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1.
Physiol Rep ; 12(11): e16055, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872474

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of exercise and detraining at a young age on fat accumulation in various organs. Four-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were assigned to either the non-exercise sedentary (OLETF Sed) or exercise groups. The exercise group was subdivided into two groups: exercise between 4 and 12 weeks of age (OLETF Ex) and exercise between 4 and 6 weeks of age followed by non-exercise between 6 and 12 weeks of age (OLETF DT). Body weight was significantly lower in the OLETF Ex group than in the OLETF Sed group at 12 weeks of age. Fat accumulation in the epididymal white adipose tissue, liver, and brown adipose tissue was suppressed in the OLETF Ex group. During the exercise period, body weight and food intake in the OLETF DT group were significantly lower than those in the OLETF Sed group. However, food intake was significantly higher in the OLETF DT group than in the OLETF Sed group after exercise cessation, resulting in extreme obesity with fatty liver and brown adipose tissue whitening. Detraining after early-onset exercise promotes hyperphagia, causing extreme obesity. Overeating should be avoided during detraining periods in cases of exercise cessation at a young age.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom , Fígado Gorduroso , Hiperfagia , Obesidade , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos Endogâmicos OLETF , Animais , Masculino , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Ratos , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fígado/metabolismo , Peso Corporal
2.
Endocrinology ; 165(7)2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815086

RESUMO

The serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR)-melanocortin pathway plays well-established roles in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight homeostasis. Dysfunctions in this system, such as loss-of-function mutations in the Htr2c gene, can lead to hyperphagia and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic strategies for ameliorating hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, and obesity associated with a loss-of-function mutation in the Htr2c gene (Htr2cF327L/Y). We demonstrated that reexpressing functional 5-HT2CR solely in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons is sufficient to reduce food intake and body weight in Htr2cF327L/Y mice subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, 5-HT2CR expression restores the responsiveness of POMC neurons to lorcaserin, a selective agonist for 5-HT2CR. Similarly, administration of melanotan II, an agonist of the melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), effectively suppresses feeding and weight gain in Htr2cF327L/Y mice. Strikingly, promoting wheel-running activity in Htr2cF327L/Y mice results in a decrease in HFD consumption and improved glucose homeostasis. Together, our findings underscore the crucial role of the melanocortin system in alleviating hyperphagia and obesity related to dysfunctions of the 5-HT2CR, and further suggest that MC4R agonists and lifestyle interventions might hold promise in counteracting hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, and obesity in individuals carrying rare variants of the Htr2c gene.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperfagia , Obesidade , Pró-Opiomelanocortina , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina , Animais , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/agonistas , alfa-MSH/farmacologia , alfa-MSH/análogos & derivados , Mutação com Perda de Função , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Benzazepinas , Peptídeos Cíclicos
3.
Endocrinology ; 165(7)2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815068

RESUMO

The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), primarily known as the receptor for the hunger hormone ghrelin, potently controls food intake, yet the specific Ghsr-expressing cells mediating the orexigenic effects of this receptor remain incompletely characterized. Since Ghsr is expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing neurons, we sought to investigate whether the selective expression of Ghsr in a subset of GABA neurons is sufficient to mediate GHSR's effects on feeding. First, we crossed mice that express a tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase in the subset of GABA neurons that express glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (Gad2) enzyme (Gad2-CreER mice) with reporter mice, and found that ghrelin mainly targets a subset of Gad2-expressing neurons located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) and that is predominantly segregated from Agouti-related protein (AgRP)-expressing neurons. Analysis of various single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets further corroborated that the primary subset of cells coexpressing Gad2 and Ghsr in the mouse brain are non-AgRP ARH neurons. Next, we crossed Gad2-CreER mice with reactivable GHSR-deficient mice to generate mice expressing Ghsr only in Gad2-expressing neurons (Gad2-GHSR mice). We found that ghrelin treatment induced the expression of the marker of transcriptional activation c-Fos in the ARH of Gad2-GHSR mice, yet failed to induce food intake. In contrast, food deprivation-induced refeeding was higher in Gad2-GHSR mice than in GHSR-deficient mice and similar to wild-type mice, suggesting that ghrelin-independent roles of GHSR in a subset of GABA neurons is sufficient for eliciting full compensatory hyperphagia in mice.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo , Privação de Alimentos , Neurônios GABAérgicos , Grelina , Glutamato Descarboxilase , Hiperfagia , Receptores de Grelina , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Grelina/farmacologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 30(3): 242-244, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819249

