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1.
Saudi Med J ; 45(5): 502-509, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical indicators in order to examine the intensity of diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) episodes in children and adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Data from 156 T1DM patients aged 6 months to 14 years, who presented with DKA to the emergency room, were retrospectively reviewed from 2018 to 2022. Data on demographic characteristics, economic status, initial clinical presentation, glycemic control, DKA severity, and laboratory evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Diabetes ketoacidosis episodes were more prevalent among male patients during the middle childhood age group. Notably, these episodes displayed seasonal patterns. The severity was found to be inversely associated with economic status and positively correlated with early adolescence. Newly diagnosed T1DM patients constituted 52.9%, with a statistically significant connection observed between severe DKA and this subgroup. Furthermore, there was a significant escalation in poor glycemic control with episode severity. Prolonged episode duration also exhibited a statistically significant association with more severity. Gastrointestinal symptoms were commonly reported during the presentation. Moreover, several clinical signs and symptoms, including decreased consciousness, reduced activity, drowsiness, Kussmaul breathing, shortness of breath, vomiting, tachycardia, and severe dehydration, were significantly correlated with the severity of DKA (p<0.05). Hypernatremia was more frequent among children with severe DKA. CONCLUSION: Diabetes ketoacidosis was observed to occur more frequently among males in middle childhood with seasonal variations. Furthermore, the severity of DKA was associated with lower economic status, early adolescence, and the presence of hypernatremia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Cetoacidose Diabética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Humanos , Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Masculino , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Estações do Ano , Fatores Etários , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Glicemia/análise
2.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 17(2): 161-167, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypernatremia may facilitate the diffusion of bilirubin through the blood-brain barrier and increase the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. This study was conducted to compare the prognosis of jaundice infants with those with jaundice and hypernatremia. METHODS: A total of 615 term infants with idiopathic jaundice with or without hypernatremia were enrolled in this cohort study with 24-months follow-up at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, between 2010 and 2022. An in-house questionnaire including the laboratory evaluation and neonatal characteristics was used as the data collection tool. The follow-up of neonatal development status was performed using the Denver test II at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after discharging from hospital. RESULTS: Normal outcomes were seen in 555 (90.2%) out of 615 studied infants, while 60 cases (9.8%) showed abnormal outcomes. Serum levels of sodium (P = 0.017), bilirubin (P = 0.001), urea (P = 0.024), and creatinine (P = 0.011) as well as hyperthermia (P = 0.046) and unconsciousness (P = 0.005) showed significant differences between the two groups. Approximately 16% of the newborns with both jaundice and hypernatremia, and 9% of those with only jaundice had unfavorable prognoses. Also, bilirubin level had the most predictive power (91.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that hypernatremia or jaundice alone, may affect the prognosis of infants aged 2 years; but jaundice and hypernatremia together, will intensify the developmental problems in jaundice infants. However, the role of hyperbilirubinemia in the incidence of complications is more than hypernatremia.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina , Hipernatremia , Humanos , Hipernatremia/sangue , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Bilirrubina/sangue , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lactente , Icterícia Neonatal/sangue , Icterícia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/complicações , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/sangue , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Kernicterus/epidemiologia , Kernicterus/sangue , Kernicterus/etiologia , Seguimentos , Estudos de Coortes
3.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e943244, 2024 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Nephrogenic diabetic insipidus (NDI) poses a challenge in clinical management, particularly when associated with lithium ingestion. Non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the treatment of numerous diseases worldwide, including NDI. However, many studies have reported the diverse adverse effects of long-term use of non-selective NSAIDs. Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is a better drug to relieve pain and inflammation in terms of long-term safety and efficacy than non-selective NSAIDs. Nevertheless, there are few reports describing the effectiveness of celecoxib in treating NDI. CASE REPORT We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with schizophrenia who presented with severe hypernatremia and refractory polyuria due to lithium-induced NDI. Cessation of lithium ingestion and traditional treatments, including trichlormethiazide and desmopressin, yielded minimal improvement in her hypernatremia and polyuria. Her sodium level needed to be strictly controlled with the infusion of dextrose 5% in water. Given the safety of celecoxib, we decided to initiate celecoxib as the treatment of lithium-induced NDI instead of indomethacin. Notably, the introduction of celecoxib led to a substantial and sustained amelioration of polyuria and hypernatremia without any celecoxib-associated adverse effects. Even after transfer to another hospital, stability in serum sodium levels persisted with celecoxib. CONCLUSIONS We presented a case of lithium-induced NDI successfully treated with celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful treatment of lithium-induced NDI with celecoxib, and suggests celecoxib is a viable therapeutic option warranting further exploration. Physicians should consider its use when faced with the challenging management of lithium-induced NDI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipernatremia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Poliúria/induzido quimicamente , Poliúria/tratamento farmacológico , Hipernatremia/induzido quimicamente , Hipernatremia/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Sódio
4.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 100(6): 527-541, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia have been reported to occur more frequently with higher ambient temperatures, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Global temperatures are rising due to climate change, which may impact the incidence of dysnatremia worldwide. We aimed to identify, collate and critically appraise studies analyzing the relationship between climate measures (outdoor temperature, humidity) and serum sodium concentrations. DESIGN: Systematic review, reported in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase were searched with relevant key terms. Studies assessing the effect on serum sodium measurement of elevated temperature or humidity versus a comparator were included. RESULTS: Of 1466 potentially relevant studies, 34 met inclusion criteria, originating from 23 countries spanning all inhabited continents. The majority (30 of 34, 88%) reported a significant association between outdoor temperature and dysnatremia, predominantly lower serum sodium with increased ambient temperature. Humidity had a less consistent effect. Individuals aged above 65 years, children, those taking diuretics and antidepressants, those with chronic renal impairment or those undertaking physical exertion had increased vulnerability to heat-associated dysnatremia. The risk of bias was assessed to be high in all but four studies. CONCLUSIONS: Higher ambient temperature is consistently associated with an increased incidence of hyponatremia. We infer that hyponatremia presentations are likely to rise with increasing global temperatures and the frequency of extreme heat events secondary to climate change. Evidence-based public health messages, clinician education and reduction in fossil fuel consumption are necessary to reduce the expected burden on healthcare services worldwide.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Sódio , Temperatura , Humanos , Umidade , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hipernatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/sangue , Sódio/sangue
6.
J Int Med Res ; 52(3): 3000605241235747, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502003

