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2.
World J Emerg Surg ; 18(1): 4, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous observational studies showed higher rates of abdominal wall closure with the use of hypertonic saline in trauma patients with abdominal injuries. However, no randomized controlled trials have been performed on this matter. This double-blind randomized clinical trial assessed the effect of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) solution on primary fascial closure and the timing of abdominal wall closure among patients who underwent damage control laparotomy for bleeding control. METHODS: Double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients with abdominal injuries requiring damage control laparotomy (DCL) were randomly allocated to receive a 72-h infusion (rate: 50 mL/h) of 3% HS or 0.9 N isotonic saline (NS) after the index DCL. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with abdominal wall closure in the first seven days after the index DCL. RESULTS: The study was suspended in the first interim analysis because of futility. A total of 52 patients were included. Of these, 27 and 25 were randomly allocated to NS and HS, respectively. There were no significant differences in the rates of abdominal wall closure between groups (HS: 19 [79.2%] vs. NS: 17 [70.8%]; p = 0.71). In contrast, significantly higher hypernatremia rates were observed in the HS group (HS: 11 [44%] vs. NS: 1 [3.7%]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This double-blind randomized clinical trial showed no benefit of HS solution in primary fascial closure rates. Patients randomized to HS had higher sodium concentrations after the first day and were more likely to present hypernatremia. We do not recommend using HS in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy. Trial registration The trial protocol was registered in clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT02542241).


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Hipernatremia , Humanos , Laparotomia/métodos , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fáscia , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia
3.
Am J Case Rep ; 24: e939034, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a well-known adverse effect of lithium use. Albeit rare, there have also been documented cases of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) associated with lithium use. CASE REPORT A 31-year-old woman with a past medical history of bipolar disorder, managed with lithium 300 mg by mouth every day for 3 years, was assessed for a 1-year history of polyuria with accompanying polydipsia. During her initial hospital stay, her estimated urine output was more than 4 L per day. Initial labs showed elevated serum sodium (149 mmol/L; reference range 135-145), elevated serum osmolality (304 mOsm/kg; reference range 275-295), urine osmolality of 99 mOsm/kg (reference range 50-1200), and urine specific gravity (1.005; reference range 1.005-1.030). Lithium was at a subtherapeutic level of 0.05 mEq/L (reference range 0.6-1.2). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed no abnormalities of the pituitary gland. Two different occasions of desmopressin administration resulted in >50% increase in urine osmolality, confirming the diagnosis of CDI. Common causes of CDI, including trauma, tumors, and familial CDI, were ruled out and chronic lithium use was determined as the most probable cause for the patient's CDI. CONCLUSIONS CDI in the background of chronic lithium use is rarely reported. We present this case to consider CDI as a differential diagnosis when evaluating polyuria and hypernatremia in patients with long-term lithium use. These presentations warrant the consideration of both types of diabetes insipidus in the differential diagnoses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipernatremia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Lítio , Poliúria/induzido quimicamente , Poliúria/complicações , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/induzido quimicamente
5.
Vnitr Lek ; 68(E-8): 23-28, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575063

RESUMO

Dysnatremias are among the most common mineral imbalances encountered in clinical practice. Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia are associated with increased morbiditidy and mortality and represent negative prognostic factors regardless of their cause. Serum osmolality, extracellular fluid volume and sodium urine concentration are important parameters for evaluation the cause and differential diagnosis. The rate of onset of ionic disorder and severity of clinical symptoms are essential. While acute disorders with symptoms are treated immediately, in chronic disorders, thorough diagnostic evaluation and a careful approach to their correction are necessary. Especially with rapid substitution of chronic hyponatremia, there is a risk of osmotic demyelination syndrome. Therefore, a slow correction of the serum sodium level with frequent mineralogram checks is required.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Humanos , Hiponatremia/complicações , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doença Crônica , Sódio
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2240809, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346630