RESUMO

Catatonia is a complex syndrome with unique cognitive, psychomotor, and mood features. Mannerisms and stereotypies are catatonic signs that have been extensively observed and described in the literature, mostly in the context of movements or motor acts. Stereotypies are commonly described as repetitive psychomotor or verbal acts with the abnormality not inherent in the act but in its frequency. Mannerisms, like stereotypies, are repetitive psychomotor or verbal acts, but they are fundamentally odd in nature. Recently, several reports have described these phenomena in the context of complex behaviors, such as eating and drinking. Identification and appreciation of personal and cultural norms, in addition to a careful analysis of behavioral processes and actions, are important tools for clinicians to identify these potentially elusive and often missed patterns of behavior in patients with catatonia. We present the case of a 30-year-old male with a psychiatric history of treatment-resistant, recurrent major depressive disorder with psychotic features who presented to the inpatient psychiatric unit with signs of catatonia, including repeated, purposeless eating. The patient's chart was reviewed, and a literature review was conducted using PubMed with the keywords catatonia, stereotypies, mannerisms, and hyperphagia. The patient, who was diagnosed with catatonia and expressed hyperphagia as a stereotypy, responded to lorazepam. This case shows that hyperphagia may present as a stereotypy in patients with catatonia.


Assuntos
Catatonia , Hiperfagia , Humanos , Catatonia/etiologia , Catatonia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Estereotipado , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Lorazepam/uso terapêutico , Lorazepam/administração & dosagem
5.
Eat Behav ; 53: 101874, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether attentional bias to food cues and appetitive traits are independently and interactively associated with adiposity in adolescents. METHOD: Eighty-five adolescents, 14-17-years had their attentional bias to food images measured in a sated state by computing eye tracking measures of attention (first fixation duration, cumulative fixation duration) to food and control distractor images that bordered a computer game. Parents reported adolescent appetitive traits including the food approach domains of enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, emotional overeating, and the food avoidance domains of satiety responsiveness and emotional overeating through the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: First fixation bias to food cues was positively associated with enjoyment of food, and negatively associated with satiety responsiveness. In a series of regression models adjusted for relevant covariates, first fixation bias to food cues (ß = 0.83, p = 0.007), higher food responsiveness (ß = 0.74, p < 0.001), higher emotional overeating (ß = 0.51, p = 0.002), and a composite appetite score (ß = 1.42, p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with greater BMI z-scores. In models assessing the interactive effects between attentional bias and appetitive traits, higher first fixation bias to food cues interacted synergistically with food responsiveness and emotional overeating in relation to BMI z-score. A synergistic interaction between first fixation bias to food cues and the composite appetite score in relation to BMI z-score was also observed. CONCLUSION: Individuals with high attentional bias to food cues and obesogenic appetitive traits may be particularly susceptible to weight gain.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Viés de Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Alimentos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Emoções/fisiologia
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(4)2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674329