RESUMO

Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) typically manifests as a polyuria-polydipsia syndrome, in which normonatremia is generally maintained through the polydipsia. A 53-year-old woman presented with diabetic ketosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. Her medical history included herpes meningoencephalitis, which was associated with confusion and amnesia. On physical examination, she was apyretic, confused, and had signs of extracellular dehydration. Her capillary glucose concentration was high and her urine was positive for ketones. Laboratory investigations revealed severe hyperglycemia, hypernatremia (plasma hyperosmolarity of 393.6 mOsm/L), and mild acute renal failure. In addition, she had a paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Intravenous rehydration with isotonic saline solution and insulin therapy were effective at controlling the ketosis and ameliorating the hyperglycemia, but failed to normalize the hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity. She was not thirsty and had a urine output of 1 L/day, with urinary hypotonicity. Desmopressin administration reduced the hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity to within their normal ranges, and the patient's urinary osmolarity increased to 743 mOsm/L. Therefore, adipsic CDI was diagnosed. Endocrine investigations revealed isolated central hypothyroidism. The results of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Thus, patients with impaired thirst may have an atypical presentation of CDI. In addition, the diagnosis of adipsic CDI is particularly challenging.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico , Diabetes Insípido , Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Hipernatremia , Meningoencefalite , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/complicações , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Hipernatremia/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , Polidipsia
7.
Brain Behav ; 14(3): e3430, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngiomas are low-grade malignancies (WHO I) in the sellar region. Most cases of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma are adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, and neurosurgery is the treatment of choice. Affected patients have postoperative complications, including water and electrolyte disturbances, because these malignancies develop near the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Determining postoperative serum sodium fluctuation patterns in these patients can reduce postoperative mortality and improve prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in serum sodium levels in pediatric patients who underwent craniopharyngioma surgery and identify influencing factors. METHODS: This retrospective study measured the serum sodium levels of 202 patients aged 0-18 years who underwent craniopharyngioma resection in Beijing Tiantan Hospital and Beijing Children's Hospital and identified predictors of severe hyponatremia and hypernatremia. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 8.35 ± 4.35 years. The prevalence of hypernatremia, hyponatremia, and their severe forms (serum Na+  > 150 mmol/L and serum Na+  < 130 mmol/L) within 14 days after surgery was 66.3%, 72.8%, 37.1%, and 40.6%, respectively. The mean postoperative serum sodium level showed a triphasic pattern, characterized by two peaks separated by a nadir. Sodium levels peaked on days 2 (143.6 ± 7.6 mmol/L) and 14 (143.2 ± 6.7 mmol/L) and reached their lowest on day 6 (135.5 ± 7.5 mmol/L). A total of 31 (15.3%) patients met the diagnostic threshold for hyponatremia and hypernatremia of the triphase response, whereas 116 (57.4%) patients presented this pattern, regardless of met the diagnostic criteria or not. The prevalence of severe hyponatremia varied depending on preoperative endocrine hormone deficiency, tumor status (primary or recurrent), and surgical approach. CONCLUSIONS: Serum sodium levels after craniopharyngioma resection in children showed a triphasic pattern in most cases. The risk of postoperative hyponatremia varied depending on preoperative endocrine hormone deficiency, tumor status (primary or recurrent), and surgical approach.


Assuntos
Craniofaringioma , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Craniofaringioma/cirurgia , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Hormônios , Sódio
