus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first herpesvirus detection in manatees from South America, expanding the herpesvirus geographical range, and the first in WIM and AMM worldwide. Our findings suggest (i) that West Indian and Amazonian manatees are possibly the natural hosts of the detected herpesvirus, and (ii) coevolution of that gammaherpesvirus with Trichechus. Future studies are necessary to characterize the obtained virus and elucidate potential pathological effects (if any) in these species.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Trichechus inunguis , Trichechus manatus , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Trichechus inunguis/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Trichechus , Herpesviridae/genética
3.
J Cell Biol ; 222(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250941

RESUMO

Virus assembly, which takes place during the late stage of viral replication, is essential for virus propagation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, especially for viruses with complicated structures. Here, we use correlative light and electron microscopy to examine the formation of cytoplasmic virion assembly compartments (cVACs) during infection by a γ-herpesvirus. These cVACs are membraneless organelles with liquid-like properties. Formation of cVACs during virus infection is mediated by ORF52, an abundant tegument protein. ORF52 undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which is promoted by both DNA and RNA. Disrupting ORF52 phase separation blocks cVACs formation and virion production. These results demonstrate that phase separation of ORF52 is critical for cVACs formation. Our work defines herpesvirus cVACs as membraneless compartments that are generated through a process of LLPS mediated by a tegument protein and adds to the cellular processes that are facilitated by phase separation.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Vírion , Montagem de Vírus , Citoplasma , RNA/metabolismo , Vírion/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais , Organelas
4.
Microb Genom ; 8(11)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355418

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing is widely used to better understand the transmission dynamics, the evolution and the emergence of new variants of viral pathogens. This can bring crucial information to stakeholders for disease management. Unfortunately, aquatic virus genomes are usually difficult to characterize because most of these viruses cannot be easily propagated in vitro. Developing methodologies for routine genome sequencing of aquatic viruses is timely given the ongoing threat of disease emergence. This is particularly true for pathogenic viruses infecting species of commercial interest that are widely exchanged between production basins or countries. For example, the ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) is a Herpesvirus widely associated with mass mortality events of juvenile Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Genomes of Herpesviruses are large and complex with long direct and inverted terminal repeats. In addition, OsHV-1 is unculturable. It therefore accumulates several features that make its genome sequencing and assembly challenging. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a tangential flow filtration (TFF) method to enrich OsHV-1 infective particles from infected host tissues. This virus purification allowed us to extract high molecular weight and high-quality viral DNA that was subjected to Illumina short-read and Nanopore long-read sequencing. Dedicated bioinformatic pipelines were developed to assemble complete OsHV-1 genomes with reads from both sequencing technologies. Nanopore sequencing allowed characterization of new structural variations and major viral isomers while having 99,98 % of nucleotide identity with the Illumina assembled genome. Our study shows that TFF-based purification method, coupled with Nanopore sequencing, is a promising approach to enable in field sequencing of unculturable aquatic DNA virus.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Vírus de DNA , Herpesviridae , Animais , Crassostrea/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Herpesviridae/genética
5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220200, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417627

RESUMO

This article addresses the relationship between human herpesviruses (HHVs) and neuroinfections. Alphaherpesviruses, betaherpesviruses and gammaherpesviruses are neurotropic viruses that establish latency and exhibit reactivation capacity. Encephalitis and meningitis are common in cases of HHV. The condition promoted by HHV infection is a purported trigger for certain neurodegenerative diseases. Ongoing studies have identified an association between HSV-1 and the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and infections by HHV-6 and Epstein-Barr virus. In this review, we highlight the importance of research investigating the role of herpesviruses in the pathogenesis of diseases that affect the nervous system and describe other studies in progress.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Humanos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423164