RESUMO

Importance: Eating disorders lead to increased mortality and reduced quality of life. While the acute presentations of eating disorders frequently involve electrolyte abnormalities, it remains unknown whether electrolyte abnormalities may precede the future diagnosis of an eating disorder. Objective: To determine whether outpatient electrolyte abnormalities are associated with the future diagnosis of an eating disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-level case-control study used provincial administrative health data for residents of Ontario, Canada aged 13 years or older from 2008 to 2020. Individuals without an eating disorder (controls) were matched 4:1 to individuals diagnosed with an incident eating disorder (cases) based on age and sex. Both groups had outpatient electrolyte measurements between 3 years and 30 days prior to index. Index was defined as the date of an eating disorder diagnosis in any inpatient or outpatient clinical setting for cases. Controls were assigned a pseudo-index date according to the distribution of index dates in the case population. Individuals with any prior eating disorder diagnosis were excluded. The data analyzed was from January 1, 2008, through June 30, 2020. Exposures: Any electrolyte abnormality, defined as abnormal test results for a composite of hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, metabolic acidosis, or metabolic alkalosis. Outcomes and Measures: Eating disorder diagnosis including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Results: A total 6970 eligible Ontario residents with an eating disorder (mean [SD] age, 28 (19) years; 6075 [87.2%] female, 895 [12.8%] male) were matched with 27 878 age- and sex-matched residents without an eating disorder diagnosis (mean [SD] age, 28 [19] years; 24 300 [87.2%] female, 3578 [12.8%] male). Overall, 18.4% of individuals with an eating disorder had a preceding electrolyte abnormality vs 7.5% of individuals without an eating disorder (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.12; [95% CI, 1.86-2.41]). The median (IQR) time from the earliest electrolyte abnormality to eating disorder diagnosis was 386 (157-716) days. Specific electrolyte abnormalities associated with a higher risk of an eating disorder were: hypokalemia (aOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.70-2.32), hyperkalemia (aOR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.48-2.62), hyponatremia (aOR, 5.26; 95% CI, 3.32-8.31), hypernatremia (aOR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.01-9.51), hypophosphatemia (aOR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.82-4.40), and metabolic alkalosis (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.63-4.15). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, individuals with an eating disorder were associated with a preceding outpatient electrolyte abnormality compared with matched controls. Otherwise unexplained electrolyte abnormalities may serve to identify individuals who may benefit from screening for an underlying eating disorder.


Assuntos
Alcalose , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Hiperpotassemia , Hipernatremia , Hipopotassemia , Hiponatremia , Hipofosfatemia , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hipopotassemia/diagnóstico , Hipopotassemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Eletrólitos , Ontário/epidemiologia
7.
Curr Oncol ; 29(11): 8814-8824, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421346

RESUMO

Hypernatremia (>145 mmol/L) is a relatively rare event, and the data regarding its role in the outcome of inpatients on an oncology ward are weak. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, prognosis, and outcome of hospitalized cancer patients with hypernatremia. We performed a retrospective case-control study of data obtained from inpatients with a solid tumor at the St. Claraspital, Basel, Switzerland, who were admitted between 2017 and 2020. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Hypernatremia was found in 93 (3.16%) of 2945 inpatients bearing cancer or lymphoma. From 991 eligible normonatremic control patients, 93 were matched according to diagnosis, age, and sex. The median overall survival time (OS) of patients with hypernatremia was 1.5 months compared to 11.7 months of the normonatremic controls (HR 2.69, 95% CI 1.85-3.90, p < 0.0001). OS of patients with irreversible compared to reversible hypernatremia was significantly shorter (23 versus 88 days, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.04-7.70, p < 0.0001). The length of hospital stay was significantly longer for the hypernatremic than for the normonatremic group (p < 0.0001). Significantly more patients with hypernatremia died in the hospital (30.1% versus 8.6%, p < 0.001). These results suggest hypernatremia to be associated with an unfavorable outcome and a very short OS.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hipernatremia/terapia , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hospitalização , Neoplasias/complicações
8.
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko ; 86(5): 112-118, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252201