8.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 82, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between initial dysnatremia (hyponatremia and hypernatremia) and in-hospital mortality, as well as between initial dysnatremia and functional outcomes, among children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD: We performed a multicenter observational study among 26 pediatric intensive care units from January 2014 to August 2022. We recruited children with TBI under 18 years of age who presented to participating sites within 24 h of injury. We compared demographics and clinical characteristics between children with initial hyponatremia and eu-natremia and between those with initial hypernatremia and eu-natremia. We defined poor functional outcome as a discharge Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) score of moderate, severe disability, coma, and death, or an increase of at least 2 categories from baseline. We performed multivariable logistic regression for mortality and poor PCPC outcome. RESULTS: Among 648 children, 84 (13.0%) and 42 (6.5%) presented with hyponatremia and hypernatremia, respectively. We observed fewer 14-day ventilation-free days between those with initial hyponatremia [7.0 (interquartile range (IQR) = 0.0-11.0)] and initial hypernatremia [0.0 (IQR = 0.0-10.0)], compared to eu-natremia [9.0 (IQR = 4.0-12.0); p = 0.006 and p < 0.001]. We observed fewer 14-day ICU-free days between those with initial hyponatremia [3.0 (IQR = 0.0-9.0)] and initial hypernatremia [0.0 (IQR = 0.0-3.0)], compared to eu-natremia [7.0 (IQR = 0.0-11.0); p = 0.006 and p < 0.001]. After adjusting for age, severity, and sex, presenting hyponatremia was associated with in-hospital mortality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-4.66, p = 0.005] and poor outcome (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.01-2.76, p = 0.045). After adjustment, initial hypernatremia was associated with mortality (aOR = 5.91, 95% CI = 2.85-12.25, p < 0.001) and poor outcome (aOR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.50-5.98, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Among children with TBI, presenting dysnatremia was associated with in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcome, particularly hypernatremia. Future research should investigate longitudinal sodium measurements in pediatric TBI and their association with clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Coma , Mortalidade Hospitalar
9.
In Vivo ; 38(2): 747-753, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The current study was designed to evaluate the etiologies of hypernatremic episodes in patients with severe burn injuries in comparison to critically ill non-burn patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective data acquisition was limited to the first 14 days and to patients with at least 20% total body surface area (TBSA) 2nd degree burn injuries or more than 10% TBSA when including areas of 3rd degree burn injuries. The results were compared to the results of a previously published study that analyzed the risk factors for hypernatremia in 390 non-burn intensive care unit patients. RESULTS: In total, 120 patients with a total of 50 hypernatremic episodes were included. Compared to non-burn injury patients, no significant differences were detectable except for a lower rate of hypokalemia and a higher rate of mechanical ventilation. The main trigger for hypernatremic episodes was the loss of free water, while 24% of the hypernatremic episodes seemed to be at least partly triggered by a surplus sodium influx. Patients with hypernatremic episodes had a significantly higher mortality rate. However, in none of the cases was hypernatremia the decisive cause of death. CONCLUSION: Besides the unique phenomenon of high volume internal and external volume shifts, the overall risk factors and etiologies of hypernatremia in patients with severe burn injury do not seem to significantly differ from other ICU patient collectives. Remarkably, a surplus of sodium influx and therefore a modifiable factor besides the specific burn injury volume resuscitation had an impact on the hypernatremic episodes in 24% of cases.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Sódio , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Fatores de Risco
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 69(3-4)2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423520