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute an emerging group of ncRNAs that modulate gene expression at the transcriptional or translational level. Koi herpesvirus (KHV), also known as Cyprinus herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV-3) and characterized by high pathogenicity and high mortality, has caused substantial economic losses in the common carp and koi carp fisheries industry. In this work, we sequenced the lncRNA and mRNA of host koi carp infected with KHV. A total of 20,178 DEmRNAs were obtained, of which 5021 mRNAs were upregulated and 15,157 mRNAs were downregulated. Both KEGG pathways and GO terms were enriched in many important immune pathways. The KEGG analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in many important immune pathways, such as apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and so on. Furthermore, a total of 32,697 novel lncRNA transcripts were obtained from koi carp immune tissues; 9459 of these genes were differentially expressed. Through antisense, cis-acting, and trans-acting analyses, the target genes of differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) were predicted. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses showed that the DElncRNA expression pattern was consistent with the differential mRNA expression pattern. The lncRNA-mRNA network analysis, which included many immune pathways, showed that after KHV infection, the expression of most lncRNAs and their target mRNAs were downregulated, suggesting that these lncRNAs engage in a positive regulatory relationship with their target mRNAs. Considering that many studies have shown that herpesviruses can escape the immune system by negatively regulating these immune pathways, we speculated that these lncRNAs play a significant role in KHV's escape from host immunity. Furthermore, 10 immune-related genes and 20 lncRNAs were subsequently verified through RT-qPCR, to confirm the accuracy of the high-throughput sequencing results. In this study, we aimed to explore lncRNA functions in the immune response of lower vertebrates and provide a theoretical basis for the study of noncoding RNAs in teleosts. Therefore, exploring lncRNA expression in KHV-infected koi carp helped us better understand the biological role played by lncRNA-dependent pathways in aquaculture animal viral infection.


Assuntos
Carpas , Herpesviridae , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Carpas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Herpesviridae/genética
7.
J Immunol ; 209(10): 1918-1929, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198423

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has caused severe economic losses to carp culture, but its pathogenicity is far from clear. Our previous study has revealed that microRNA (miR)-722 was upregulated during CyHV-3 infection, indicating that miR-722 might play an important role in CyHV-3 replication. In this study, we found that overexpression of miR-722 inhibited CyHV-3 replication and promoted IFN expression. The putative target gene of miR-722 was searched over the CyHV-3 genome, and ORF89 was identified and validated as a target gene of miR-722. Overexpression of ORF89 markedly reduced the expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes. Mechanistically, ORF89 interacted with and degraded IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and inhibited the entry of IRF3 into the nucleus by suppressing the dimerization of IRF3. Moreover, ORF89-mediated suppression of IFN expression could be restored by adding miR-722. To our knowledge, our findings confirm a novel virus-host combat, in which CyHV-3 evades host antiviral immunity by its ORF89 protein, whereas host miR-722, upregulated on CyHV-3 infection, targets ORF89 to impede CyHV-3 replication.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , MicroRNAs , Animais , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Herpesviridae/genética , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 379, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV), Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), and Feline herpesvirus type I (FHV-1) are the three most common pathogens in cats, and also are the main pathogens leading to the death of kittens. Here, by a combination of gold nanoparticles and conventional PCR, we established a novel triple NanoPCR molecular detection method for clinical detection. RESULTS: The triple NanoPCR molecular detection is able to detect 2.97 × 101copies/µL FCV recombinant copies plasmid per reaction, 2.64 × 104copies/µL FPV recombinant copies plasmid per reaction, and 2.85copies/µL FHV-1 recombinant copies plasmid per reaction at the same time. The sensitivity of each plasmid is 100 times, 10 times, and 100 times higher than conventional PCR, respectively. The clinical results showed that among the 38 samples, the positive rates of FCV, FPV, and FHV-1 in a NanoPCR test were 63.16, 31.58, and 60.53%, while in a conventional PCR were 39.47, 18.42, and 34.21%. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, it is the first time that NanoPCR assays are applied in the detection of FCV, FPV, and FHV-1 as well. This sensitive and specific NanoPCR assay can be widely used in clinical diagnosis and field monitoring of FCV, FPV, and FHV-1 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Panleucopenia Felina , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Varicellovirus , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Calicivirus Felino/genética , Herpesviridae/genética , Ouro , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Anticorpos Antivirais , Varicellovirus/genética , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232585

RESUMO

Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV) is an important viral pathogen affecting eel. This study was designed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms and immune response elicited at the protein levels in the skin mucus of AngHV-infected Anguilla anguilla. Tandem mass tag (TMT)-labelling proteomics with the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for performing quantitative identification of the proteins. In addition, the quantitative protein amount was detected by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis. A total of 3486 proteins were identified, of which 2935 were quantified. When a protein fold change was greater than 1.3 or less than 0.76, it indicated a differentially expressed protein (DEP). Overall, 187 up-regulated proteins and 126 down-regulated proteins were detected, and most of the DEPs were enriched in the CAMs pathway, intestinal immune pathway, herpes simplex virus 1 infection pathway, phagosome pathway and p53 signaling pathway. The results of the DEPs detected by PRM were highly consistent with the results of the TMT-labelled quantitative proteomic analysis. The findings of this study provide an important research basis for further understanding the pathogenesis of AngHV.