RESUMO

The authors report permanent central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in a patient after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in traffic accident. A 16-year-old boy entered to a medical facility in coma (GCS score 6) with the following diagnosis: acute TBI, severe cerebral contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, depressed comminuted cranial vault fracture, basilar skull fracture, visceral contusion. CDI was diagnosed in 3 days after injury considering polyuria and hypernatremia (155 mmol/l). Desmopressin therapy was initiated through a feeding tube. Thirst appeared when a patient came out of the coma after 21 days despite ongoing desmopressin therapy. Considering persistent thirst and polyuria, we continued desmopressin therapy in a spray form. Under this therapy, polyuria reduced to 3-3.5 liters per a day. Symptoms of CDI persisted in long-term period (2 years after TBI) while function of adenohypophysis was intact. This case demonstrates a rare development of permanent diabetes insipidus after TBI. CDI manifested only as polyuria and hypernatremia in coma. Thirst joined after recovery of consciousness. Probable causes of CDI were damage to neurohypophysis and partially injury of pituitary stalk because of extended basilar skull fracture and/or irreversible secondary lesion of hypothalamus following diffuse axonal damage after TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipernatremia , Adolescente , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Coma/complicações , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/etiologia , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/terapia , Masculino , Poliúria/complicações
9.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 60(5): 548-555, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048807

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has provoked one of the greatest health crises of our time, which is why risk stratification at the time of hospitalization is essential to identify in good time patients with high morbidity and mortality risk. Dysnatremia as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with COVID-19 has recently become relevant. Objective: To find out if there is an association of dysnatremia with 28-day mortality, and as secondary objectives, its association with hospital stay, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) requirement and presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospital stay. Material and methods: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical cohort study. All consecutive patients of 16 years or older of any gender, admitted to a third level hospital from March 1, 2020 to March 2021, who have a diagnosis of COVID-19 with positive PCR were included. Results: The study included a total of 722 patients. The prevalence of dysnatremia was as follows: 18 patients presented hypernatremia (2.49%) and 153 hyponatremia (21.19%). The presence of hypernatremia once sodium was corrected for glucose was associated with higher mortality (p < 0.05, OR 3.446; 95% CI 1.776-6.688), an increased probability of presenting AKI (p <0.05, OR 2.985; 95% CI 1.718-5.184) and a greater requirement for IMV (p < 0.05, OR 1.945; 95% CI 1.701-5.098). Conclusions: Hypernatremia was associated with higher mortality, higher risk of presenting AKI and the requirement for IMV during hospitalization.


Introducción: la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha provocado una de las mayores crisis sanitarias de nuestros tiempos, por lo que la estratificación pronóstica al momento de la hospitalización es fundamental para identificar de manera temprana a los pacientes con alto riesgo de morbimortalidad. La disnatremia como predictor independiente de mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 ha tomado relevancia recientemente. Objetivo: encontrar si existe asociación de disnatremias con mortalidad a 28 días y como secundarios su asociación con estancia hospitalaria, requerimiento de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) y presencia de lesión renal aguda (LRA) durante la estancia hospitalaria. Material y métodos: estudio de tipo cohorte retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico. Se incluyeron de manera consecutiva todos los pacientes mayores de 16 años de cualquier género, ingresados en un hospital de tercer nivel de marzo de 2020 a marzo de 2021, los cuales presentaron diagnóstico de COVID-19 con PCR positiva. Resultados: el estudio incluyó un total de 722 pacientes. La prevalencia de disnatremia fue la siguiente: 18 pacientes presentaron hipernatremia (2.49%) y 153 hiponatremia (21.19%). La presencia de hipernatremia una vez corregido el sodio para la glucosa se asoció con mayor mortalidad (p < 0.05, RM 3.446; IC 95%, 1.776-6.688), un aumento de la probabilidad de presentar LRA (p < 0.05, RM 2.985; IC 95%, 1.718-5.184) y mayor requerimiento de VMI (p < 0.05, RM 1.945; IC 95%, 1.701-5.098). Conclusiones: la hipernatremia se asoció a una mayor mortalidad, mayor riesgo de presentar LRA y requerimiento de VMI durante la hospitalización.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Hipernatremia , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 958295, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120435

