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1.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(4): 331-340, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231985

RESUMO

Antecedentes: El Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea tiene entre sus objetivos la vigilancia epidemiológica de la dermatitis de contacto. Para ello es importante conocer si se producen alteraciones en el tiempo de las prevalencias de las positividades a los distintos alérgenos. Objetivos: Describir las variaciones en las tendencias temporales en positividades a alérgenos en la serie estándar del GEIDAC en el periodo comprendido entre 2018 y el 31 de diciembre de 2022. Métodos: Estudio observacional multicéntrico de pacientes estudiados consecutivamente mediante pruebas epicutáneas dentro del estudio de un posible eczema alérgico de contacto recogidos de forma prospectiva en el seno del Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea. Se analizaron los datos mediante 2 pruebas estadísticas: una de homogeneidad (para ver si hay cambios en los diferentes años) y otra de tendencia (para ver si los cambios siguen una tendencia lineal). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 11.327 pacientes en el periodo de estudio. Los alérgenos en los que de forma global se detectó una sensibilización mayor fueron sulfato de níquel, metilisotiazolinona, cloruro de cobalto, metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y mezcla de fragancias i. Se detectó una disminución estadísticamente significativa en el porcentaje de positividades de metilisotiazolinona a lo largo de años de estudio con una tendencia ordenada. Conclusiones: Si bien se pueden apreciar diferentes cambios en las tendencias a sensibilizaciones a varios de los alérgenos de la batería estándar, se observa que persiste una alta sensibilización al níquel, a la metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y a la mezcla de fragancias i. Solo se aprecia una tendencia a disminuir de forma significativa en el caso de la metilisotiazolinona.(AU)


Background: The epidemiological surveillance of contact dermatitis is one of the objectives of the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. Knowing whether the prevalence of positive tests to the different allergens changes over time is important for this monitoring process. Objectives: To describe the various temporary trends in allergen positivity in the GEIDAC standard series from 2018 through December 31, 2022. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational trial of consecutive patients analyzed via patch tests as part of the study of possible allergic contact dermatitises collected prospectively within the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. The data was analyzed using 2 statistical tests: one homogeneity test (to describe the changes seen over time) and one trend test (to see whether the changes described followed a linear trend). Results: A total of 11327 patients were included in the study. Overall, the allergens associated with a highest sensitization were nickel sulfate, methylisothiazolinone, cobalt chloride, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, and fragrance mix i. A statistically significant decrease was found in the percentage of methylisothiazolinone positive tests across the study years with an orderly trend. Conclusions: Although various changes were seen in the sensitizations trends to several allergens of the standard testing, it became obvious that a high sensitization to nickel, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and fragrances mix i remained. Only a significant downward trend was seen for methylisothiazolinone.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos , Testes do Emplastro , Espanha , Dermatite , Dermatologia
2.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(4): T331-T340, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231986

RESUMO

Antecedentes: El Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea tiene entre sus objetivos la vigilancia epidemiológica de la dermatitis de contacto. Para ello es importante conocer si se producen alteraciones en el tiempo de las prevalencias de las positividades a los distintos alérgenos. Objetivos: Describir las variaciones en las tendencias temporales en positividades a alérgenos en la serie estándar del GEIDAC en el periodo comprendido entre 2018 y el 31 de diciembre de 2022. Métodos: Estudio observacional multicéntrico de pacientes estudiados consecutivamente mediante pruebas epicutáneas dentro del estudio de un posible eczema alérgico de contacto recogidos de forma prospectiva en el seno del Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea. Se analizaron los datos mediante 2 pruebas estadísticas: una de homogeneidad (para ver si hay cambios en los diferentes años) y otra de tendencia (para ver si los cambios siguen una tendencia lineal). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 11.327 pacientes en el periodo de estudio. Los alérgenos en los que de forma global se detectó una sensibilización mayor fueron sulfato de níquel, metilisotiazolinona, cloruro de cobalto, metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y mezcla de fragancias i. Se detectó una disminución estadísticamente significativa en el porcentaje de positividades de metilisotiazolinona a lo largo de años de estudio con una tendencia ordenada. Conclusiones: Si bien se pueden apreciar diferentes cambios en las tendencias a sensibilizaciones a varios de los alérgenos de la batería estándar, se observa que persiste una alta sensibilización al níquel, a la metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y a la mezcla de fragancias i. Solo se aprecia una tendencia a disminuir de forma significativa en el caso de la metilisotiazolinona.(AU)