Assuntos
Anguilla , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Herpesviridae , Muco , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
10.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146873

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is a causative factor of herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in farmed crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we analyzed the genomic characteristics of a new strain, CyHV-2 SH-01, isolated during outbreaks in crucian carp at a local fish farm near Shanghai, China. CyHV-2 SH-01 exhibited a high sensitivity to goldfish and crucian carp in our previous research. The complete genome of SH-01 is 290,428 bp with 154 potential open reading frames (ORFs) and terminal repeat (TR) regions at both ends. Compared to the sequenced genomes of other CyHVs, Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) and Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1), several variations were found in SH-01, including nucleotide mutations, deletions, and insertions, as well as gene duplications, rearrangements, and horizontal transfers. Overall, the genome of SH-01 shares 99.60% of its identity with that of ST-J1. Genomic collinearity analysis showed that SH-01 has a high degree of collinearity with another three CyHV-2 isolates, and it is generally closely related to CaHV, CyHV-1, and CyHV-3, although it contains many differences in locally collinear blocks (LCBs). The lowest degree of collinearity was found with AngHV-1, despite some homologous LCBs, indicating that they are evolutionarily the most distantly related. The results provide new clues to better understand the CyHV-2 genome through sequencing and sequence mining.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , China , Carpa Dourada , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Nucleotídeos
11.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 944, 2022 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085307

RESUMO

Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are critical for human cytomegalovirus replication and accumulate upon infection. Here, we used Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of human B cells to elucidate how herpesviruses target VLCFA metabolism. Gene expression profiling revealed that, despite a general induction of peroxisome-related genes, EBV early infection decreased expression of the peroxisomal VLCFA transporters ABCD1 and ABCD2, thus impairing VLCFA degradation. The mechanism underlying ABCD1 and ABCD2 repression involved RNA interference by the EBV-induced microRNAs miR-9-5p and miR-155, respectively, causing significantly increased VLCFA levels. Treatment with 25-hydroxycholesterol, an antiviral innate immune modulator produced by macrophages, restored ABCD1 expression and reduced VLCFA accumulation in EBV-infected B-lymphocytes, and, upon lytic reactivation, reduced virus production in control but not ABCD1-deficient cells. Finally, also other herpesviruses and coronaviruses target ABCD1 expression. Because viral infection might trigger neuroinflammation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD, inherited ABCD1 deficiency), we explored a possible link between EBV infection and cerebral X-ALD. However, neither immunohistochemistry of post-mortem brains nor analysis of EBV seropositivity in 35 X-ALD children supported involvement of EBV in the onset of neuroinflammation. Collectively, our findings indicate a previously unrecognized, pivotal role of ABCD1 in viral infection and host defence, prompting consideration of other viral triggers in cerebral X-ALD.


Assuntos
Adrenoleucodistrofia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Herpesviridae , Adrenoleucodistrofia/genética , Antivirais , Criança , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Ácidos Graxos , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos
12.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV are alpha Herpesviruses, neurotropic viruses that are associated with various neurologic complications upon primary infection or reactivation. Cases of myelitis and radiculomyelitis are rare and appropriate etiologic diagnoses can be tricky. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe the case of a young immunocompetent woman who developed painful and extended vesicular genital lesions, with subsequent radiculomyelitis. HSV-1/-2 PCRs in the cerebrospinal fluid were misleadingly negative, whereas HHV-6 PCR was positive. Positive anti-HSV-2 IgM and IgG in serum was consistent with HSV-2 primary infection. On the other hand, the detection of HHV-6 DNA was explained by inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6. The clinical course was favorable with high-dose IV acyclovir and corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: HSV-2-related radiculomyelitis is a rare clinical entity, which can be difficult to diagnose. In this case report, the causative virus was not detected in the patient's CSF, whereas HHV-6 DNA, non-pathogenic in this situation, was paradoxically positive. The diagnosis was based on the clinical features typical for HSV-2 primary infection, confirmed by the serology results. The delay between the genital lesions and the appearance of the radiculomyelitis, along with the absence of HSV-2 detection in the CSF, suggests a possible immuno-mediated physiopathological process. As for the HHV-6 DNA detection in the patient's CSF, it was explained by inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6. This case illustrates how both negative and positive clinical virology results need careful interpretation according to the clinical findings.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Aciclovir , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 2/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 981911, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171755