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between postoperative hypothalamo-hypophyseal injury (HHI) and postoperative water and sodium disturbances in patients with craniopharyngioma. Methods: The medical records, radiological data, and laboratory results of 178 patients (44 children and 134 adults) who underwent microsurgery for craniopharyngioma in a single center were reviewed. Postoperative HHI was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Structural defects of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system (pituitary, pituitary stalk, floor and lateral wall of the third ventricle) were assessed in four standard T1-weighted images. The defect of each structure was assigned 1 score (0.5 for the unilateral injury of the third ventricle wall), and a HHI score was calculated. Results: The number of patients with HHI scores of 0-1, 2, 2.5-3, and >3 was 35, 49, 61, and 33, respectively. Diabetes insipidus (DI) worsened in 56 (31.5%) patients with preoperative DI, while 119 (66.9%) patients were diagnosed with new-onset DI. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia developed in 127 (71.3%) and 128 (71.9%) patients after surgery, respectively. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis occurred in 97(54.5%) patients. During hospitalization, hypernatremia recurred in 33 (18.5%) patients and in 54 (35.7%) during follow-up, of which 18 (11.9%) were severe. DI persisted in 140 (78.7%) patients before discharge. No relationship was found between the HHI score and incidence of early DI, hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone, or prolonged DI. Compared with patients with a score of 0-1, those with scores =2.5-3 (OR = 5.289, 95% CI:1.098-25.477, P = 0.038) and >3 (OR = 10.815, 95% CI:2.148-54.457, P = 0.004) had higher risk of developing recurrent hypernatremia. Patients with a score >3 had higher risk of developing severe hypernatremia during hospitalization (OR = 15.487, 95% CI:1.852-129.539, P = 0.011) and at follow-up (OR = 28.637, 95% CI:3.060-267.981, P = 0.003). Conclusions: The neuroimaging scoring scale is a simple tool to semi-quantify HHI after surgery. Recurrent and severe hypernatremia should be considered in patients with a high HHI score (>2.5). An HHI score >3 is a potential predictor of adipsic DI development. Preventive efforts should be implemented in the perioperative period to reduce the incidence of potentially catastrophic complications.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Craniofaringioma , Diabetes Insípido , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Criança , Craniofaringioma/complicações , Craniofaringioma/cirurgia , Diabetes Insípido/complicações , Diuréticos , Hormônios , Humanos , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio , Água
11.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 68(4): 40-45, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104965

RESUMO

Presented case demonstrates a rare diencephalic pathology - adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) with severe hypernatremia in a 58-year-old woman after ttranssphenoidal removal of stalk intraventricular craniopharyngioma. ADI was diagnosed because of hypernatremia (150-155 mmol/L), polyuria (up to 4 liters per day) and absence of thirst. Normalization of water-electrolyte balance occurred on the background of desmopressin therapy and sufficient hydration in postoperative period. After release from the hospital, the patient independently stopped desmopressin therapy and did not consume an adequate amount of fluid of the background of polyuria. This led to severe hypernatremia (155-160 mmol/L) and rough mental disorders.Patients with ADI need closely monitoring of medical condition and water-electrolyte parameters, appointment of fixed doses of desmopressin and adequate hydration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido , Hipernatremia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Craniofaringioma/cirurgia , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina , Diabetes Insípido/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Insípido/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Poliúria/etiologia
12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(8): 2323-2328, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114318

RESUMO

Disorders of serum sodium are common findings in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the prevalence, symptoms, etiology, treatment as well as the course of hypernatremia present on admission to the ED. All adult patients with measurements of serum sodium presenting to the ED between 01 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Chart reviews were performed for all patients with hypernatremia defined as serum sodium > 147 mmol/L. 376 patients (0.7%) had a serum sodium > 145 mmol/L on admission and 109 patients (0.2%) had clinically relevant hypernatremia > 147 mmol/L. Main symptoms included somnolence (42%) followed by disorientation (30%) and recent falls (17%). An impaired sense of thirst was the main cause of hypernatremia as present in 76 patients (70%), followed by a lack of free access to water in 50 patients (46%). Regarding treatment, only one patient received targeted oral hydration and 38 patients (35%) experienced inadequate correction of hypernatremia as defined as either a correction of < 2 mmol/L or further increasing sodium during the first 24 h. 25% of patients with hypernatremia died during the course of their hospital stay. Patients who died had significantly lower correction rates of serum sodium (0 mmol/L (-3 - 1.5) versus - 6 mmol/L (-10 - 0), p < 0.001). Hypernatremia is regularly encountered in the ED and patients present with unspecific neurologic symptoms. Initial treatment and correction of hypernatremia are frequently inadequate with no decrease or even increase in serum sodium during the first 24 h.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Adulto , Humanos , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hipernatremia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tempo de Internação
13.
Kidney360 ; 3(8): 1323-1331, 2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176656