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern, particularly among Hispanic populations. This study aimed to elucidate the genetic predisposition to obesity in Puerto Rican children of Hispanic descent, addressing a notable gap in existing research. A cohort of 103 children with obesity and hyperphagia underwent genetic screening for rare obesity-related variants. Clinical assessments and family history evaluations were conducted to characterize the demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort. Genetic testing revealed a high prevalence of variants, with 73% of subjects having at least one reported variant. Pathogenic variants, predominantly associated with obesity-related ciliopathies, were identified in 7% of cases. Additionally, 90% of cases had variants of uncertain significance, highlighting the complexity of genetic contributions to obesity. This study emphasizes the critical need for further investigation into the genetic foundations of obesity, particularly within Hispanic communities. The findings emphasize the importance of early medical evaluation, vigilant monitoring for hyperphagia onset, and targeted interventions tailored to the unique genetic landscape of Puerto Rican children. This research provides a foundational framework for future studies to mitigate the impact of genetic obesity within this population.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispânico ou Latino , Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Obesidade Infantil/genética , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Obesidade Infantil/etnologia , Hispânico ou Latino/genética , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Hiperfagia/genética
7.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 129(3): 175-190, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657964

RESUMO

Hyperphagia is highly penetrant in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and has increasingly been reported in other neurogenetic conditions (NGC). The Hyperphagia Questionnaire (HQ) was completed by caregivers of 4-8-year-olds with PWS (n = 17), Angelman syndrome (AS; n = 22), Williams syndrome (WS; n = 25), or low-risk controls (LRC; n = 35). All NGC groups were significantly elevated in HQ Total and Behavior scores compared to LRC. Only AS and WS were significantly elevated in the Drive domain, and only PWS in the Severity domain. After controlling for externalizing behavior, HQ Total scores were higher for PWS relative to other groups. Hyperphagic symptoms may not differentiate PWS from other NGCs in early childhood. However, hyperphagic phenotypes may be most severe in PWS. Further investigation of these profiles may inform etiology and syndrome-specific treatments.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Hiperfagia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Criança , Síndrome de Angelman/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Angelman/diagnóstico
8.
J Neurodev Disord ; 16(1): 22, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neurobehavioral-metabolic disease caused by the lack of paternally expressed genes in the chromosome 15q11-q13 region, characterized by hypotonia, neurocognitive problems, behavioral difficulties, endocrinopathies, and hyperphagia resulting in severe obesity if energy intake is not controlled. Diazoxide choline extended-release (DCCR) tablets have previously been evaluated for their effects on hyperphagia and other behavioral complications of people with PWS in a Phase 3 placebo-controlled study of participants with PWS, age 4 and older with hyperphagia (C601) and in an open label extension study, C602. METHODS: To better understand the longer-term impact of DCCR, a cohort from PATH for PWS, a natural history study that enrolled participants with PWS age 5 and older, who met the C601 age, weight and baseline hyperphagia inclusion criteria and had 2 hyperphagia assessments ≥ 6 months apart, were compared to the C601/C602 cohort. Hyperphagia was measured using the Hyperphagia Questionnaire for Clinical Trials (HQ-CT, range 0-36). The primary analysis used observed values with no explicit imputation of missing data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted in which all missing HQ-CT assessments in the C601/C602 cohort were assigned the highest possible value (36), representing the worst-case scenario. Other behavioral changes were assessed using the Prader-Willi Syndrome Profile questionnaire (PWSP). RESULTS: Relative to the PATH for PWS natural history study cohort, the DCCR-treated C601/C602 cohort showed significant improvements in HQ-CT score at 26 weeks (LSmean [SE] -8.3 [0.75] vs. -2.5 [0.43], p < 0.001) and 52 weeks (LSmean [SE] -9.2 [0.77] vs. -3.4 [0.47], p < 0.001). The comparison between the cohorts remained significant in the worst-case imputation sensitivity analysis. There were also significant improvements in all domains of the PWSP at 26 weeks (all p < 0.001) and 52 weeks (all p ≤ 0.003) for C601/C602 participants compared to the PATH for PWS participants. CONCLUSION: Long-term administration of DCCR to people with PWS resulted in changes in hyperphagia and other behavioral complications of PWS that are distinct from the natural history of the syndrome as exemplified by the cohort from PATH for PWS. The combined effects of administration of DCCR should reduce the burden of the syndrome on the patient, caregivers and their families, and thereby may benefit people with PWS and their families. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical study C601 was originally registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on February 22, 2018 (NCT03440814). Clinical study C602 was originally registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on October 22, 2018 (NCT03714373). PATH for PWS was originally registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on October 24, 2018 (NCT03718416).