RESUMO

Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) is one of the major freshwater species and is also a common food fish in China. Recently, Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) could induce fatal viral disease with high mortality of crucian carp, which had caused huge economic losses. In this study, we described a rapid and simple recombinase-aid amplification (RAA) assay coupled with lateral flow dipstick (LFD), which could achieve sensitive diagnosis of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) of CaHV within 35 min at 40°C. Our RAA-LFD method had a satisfactory detection limit of 100 gene copies per reaction, which was 100-fold more sensitive than traditional PCR. In addition, no cross-reaction was observed with other viral pathogens, including koi herpesvirus (KHV), cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and grass carp reovirus (GCRV). Furthermore, the overall cost of the method was cut in half compared to previous studies. In conclusion, RAA-LFD assay is therefore, a promising alternative for point-of-care testing (POCT) of CaHV, which is feasible and of certain value in application of aquatic disease control.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Carpa Dourada , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Recombinases
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 928628, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059443

RESUMO

The Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is a lethal pathogen of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), an important aquaculture species. To understand the genetic architecture of the defense against the pathogen, we studied genomic variations associated with herpesvirus-caused mortalities by pooled whole-genome resequencing of before and after-mortality larval samples as well as dead and surviving adults from a viral challenge. Analysis of the resequencing data identified 5,271 SNPs and 1,883 genomic regions covering 3,111 genes in larvae, and 18,692 SNPs and 28,314 regions covering 4,863 genes in adults that were significantly associated with herpesvirus-caused mortalities. Only 1,653 of the implicated genes were shared by larvae and adults, suggesting that the antiviral response or resistance in larvae and adults involves different sets of genes or differentiated members of expanded gene families. Combined analyses with previous transcriptomic data from challenge experiments revealed that transcription of many mortality-associated genes was also significantly upregulated by herpesvirus infection confirming their importance in antiviral response. Key immune response genes especially those encoding antiviral receptors such as TLRs and RLRs displayed strong association between variation in regulatory region and herpesvirus-caused mortality, suggesting they may confer resistance through transcriptional modulation. These results point to previously undescribed genetic mechanisms for disease resistance at different developmental stages and provide candidate polymorphisms and genes that are valuable for understanding antiviral immune responses and breeding for herpesvirus resistance.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Herpesviridae , Animais , Antivirais , Vírus de DNA , Genômica , Herpesviridae/genética , Larva/genética
15.
J Virol Methods ; 310: 114615, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087793

RESUMO

Equid gammaherpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) and 5 (EHV-5) are widely distributed in the equines. Although their pathogenic potential is not yet fully understood, they appear to play a role in disease patterns like equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, a multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) was designed to detect DNA of the glycoprotein H (EHV-2) and E11 gene (EHV-5). Analytical specificity was determined by testing DNA of other herpesviruses by SYBR Green rtPCR and melting curve analysis, as well as Sanger sequencing of positive field samples. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by standard curve generation of serial plasmid dilutions containing the respective target gene. Melting curves and BLAST analysis of the sequences indicated specific detection of the viruses. The lower limit of detection of the singleplex rtPCR was 40 and 29 DNA copies per reaction for EHV-2 and EHV-5, respectively. Comparison of the Ct values of a selection of positive field samples showed only minimal differences between the singleplex and the multiplex assay. The here described multiplex rtPCR protocol allows sensitive and specific detection of EHV-2 and EHV-5. It represents a convenient and rapid tool for future studies to investigate the clinical relevance of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in more detail.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1 , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4 , Doenças dos Cavalos , Cavalos , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , DNA Viral/genética , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/genética , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4/genética
16.
Am J Vet Res ; 83(7)2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether hyperinoculation of cats with a feline herpesvirus-1, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus (FVRCP) vaccine could be used as a model to study interstitial nephritis and to assess humoral and cell-mediated immune responses toward vaccinal α-enolase. ANIMALS: 6 healthy young adult purpose-bred research cats. PROCEDURES: Baseline renal cortical biopsies, whole blood, serum, and urine were collected prior to administration of a commercial FVRCP parenteral vaccine. Vaccine hyperinoculation was defined as a total of 8 vaccinations given at 2-week intervals over a 14-week period. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to each vaccination, and a second renal biopsy was performed 2 weeks after hyperinoculation (week 16). Renal histopathology, renal α-enolase immunohistochemistry, and assays to detect humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions against Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell lysates and α-enolase were performed. An α-enolase immunoreactivity score for renal tubules and glomeruli based on signal intensity was determined by a blinded pathologist. RESULTS: Hyperinoculation with the vaccine was not associated with clinicopathologic evidence of renal dysfunction, and interstitial nephritis was not recognized by light microscopy in the time studied. The mean serum absorbance values for antibodies against CRFK antigen and α-enolase were significantly (P < 0.001) higher at weeks 4, 8, and 16 versus week 0. Renal tubular and glomerular α-enolase immunoreactivity scores were higher at week 16 compared to baseline. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that systemic immunological reactions occurred and renal tissues were affected by vaccine hyperinoculation; however, short-term FVRCP vaccine hyperinoculation cannot be used to study interstitial nephritis in cats.