RESUMO

Background: In patients without COVID-19, dysnatremia is associated with mortality. These relationships are not well established in patients with COVID-19. We tested the hypotheses that patients with COVID-19 were more likely to have dysnatremia than those without COVID-19 and that, among those with COVID-19, dysnatremia is associated with mortality. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary care center in the Bronx, New York, during the COVID-19 surge from March 11 to April 26, 2020. Using multinomial logistic regression models, we compared the prevalence of hypernatremia (serum sodium ≥150 mEq/L) and hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mEq/L) on admission between patients with and without COVID-19. Among patients with COVID-19, we used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of dysnatremia with mortality. Results: Compared with those without COVID-19 (n=1265), patients with COVID-19 (n=3345) had a higher prevalence of hypernatremia (7% versus 4%, P<0.001) and hyponatremia (7% versus 6%, P=0.04). In adjusted models, COVID-19-positive patients had a higher likelihood of having hypernatremia (adjusted odds ratio=1.87, 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.57, P=0.001) compared with COVID-19-negative patients, whereas the association between hyponatremia and COVID-19 status was no longer significant (P=0.06). Among patients with COVID-19, 775 (23%) died after a median follow-up of 17 days (IQR 7-27 days). Among nonsurvivors, 15% had hypernatremia and 8% had hyponatremia on admission. Hypernatremia was associated with a higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio=1.28, 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.63, P=0.04) compared with patients with eunatremia. Conclusions: In patients hospitalized during the spring 2020 COVID-19 surge, COVID-19 status was associated with hypernatremia on admission. Among patients with COVID-19, hypernatremia was associated with higher mortality. Hypernatremia may be a potential prognostic marker for mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Sódio
14.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 9(4): 403-410, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918296

RESUMO

Hypernatremia occurs when the plasma sodium concentration is greater than 145 mmol/L. Depending on the duration, hypernatremia can be differentiated into acute and chronic. According to severity: mild, moderate and threatening hypernatremia. Finally, depending on pathogenesis, hypernatremia can be defined as hypervolemic, hypovolemic, and euvolemic. Acute hypervolemic hypernatremia is often secondary to increased sodium intake (hypertonic NaCl and NaHCO3 solutions). Instead, chronic hypervolemic hypernatremia may be an expression of primary hyperaldosteronism. Euvolemic hypernatremia occurs in diabetes insipidus: depending on the underlying pathogenesis, it can be classified into two basic types: neurogenic (or central) and nephrogenic. The neurogenic form may be triggered by traumatic, vascular or infectious events; the nephrogenic form may be due to pharmacological causes, such as lithium, or non-pharmacological ones, such as hypokalemia. For hypovolemic hypernatremia, possible explanations are renal or extrarenal losses. The main goal of treatment of hypernatremia is the restoration of plasma tonicity. In particular, if the imbalance has occurred acutely, rapid correction improves the prognosis by preventing the effects of cellular dehydration; if hypernatremia has developed slowly, over a period of days, a slow correction rate (no more than 0.4 mmol/L/h) is recommended.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Humanos , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hipernatremia/terapia , Hipovolemia/complicações
15.
Kidney360 ; 3(7): 1144-1157, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919520

RESUMO

Background: Hypernatremia is a frequently encountered electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients. Controversies still exist over the relationship between hypernatremia and its outcomes in hospitalized patients. This study examines the relationship of hypernatremia to outcomes among hospitalized patients and the extent to which this relationship varies by kidney function and age. Methods: We conducted an observational study to investigate the association between hypernatremia, eGFR, and age at hospital admission and in-hospital mortality, and discharge dispositions. We analyzed the data of 1.9 million patients extracted from the Cerner Health Facts databases (2000-2018). Adjusted multinomial regression models were used to estimate the relationship of hypernatremia to outcomes of hospitalized patients. Results: Of all hospitalized patients, 3% had serum sodium (Na) >145 mEq/L at hospital admission. Incidence of in-hospital mortality was 12% and 2% in hyper- and normonatremic patients, respectively. The risk of all outcomes increased significantly for Na >155 mEq/L compared with the reference interval of Na=135-145 mEq/L. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for in-hospital mortality and discharge to a hospice or nursing facility were 34.41 (30.59-38.71), 21.14 (17.53-25.5), and 12.21 (10.95-13.61), respectively (all P<0.001). In adjusted models, we found that the association between Na and disposition was modified by eGFR (P<0.001) and by age (P<0.001). Sensitivity analyses were performed using the eGFR equation without race as a covariate, and the inferences did not substantially change. In all hypernatremic groups, patients aged 76-89 and ≥90 had higher odds of in-hospital mortality compared with younger patients (all P<0.001). Conclusions: Hypernatremia was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality and discharge to a hospice or nursing facility. The risk of in-hospital mortality and other outcomes was highest among those with Na >155 mEq/L. This work demonstrates that hypernatremia is an important factor related to discharge disposition and supports the need to study whether protocolized treatment of hypernatremia improves outcomes.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Sódio
17.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 16(4): 228-237, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962637