RESUMO

Treatment of liver hydatid cysts is still in most cases surgical. To avoid the recurrence of hydatid cysts injection of scolicidal products inside the cystic cavity is an important step in the surgical procedure. Many scolicidal solutions are used. Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS) is widely used by surgeons; however, there is a risk of hypertonic saline resorption and acute hypernatremia. Iatrogenic hypernatremia can be life-threatening. We report three cases of hypernatremia secondary to HSS injection for hydatid cyst disease treatment. The objective of this study was to discuss the clinical features, and treatment of this rare complication.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo , Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Echinococcus , Hipernatremia , Animais , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/tratamento farmacológico , Abdome Agudo/complicações , Abdome Agudo/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/cirurgia , Equinococose Hepática/complicações , Equinococose Hepática/cirurgia , Equinococose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico
11.
J Crit Care ; 81: 154544, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium increases during acute kidney injury (AKI) recovery. Both hypernatremia and positive fluid balances are associated with increased mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association between daily fluid balance and daily plasma sodium during the recovery from AKI among critical patients. METHODS: Adult patients with AKI were enrolled in four ICUs and followed up for four days or until ICU discharge or hemodialysis initiation. Day zero was the peak day of creatinine. The primary outcome was daily plasma sodium; the main exposure was daily fluid balance. RESULTS: 93 patients were included. The median age was 66 years; 68% were male. Plasma sodium increased in 79 patients (85%), and 52% presented hypernatremia. We found no effect of daily fluid balance on plasma sodium (ß -0.26, IC95%: -0.63-0.13; p = 0.19). A higher total sodium variation was observed in patients with lower initial plasma sodium (ß -0.40, IC95%: -0.53 to -0.27; p < 0.01), higher initial urea (ß 0.07, IC95%: 0.04-0.01; p < 0.01), and higher net sodium balance (ß 0.002, IC95%: 0.0001-0.01; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in plasma sodium is common during AKI recovery and can only partially be attributed to the water and electrolyte balances. The incidence of hypernatremia in this population of patients is higher than in the general critically ill patient population.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Hipernatremia , Sódio , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Rim , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio/sangue
12.
J Vet Intern Med ; 38(2): 1157-1159, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38205655

RESUMO

A 15-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog weighing 28 kg presented to a referral center after developing severe tremors and altered mentation. There was hypocalcemia and hypernatremia after oral administration of sodium phosphate as a bowel cleansing agent in preparation for colonoscopy. The dog was treated intravenously with low sodium fluids and calcium gluconate. Neurologic status and electrolyte derangements normalized over the next 12 hours. Oral administration of sodium phosphate appeared to cause clinical electrolyte derangements in this dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Hipernatremia , Hipocalcemia , Masculino , Cães , Animais , Hipocalcemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Hipernatremia/induzido quimicamente , Hipernatremia/veterinária , Fosfatos/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 48(2): 200-204, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38205519