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada , Diazóxido , Hiperfagia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Humanos , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Hiperfagia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Diazóxido/administração & dosagem , Diazóxido/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 958, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 40% of people respond to stress by consuming more unhealthy foods. This behavior is associated with increased energy intake and the risk of obesity. As mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) have been shown to be an easy-to-use intervention tool, the characterization of potential app users is necessary to develop target group-specific apps and to increase adherence rates. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey was conducted in the spring of 2021 in Germany. Sociodemographic data and data on personality (Big Five Inventory, BFI-10), stress-eating (Salzburg Stress Eating Scale, SSES), and technology behavior (Personal Innovativeness in the Domain of Information Technology, PIIT; Technology Acceptance Model 3, TAM 3) were collected. RESULTS: The analysis included 1228 participants (80.6% female, mean age: 31.4 ± 12.8 years, mean body mass index (BMI): 23.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2). Based on the TAM score, 33.3% (409/1228) of the participants had a high intention to use a hypothetical mHealth app to avoid stress-overeating. These persons are characterized by a higher BMI (24.02 ± 4.47 kg/m2, p < 0.001), by being stress-overeaters (217/409, 53.1%), by the personality trait "neuroticism" (p < 0.001), by having specific eating reasons (all p < 0.01), and by showing a higher willingness to adopt new technologies (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that individuals who are prone to stress-overeating are highly interested in adopting an mHealth app as support. Participants with a high intention to use an mHealth app seem to have a general affinity towards new technology (PIIT) and appear to be more insecure with conflicting motives regarding their diet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This survey was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (Registration number: DRKS00023984).


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Hiperfagia , Obesidade
10.
Clin Obes ; 14(3): e12659, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602039

RESUMO

Nearly 90 clinicians and researchers from around the world attended the first IMPROVE 2022 International Meeting on Pathway-Related Obesity. Delegates attended in person or online from across Europe, Argentina and Israel to hear the latest scientific and clinical developments in hyperphagia and severe, early-onset obesity, and set out a vision of excellence for the future for improving the diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) pathway-related obesity. The meeting co-chair Peter Kühnen, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany, indicated that change was needed with the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity and the associated complications to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and acknowledge that monogenic forms of obesity can play an important role, providing insights that can be applied to a wider group of patients with obesity. World-leading experts presented the latest research and led discussions on the underlying science of obesity, diagnosis (including clinical and genetic approaches such as the role of defective MC4R signalling), and emerging clinical data and research with targeted pharmacological approaches. The aim of the meeting was to agree on the questions that needed to be addressed in future research and to ensure that optimised diagnostic work-up was used with new genetic testing tools becoming available. This should aid the planning of new evidence-based treatment strategies for the future, as explained by co-chair Martin Wabitsch, Ulm University Medical Center, Germany.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Hiperfagia , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Appetite ; 198: 107336, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574819

RESUMO

Studies examining preconception eating behaviours with longitudinal dietary patterns from preconception to late pregnancy as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) are limited. We derived dietary pattern trajectories from preconception to late-pregnancy, and related preconception eating behaviours to these trajectories and GWG. Preconception eating behaviours were assessed using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire measuring cognitive restraint (CR) - conscious restriction of food intake, emotional eating (EE) - overeating in response to negative emotions, and uncontrolled eating (UE) - overeating with a feeling of lack of control. Dietary intakes were measured at preconception, 20-21 and 34-36 weeks' gestation with food frequency questionnaires. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis, and trajectories derived using group-based trajectory modelling. Inadequate and excessive GWG were defined according to Institute of Medicine guidelines based on weights at preconception and the last antenatal visit (median: 38 weeks' gestation). Two dietary patterns were derived: 'Fast Food, Fried Snacks and Desserts (FFD)' and 'Soup, Fish and Vegetables (SFV)'. Adherence trajectories from preconception to late-pregnancy were characterised as consistently high ("stable-high") and low ("stable-low"). Women with higher UE scores had higher odds of being in the "stable-high" trajectory (n = 34) of the FFD pattern [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.25, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.03, 1.51], compared to "stable-low" (n = 260). Percentages of women with inadequate, adequate or excessive GWG were 21.7% (n = 70), 25.8% (n = 83), and 52.5% (n = 169), respectively; women with higher EE scores had a higher likelihood of excessive GWG [Relative Risk Ratio (RRR): 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.80], but this association was attenuated after adjusting for preconception body mass index. Eating behaviour interventions to improve dietary patterns among pregnant women may need to start as early as preconception, incorporating strategies to manage UE.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Padrões Dietéticos
12.
Appetite ; 198: 107355, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621593