Assuntos
Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Herpesviridae , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina , Rim , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase , Varicellovirus
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 932722, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967417

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) causes herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) disease outbreaks in farmed Cyprinid fish, which leads to serious economic losses worldwide. Although oral vaccination is considered the most suitable strategy for preventing infectious diseases in farmed fish, so far there is no commercial oral vaccine available for controlling HVNN in gibel carp (C. auratus gibelio). In the present study, we developed for the first time an oral vaccine against CyHV-2 by using yeast cell surface display technology and then investigated the effect of this vaccine in gibel carp. Furthermore, the protective efficacy was evaluated by comparing the immune response of a single vaccination with that of a booster vaccination (booster-vaccinated once 2 weeks after the initial vaccination). Critically, the activities of immune-related enzymes and genes expression in vaccine group, especially in the booster vaccine group, were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, strong innate and adaptive immune responses could be elicited in both mucosal and systemic tissues after receipt of the oral yeast vaccine. To further understand the protective efficacy of this vaccine in gibel carp, we successfully developed the challenge model with CyHV-2. Our results showed the relative percent survival was 66.7% in the booster vaccine group, indicating this oral yeast vaccine is a promising vaccine for controlling CyHV-2 disease in gibel carp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Vacinas , Animais , Carpa Dourada , Herpesviridae , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
18.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016274

RESUMO

Alphaherpesviruses, one of three sub-families of the Herpesviridae, are of keen interest to biomedical scientists for several reasons [...].


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Humanos
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(8): e1010745, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037230

RESUMO

In vivo bioluminescence imaging facilitates the non-invasive visualization of biological processes in living animals. This system has been used to track virus infections mostly in mice and ferrets; however, until now this approach has not been applied to pathogens in avian species. To visualize the infection of an important avian pathogen, we generated Marek's disease virus (MDV) recombinants expressing firefly luciferase during lytic replication. Upon characterization of the recombinant viruses in vitro, chickens were infected and the infection visualized in live animals over the course of 14 days. The luminescence signal was consistent with the known spatiotemporal kinetics of infection and the life cycle of MDV, and correlated well with the viral load measured by qPCR. Intriguingly, this in vivo bioimaging approach revealed two novel sites of MDV replication, the beak and the skin of the feet covered in scales. Feet skin infection was confirmed using a complementary fluorescence bioimaging approach with MDV recombinants expressing mRFP or GFP. Infection was detected in the intermediate epidermal layers of the feet skin that was also shown to produce infectious virus, regardless of the animals' age at and the route of infection. Taken together, this study highlights the value of in vivo whole body bioimaging in avian species by identifying previously overlooked sites of replication and shedding of MDV in the chicken host.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2 , Doença de Marek , Animais , Galinhas , Furões , Camundongos
20.
Antiviral Res ; 206: 105402, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007600

RESUMO

Regarding the problems with the current available drugs many research studies deal with the class of the dispirotripiperazine (DSTP)-based compounds. These are small molecules consisting of polycyclic saturated ring systems with positively charged nitrogen atoms. These compounds can interact with negatively charged HSPGs and thus block viral attachment. In a previous paper by Adfeldt et al. (2021), we have shown that the diazadispiroalkane derivatives 11826091 and 11826236 exhibit dose-dependent antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and pseudorabies virus (PrV). In the present study, these two small molecules are evaluated against two other herpesvirus species, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as well as a HCMV clinical isolate. They exhibit potent antiherpetic activity against these herpesviruses with a high selectivity index. The low cytotoxicity was underlined by the LD50 determination in mice. We have shown that inhibition occurs at an early stage of infection. Interestingly, 11826091 and 11826236 reduced immediate early gene expression in HCMV and HSV-1 infected cells in a dose-dependent manner. Both small molecules probably interact electrostatically with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of proteoglycans on target cells resulting in blockage of adsorption sites for herpesvirus glycoprotein. Moreover, both compounds showed significant effects against the cell-associated viral spread of HSV-1 and HCMV. Overall, this study shows that 11826091 and 11826236 represent two promising candidates for a new approach of a broad antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Citomegalovirus , Humanos , Camundongos
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