RESUMO

This article introduces an innovative teaching and learning tool called "Edelman Gamblegrams" that aims to help medical learners better understand disorders related to water/plasma tonicity homeostasis, i.e., hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Gamblegrams, named after physician James L. Gamble, are bar diagrams displaying the relative abundance of extracellular anions and cations and are commonly used in the analysis of acid-base disorders. The Edelman equation represents the physiological variables that determine plasma sodium concentration, namely, total body sodium mass, total body potassium mass, and total body water volume. Edelman Gamblegrams inspired by traditional Gamblegrams but using the components of the Edelman equation, visually demonstrate how sodium, potassium, and water contribute to plasma sodium concentration under normal and pathological conditions. Scenarios that lead to hypotonic hyponatremia and hypernatremia in Edelman Gamblegrams are also discussed. Furthermore, examples of how these visual aids can enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of dysnatremias are also presented. Overall, the use of Edelman Gamblegrams has the potential to improve comprehension and retention of concepts related to water/plasma tonicity homeostasis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article introduces a new teaching tool called "Edelman Gamblegrams," modeled after the conventional Gamblegrams used in acid-base disorder analysis and using the independent physiological variables that determine the plasma sodium concentration (Edelman equation), that aims to help medical learners understand disorders related to water/plasma tonicity homeostasis.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Água , Sódio , Potássio , Cafeína
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 149(3): 86-92, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262402

RESUMO

Osmotic gradients over cell membranes lead to water movement into or out of cells. An intact osmoregulation prevents osmotic gradients, thereby protecting cells from swelling or shrinking. Na+ is the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and the major determinant of the osmolarity in the ECF, including plasma. Therefore, the plasma-Na+ concentration needs to be tightly regulated. An excess of electrolyte-free water decreases the concentration of osmolytes leading to hyponatremia. In contrast, a free water deficit increases the osmolyte concentration leading to hypernatremia. Pathophysiology-oriented approaches to dysnatremic patients help both clinicians and patients. Therapeutic interventions depend on the differentiation between acute and chronic, asymptomatic, and symptomatic dysnatremia, and on the patient's extracellular volume status. The therapeutic armamentarium for hyponatremia consists of water restriction, hypertonic infusions, urea, V2 receptor-blockers, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Patients with hypernatremia are treated with electrolyte-free water or hypotonic sodium-containing solutions depending on their volume status. Basic concepts in the management of dysnatremic patients are discussed.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Humanos , Ureia , Água , Sódio
16.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 36(2): 219-227, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174733

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are commonly encountered electrolyte abnormalities that require timely and careful intervention, as they can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: This review article addresses the etiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management of both hyponatremia and hypernatremia, emphasizing the latest advancements and emerging trends in pediatric care. SUMMARY: A methodical approach is needed to accurately assess and treat hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Both conditions continue to rely on serum and urine testing, however newer tests such as copeptin and stimulated testing may hold promise to further refine testing in the future.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Criança , Humanos , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/terapia , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hipernatremia/terapia
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191224

RESUMO

Chronic hypernatraemia is a rare clinical entity. In the younger population, hypernatraemia is often a consequence of failure to generate thirst in response to osmotic stimuli.We report the case of a male patient admitted with severe hypernatraemia (plasma sodium 175 mmol/L) on return from holidays. His urine was maximally concentrated at 894 mOsm/kg-suggestive of normal vasopressin reserve. MRI of the brain showed a large extra-axial cyst, with preservation of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Formal osmoregulatory studies demonstrated normal osmoregulated vasopressin secretion and normal thirst, but no appropriate drinking behaviour.This patient illustrates a unique pathophysiological disconnect between thirst appreciation and the central drive to drink, in the context of normal osmoregulatory function. It is likely that this disconnect is related to the patient's large intracranial cyst.The management challenge is to maintain appropriate fluid intake in order to prevent recurrent severe hypernatraemia.