RESUMO

Associative learning can drive many different types of behaviors, including food consumption. Previous studies have shown that cues paired with food delivery while mice are hungry will lead to increased consumption in the presence of those cues at later times. We previously showed that overconsumption can be driven in male mice by contextual cues, using chow pellets. Here we extended our findings by examining other parameters that may influence the outcome of context-conditioned overconsumption training. We found that the task worked equally well in males and females, and that palatable substances such as high-fat diet and Ensure chocolate milkshake supported learning and induced overconsumption. Surprisingly, mice did not overconsume when sucrose was used as the reinforcer during training, suggesting that nutritional content is a critical factor. Interestingly, we also observed that diet-induced obese mice did not learn the task. Overall, we find that context-conditioned overconsumption can be studied in lean male and female mice, and with multiple reinforcer types.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Camundongos , Reforço Psicológico , Camundongos Obesos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Magreza/psicologia
13.
Appetite ; 198: 107372, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657683

RESUMO

Avid eating behaviours, including greater responsiveness to food cues and emotional over-eating, have been linked to child overweight and obesity. Parental feeding practices are modifiable components of a child's food environment and may be key levers for behaviour change in tailored interventions to support parents of children with avid eating behaviour. However, there is a lack of research examining parents' experiences in this context. This study aimed to explore parents' experiences of feeding children with avid eating behaviour and to understand any challenges experienced in this context. Semi-structured interviews with parents (N = 15) of a preschool child (3-5 years) identified as having an avid eating behaviour profile explored how children's avid eating manifests, the parental feeding practices used to manage avid eating, and the perceived effectiveness of these strategies. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Four core themes were generated. Theme one, 'Have they got worms? Children's insatiable hunger', captures parents' interpretation of the complex ways in which avid eating behaviour manifests. Theme two, 'Parenthood as a duty', illustrates how parents' perceived responsibilities shape their feeding practices. Theme three, 'Lifelong habits', captures parents' use of responsive feeding practices to support children's healthy relationship with food. Theme four, 'Picking battles', captures the structure- and coercive-based feeding strategies commonly used to manage children's avid eating. This novel study provides an in-depth understanding of the complex ways that children's avid eating behaviour manifests, and the strategic and creative parental feeding practices used to manage these behaviours. Such findings are valuable for informing the development of future support resources for parents/caregivers to help their children with avid eating behaviours to develop a healthy relationship with food.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Poder Familiar , Pais , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Obesidade Infantil/psicologia , Adulto , Fome , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sinais (Psicologia) , Hiperfagia/psicologia
14.
Mol Metab ; 84: 101933, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alström Syndrome (AS), caused by biallelic ALMS1 mutations, includes obesity with disproportionately severe insulin resistant diabetes, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Prior studies suggest that hyperphagia is accounted for by loss of ALMS1 function in hypothalamic neurones, whereas disproportionate metabolic complications may be due to impaired adipose tissue expandability. We tested this by comparing the metabolic effects of global and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-specific Alms1 knockout. METHODS: Global Alms1 knockout (KO) mice were generated by crossing floxed Alms1 and CAG-Cre mice. A Pdgfrα-Cre driver was used to abrogate Alms1 function selectively in MSCs and their descendants, including preadipocytes. We combined metabolic phenotyping of global and Pdgfrα+ Alms1-KO mice on a 45% fat diet with measurements of body composition and food intake, and histological analysis of metabolic tissues. RESULTS: Assessed on 45% fat diet to promote adipose expansion, global Alms1 KO caused hyperphagia, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and fatty liver. Pdgfrα-cre driven KO of Alms1 (MSC KO) recapitulated insulin resistance, fatty liver, and dyslipidaemia in both sexes. Other phenotypes were sexually dimorphic: increased fat mass was only present in female Alms1 MSC KO mice. Hyperphagia was not evident in male Alms1 MSC KO mice, but was found in MSC KO females, despite no neuronal Pdgfrα expression. CONCLUSIONS: Mesenchymal deletion of Alms1 recapitulates metabolic features of AS, including fatty liver. This confirms a key role for Alms1 in the adipose lineage, where its loss is sufficient to cause systemic metabolic effects and damage to remote organs. Hyperphagia in females may depend on Alms1 deficiency in oligodendrocyte precursor cells rather than neurones. AS should be regarded as a forme fruste of lipodystrophy.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos Knockout , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Síndrome de Alstrom/metabolismo , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Composição Corporal
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7294, 2024 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538663