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As a multisystem illness, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage different organs. This study investigated the effect of electrolyte imbalance (EI), with or without concomitant renal dysfunction, on the prognosis of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: We evaluated 499 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, without a history of chronic kidney disease. The patients' demographic data, laboratory values, and outcomes were retrospectively collected from the hospital information system. Serumelectrolytes including sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus abnormalities were analyzed on admission and during the hospitalization period. The outcomes of this study were the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after the first week of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rate. Multivariate analyses were carried out to obtain the independent risk of each EI on mortality, by adjusting for age, gender, and AKI occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 499 COVID-19 patients (60.9% male), AKI occurred in 168 (33.7%) and mortality in 92 (18.4%) cases. Hypocalcemia (38%) and hyponatremia (22.6%) were the most prevalent EIs, and all EIs were more common in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. Hyponatremia (Adjusted Odds ratio [AOR] = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.30 to 4.18), hypernatremia (AOR = 8.52, 95% CI: 1.95 to 37.32), and hyperkalemia (AOR = 4.63, 95% CI: 1.65 to 13) on admission were associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, hyponatremia (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.28 to 7.15) and hyperphosphatemia (AOR = 5.12, 95% CI: 1.24 to 21.09) on admission were associated with late AKI occurrence. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the role of hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia in poor prognosis of COVID-19. According to the independent effect of EI on late AKI and mortality, we recommend physicians to raise awareness to closely monitor and correct EI during hospitalization.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6904.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Hiperpotassemia , Hipernatremia , Hiperfosfatemia , Hiponatremia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Eletrólitos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 63(11): 1194-1199, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925122

RESUMO

A 66-year-old female patient with the initial diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia is reported. Paraneoplastic syndrome manifested as hypernatremia due to central diabetes insipidus (CDI), which could be controlled with the administration of desmopressin. After initiation of the induction therapy, the required desmopressin administration could be reduced and terminated. In the further course, the early increasing polyuria and hypernatremia indicated the primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico , Hipernatremia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Poliúria/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/complicações
20.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 29(2): 171-179.e1, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817524

RESUMO

Sodium and potassium disorders are pervasive in patients with cancer. The causes of these abnormalities are wide-ranging, are often primary or second-order consequences of the underlying cancer, and have prognostic implications. The approach to hyponatremia should focus on cancer-related etiologies, such as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, to the exclusion of other causes. Hypernatremia in non-iatrogenic forms is generally due to water loss rather than excessive sodium intake. Debilitated or dependent patients with cancer are particularly vulnerable to hypernatremia. Hypokalemia can occur in patients with cancer due to gastrointestinal disturbances, resulting from decreased intake or increased losses. Renal losses can occur as a result of excessive mineralocorticoid secretion or therapy-related nephrotoxicity. The approach to hyperkalemia should be informed by historical and laboratory clues, and pseudohyperkalemia is particularly common in patients with hematological cancers. Hyperkalemia can be seen in primary or metastatic disease that interrupts the adrenal axis. It can also develop as a consequence of immunotherapy, which can cause adrenalitis or hypophysitis. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is defined by the development of hyperkalemia and is a medical emergency. Awareness of the electrolyte abnormalities that can befall patients with cancer is vital for its prompt recognition and management.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Hipernatremia , Hipopotassemia , Hiponatremia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Potássio , Sódio
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