Assuntos
Cistos , Hipernatremia , Humanos , Masculino , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Transporte Biológico , Vasopressinas
18.
Crit Care Med ; 52(5): 752-763, 2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To perform a detailed examination of sodium levels, hyponatremia and sodium fluctuations, and their association with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). DESIGN: An observational cohort study from a prospective SAH Registry. SETTING: Tertiary referral center focused on SAH treatment in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. PATIENTS: A total of 964 adult patients with confirmed aSAH were included between 2011 and 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 277 (29%) developed DCI. Hyponatremia occurred significantly more often in DCI patients compared with no-DCI patients (77% vs. 48%). Sodium levels, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, and sodium fluctuations did not predict DCI. However, higher sodium levels were significantly associated with poor outcome in DCI patients (DCI onset -7, DCI +0, +1, +2, +4, +5, +8, +9 d), and in no-DCI patients (postbleed day 6-10 and 12-14). Also, hypernatremia and greater sodium fluctuations were significantly associated with poor outcome in both DCI and no-DCI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium levels, hyponatremia, and sodium fluctuations were not associated with the occurrence of DCI. However, higher sodium levels, hypernatremia, and greater sodium fluctuations were associated with poor outcome after aSAH irrespective of the presence of DCI. Therefore, sodium levels, even with mild changes in levels, warrant close attention.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Adulto , Humanos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações
19.
Neurocrit Care ; 40(2): 769-784, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37380894

RESUMO

Acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Intracranial pressure (ICP)-lowering is a critical management priority in patients with moderate to severe acute TBI. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of hypertonic saline (HTS) versus other ICP-lowering agents in patients with TBI. We conducted a systematic search from 2000 onward for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HTS vs. other ICP-lowering agents in patients with TBI of all ages. The primary outcome was the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at 6 months (PROSPERO CRD42022324370). Ten RCTs (760 patients) were included. Six RCTs were included in the quantitative analysis. There was no evidence of an effect of HTS on the GOS score (favorable vs. unfavorable) compared with other agents (risk ratio [RR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-1.40; n = 406; 2 RCTs). There was no evidence of an effect of HTS on all-cause mortality (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.60-1.55; n = 486; 5 RCTs) or total length of stay (RR 2.36, 95% CI - 0.53 to 5.25; n = 89; 3 RCTs). HTS was associated with adverse hypernatremia compared with other agents (RR 2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.17; n = 386; 2 RCTs). The point estimate favored a reduction in uncontrolled ICP with HTS, but this was not statistically significant (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.26-1.04; n = 423; 3 RCTs). Most included RCTs were at unclear or high risk of bias because of lack of blinding, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. We found no evidence of an effect of HTS on clinically important outcomes and that HTS is associated with adverse hypernatremia. The included evidence was of low to very low certainty, but ongoing RCTs may help to the reduce this uncertainty. In addition, heterogeneity in GOS score reporting reflects the need for a standardized TBI core outcome set.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Hipernatremia , Hipertensão Intracraniana , Humanos , Pressão Intracraniana , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Solução Salina Hipertônica/farmacologia
20.
CEN Case Rep ; 13(1): 9-13, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37074627

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been widely used. They inhibit proximal tubular glucose reabsorption, resulting in glycosuria. Herein, we report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with hypernatremia during the perioperative period of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient continued to take dapagliflozin postoperatively and subsequently developed severe hypernatremia. Based on the urinalysis findings, we diagnosed osmotic diuresis due to glycosuria as contributing to hypernatremia. Hypernatremia improved with the discontinuation of dapagliflozin and the administration of a hypotonic infusion. In the perioperative period, physicians should discontinue SGLT2 inhibitors owing to concerns about the development of hypernatremia.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Glucosídeos , Glicosúria , Hipernatremia , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Hipernatremia/induzido quimicamente , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Glicosúria/complicações , Diurese , Glucose/uso terapêutico
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