RESUMO

Stress-related overeating can lead to excessive weight gain, increasing the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Mindfulness meditation has been demonstrated to reduce stress and increase interoceptive awareness and could, therefore, be an effective intervention for stress-related overeating behavior. To investigate the effects of mindfulness meditation on stress-eating behavior, meditation-naïve individuals with a tendency to stress-eat (N = 66) participated in either a 31-day, web-based mindfulness meditation training or a health training condition. Behavioral and resting-state fMRI data were acquired before and after the intervention. Mindfulness meditation training, in comparison to health training, was found to significantly increase mindfulness while simultaneously reducing stress- and emotional-eating tendencies as well as food cravings. These behavioral results were accompanied by functional connectivity changes between the hypothalamus, reward regions, and several areas of the default mode network in addition to changes observed between the insula and somatosensory areas. Additional changes between seed regions (i.e., hypothalamus and insula) and brain areas attributed to emotion regulation, awareness, attention, and sensory integration were observed. Notably, these changes in functional connectivity correlated with behavioral changes, thereby providing insight into the underlying neural mechanisms of the effects of mindfulness on stress-eating.Clinical trial on the ISRCTN registry: trial ID ISRCTN12901054.


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Córtex Sensório-Motor , Humanos , Atenção , Hiperfagia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Meditação/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos
16.
Neurosci Lett ; 825: 137707, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431039

RESUMO

Visfatin play an essential role in the central regulation of appetite in birds. This study aimed to determine role of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of the visfatin on food intake and its possible interaction with neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nitric oxide system in neonatal broiler chicken. In experiment 1, neonatal chicken received ICV injection visfatin (1, 2 and 4 µg). In experiment 2, chicken received ICV injection of B5063 (NPY1 receptor antagonist 1.25 µg), visfatin (4 µg) and co-injection of the B5063 + Visfatin. In experiments 3-6, SF22 (NPY2 receptor antagonist 1.25 µg), SML0891 (NPY5 receptor antagonist 1.25 µg), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 100 nmol) and L-arginine (Precursor of nitric oxide, 200 nmol) were injected instead of B5063. Then the amount of cumulative food was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after injection. Obtained data showed, injection visfatin (2 and 4 µg) increased food intake compared to control group (P < 0.05). Co-injection of the B5063 + Visfatin decreased visfatin-induced hyperphagia compared to control group (P < 0.05). Co-injection of the L-NAME + Visfatin amplified visfatin-induced hyperphagia compared to control group (P < 0.05). The result showed that visfatin has hyperphagic role and this effect mediates via NPY1 and nitric oxide system in neonatal chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Neuropeptídeo Y , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Neuropeptídeo Y/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase , Ingestão de Alimentos , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y , Hiperfagia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
17.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 26 Suppl 2: 34-45, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450938

RESUMO

Hypothalamic obesity (HO) is a rare and complex disorder that confers substantial morbidity and excess mortality. HO is a unique subtype of obesity characterized by impairment in the key brain pathways that regulate energy intake and expenditure, autonomic nervous system function, and peripheral hormonal signalling. HO often occurs in the context of hypothalamic syndrome, a constellation of symptoms that follow from disruption of hypothalamic functions, for example, temperature regulation, sleep-wake circadian control, and energy balance. Genetic forms of HO, including the monogenic obesity syndromes, often impact central leptin-melanocortin pathways. Acquired forms of HO occur as a result of tumours impacting the hypothalamus, such as craniopharyngioma, surgery or radiation to treat those tumours, or other forms of hypothalamic damage, such as brain injury impacting the region. Risk for severe obesity following hypothalamic injury is increased with larger extent of hypothalamic damage or lesions that contain the medial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei that support melanocortin signalling pathways. Structural damage in these hypothalamic nuclei often leads to hyperphagia, central insulin and leptin resistance, decreased sympathetic activity, low energy expenditure, and increased energy storage in adipose tissue, the collective effect of which is rapid weight gain. Individuals with hyperphagia are perpetually hungry. They do not experience fullness at the end of a meal, nor do they feel satiated after meals, leading them to consume larger and more frequent meals. To date, most efforts to treat HO have been disappointing and met with limited, if any, long-term success. However, new treatments based on the distinct pathophysiology of disturbed energy homeostasis in acquired HO may hold promise for the future.


Assuntos
Craniofaringioma , Doenças Hipotalâmicas , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Leptina/metabolismo , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/complicações , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/terapia , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/genética , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Craniofaringioma/complicações , Craniofaringioma/terapia , Craniofaringioma/metabolismo , Hiperfagia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Melanocortinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia
18.
Diabet Med ; 41(6): e15314, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450859

RESUMO

AIMS: The Diabetes Eating Problems Survey - Revised (DEPS-R) is commonly used to assess disordered eating behaviour (DEB) in individuals with type 1 diabetes and has advantages compared to other measures not specifically tailored to diabetes. A score ≥20 on the DEPS-R is used to indicate clinically significant DEB; however, it does not distinguish between eating disorder (ED) phenotypes necessary to guide treatment decisions, limiting clinical utility. METHODS: The current study used latent class analysis to identify distinct person-centred profiles of DEB in adults with type 1 diabetes using the DEPS-R. Analysis of Variance with Games Howell post-hoc comparisons was then conducted to examine the correspondence between the profiles and binge eating, insulin restriction and glycaemic control (HbA1c, mean blood glucose, and percent time spent in hyperglycaemia) during 3 days of assessment in a real-life setting. RESULTS: Latent class analysis indicated a 4-class solution, with patterns of item endorsement suggesting the following profiles: Bulimia, Binge Eating, Overeating and Low Pathology. Differences in binge eating, insulin restriction and glycaemic control were observed between profiles during 3 days of at-home assessment. The Bulimia profile was associated with highest HbA1c and 3-day mean blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: There are common patterns of responses on the DEPS-R that appear to reflect different ED phenotypes. Profiles based on the DEPS-R corresponded with behaviour in the real-life setting as expected and were associated with different glycaemic outcomes. Results may have implications for the use of the DEPS-R in research and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bulimia/psicologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Controle Glicêmico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Análise de Classes Latentes , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Hiperglicemia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 83, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternally imprinted genes on chromosome 15q11-13. PWS features a complex behavioral phenotype, including hyperphagia, anxiety, compulsivity, rigidity, repetitive speech, temper outbursts, aggressivity, and skin-picking. Questionnaires exist for measuring hyperphagia, but not for the aggregation of other problems that are distinctive to PWS. A PWS-specific tool is needed for phenotypic research, and to help evaluate treatment efficacy in future clinical trials aimed at attenuating PWS's hyperphagia and related problems. In this 4-phase study, we leveraged our expertise in PWS with feedback from families and specialists to validate the PWS Profile, a novel, informant-based measure of behavioral and emotional problems in this syndrome. RESULTS: The authors developed a bank of 73 items that tapped both common and less frequent but clinically significant problems in PWS (Phase 1). An iterative feedback process with families and stakeholders was used to ensure content and construct validity (Phase 2). After adding, omitting, or revising items, in Phase 3, we pilot tested the measure in 112 participants. Results were reviewed by an international team of PWS specialists and revised again (Phase 3). The final, 57-item Profile was then administered to 761 participants (Phase 4). Principal component factor analyses (n = 873) revealed eight conceptually meaningful factors, accounting for 60.52% of test variance, and were readily interpretated as: Rigidity, Insistence; Aggressive Behaviors; Repetitive Questioning, Speech; Compulsive Behaviors; Depression, Anxiety; Hoarding; Negative Distorted Thinking; and Magical Distorted Thinking. Factors were internally consistent and showed good test-retest reliability and convergent validity with existent measures of behavioral problems. Profile factors were not related to IQ, BMI, or parental SES. Three Profile factors differed across PWS genetic subtypes. Age and gender differences were found in only one Profile factor, Hoarding. CONCLUSIONS: The PWS Profile is a valid, psychometrically-sound questionnaire that already has shown responsivity to treatment in a previous clinical trial. The Profile can extend the reach of future clinical trials by evaluating the impact of novel agents not only on hyperphagia, but also on the emotional and behavioral problems that characterize PWS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Humanos , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hiperfagia/genética , Ansiedade , Emoções
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 84, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The determinants of early-onset obesity (< 6 years) are not completely elucidated, however eating behavior has a central role. To date no study has explored eating behavior in children with severe, early-onset obesity. Self-administered questionnaire data from these children were examined to evaluate eating behavior and the etiology of early-onset obesity. METHODS: Children with severe, early-onset obesity (body mass index [BMI] > International Obesity Task Force [IOTF] 30) of different etiologies (hypothalamic obesity [HO], intellectual disability with obesity [IDO], common polygenic obesity [CO]) were prospectively included. BMI history and responses from the Dykens' Hyperphagia Questionnaire and an in-house Impulsivity Questionnaire at first visit were compared between groups. RESULTS: This cohort of 75 children (39 girls; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 10.8 ± 4.4 years) had severe, early-onset obesity at an age of 3.8 ± 2.7 years, with a BMI Z-score of 4.9 ± 1.5. BMI history varied between the 3 groups, with earlier severe obesity in the HO group versus 2 other groups (BMI > IOTF40 at 3.4 ± 1.6 vs. 4.6 ± 1.6 and 8.4 ± 4.1 years for the IDO and CO groups, respectively [P < 0.01]). Absence of adiposity rebound was more prevalent in the HO group (87% vs. 63% and 33% for the IDO and CO groups, respectively [P < 0.01]). The Dykens' mean total score for the cohort was 22.1 ± 7.2 with no significant between-group differences. Hyperphagia (Dykens' score > 19) and impulsivity (score > 7) were found in 50 (67%) and 11 children (15%), respectively, with no difference between the HO, IDO and CO groups regarding the number of patients with hyperphagia (10 [67%], 14 [74%], and 26 [63%] children, respectively) or impulsivity (2 [13%], 1 [7%], and 8 [19%] children, respectively). Children with food impulsivity had significantly higher total and severity scores on the Dykens' Questionnaire versus those without impulsivity. CONCLUSION: The Dykens' and Impulsivity questionnaires can help diagnose severe hyperphagia with/without food impulsivity in children with early-onset obesity, regardless of disease origin. Their systematic use can allow more targeted management of food access control in clinical practice and monitor the evolution of eating behavior in the case of innovative therapeutic targeting hyperphagia.


Assuntos
Hiperfagia , Obesidade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Hiperfagia/complicações , Obesidade/etiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inquéritos e Questionários
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