Background: The epidemiological surveillance of contact dermatitis is one of the objectives of the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. Knowing whether the prevalence of positive tests to the different allergens changes over time is important for this monitoring process. Objectives: To describe the various temporary trends in allergen positivity in the GEIDAC standard series from 2018 through December 31, 2022. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational trial of consecutive patients analyzed via patch tests as part of the study of possible allergic contact dermatitises collected prospectively within the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. The data was analyzed using 2 statistical tests: one homogeneity test (to describe the changes seen over time) and one trend test (to see whether the changes described followed a linear trend). Results: A total of 11327 patients were included in the study. Overall, the allergens associated with a highest sensitization were nickel sulfate, methylisothiazolinone, cobalt chloride, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, and fragrance mix i. A statistically significant decrease was found in the percentage of methylisothiazolinone positive tests across the study years with an orderly trend. Conclusions: Although various changes were seen in the sensitizations trends to several allergens of the standard testing, it became obvious that a high sensitization to nickel, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and fragrances mix i remained. Only a significant downward trend was seen for methylisothiazolinone.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos , Testes do Emplastro , Espanha , Dermatite , Dermatologia
3.
J Exp Med ; 221(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597953

RESUMO

Environmental airborne antigens are central to the development of allergic asthma, but the cellular processes that trigger disease remain incompletely understood. In this report, Schmitt et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20231236) identify TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A) as an epithelial alarmin constitutively expressed by a subset of lung epithelial cells, which is released in response to airborne microbial challenge and synergizes with IL-33 to drive allergic disease.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Alarminas , Células Epiteliais , Pulmão
4.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1364774, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629075

RESUMO

Allergic asthma has emerged as a prevalent allergic disease worldwide, affecting most prominently both young individuals and lower-income populations in developing and developed countries. To devise effective and curative immunotherapy, it is crucial to comprehend the intricate nature of this condition, characterized by an immune response imbalance that favors a proinflammatory profile orchestrated by diverse subsets of immune cells. Although the involvement of Natural Killer T (NKT) cells in asthma pathology is frequently implied, their specific contributions to disease onset and progression remain incompletely understood. Given their remarkable ability to modulate the immune response through the rapid secretion of various cytokines, NKT cells represent a promising target for the development of effective immunotherapy against allergic asthma. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the current understanding of NKT cells in the context of allergic asthma, along with novel therapeutic approaches that leverage the functional response of these cells.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Células T Matadoras Naturais , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Citocinas , Imunoterapia
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e49433, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved life expectancy has increased the prevalence of older adults living with multimorbidities, which likely deteriorates their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Understanding which chronic conditions frequently co-occur can facilitate person-centered care tailored to the needs of individuals with specific multimorbidity profiles. OBJECTIVE: The study objectives were to (1) examine the prevalence of multimorbidity among Korean older adults (ie, those aged 65 years and older), (2) investigate chronic disease patterns using latent class analysis, and (3) assess which chronic disease patterns are more strongly associated with HRQoL. METHODS: A sample of 1806 individuals aged 65 years and older from the 2021 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify the clustering pattern of chronic diseases. HRQoL was assessed by an 8-item health-related quality of life scale (HINT-8). Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the association with the total score of the HINT-8. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds ratio of having problems according to the HINT-8 items. RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity in the sample was 54.8%. Three chronic disease patterns were identified: relatively healthy, cardiometabolic condition, arthritis, allergy, or asthma. The total scores of the HINT-8 were the highest in participants characterized as arthritis, allergy, or asthma group, indicating the lowest quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Current health care models are disease-oriented, meaning that the management of chronic conditions applies to a single condition and may not be relevant to those with multimorbidities. Identifying chronic disease patterns and their impact on overall health and well-being is critical for guiding integrated care.


Assuntos
Artrite , Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Idoso , Análise de Classes Latentes , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
6.
JCI Insight ; 9(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587077

RESUMO

To unravel the heterogeneity and molecular signature of effector memory Th2 cells (Tem2), we analyzed 23 individuals' PBMCs of filaria-infected (Filaria+) and 24 healthy volunteers (Filaria-), with or without coincident house dust mite (HDM) allergic sensitization. Flow cytometry revealed 3 CD4+ Tem subsets - CCR4+CCR6+CRTH2- Tem17, CCR4+CCR6-CRTH2+ Tem2, and CCR6+CCR4+CRTH2+ Tem17.2 - markedly enriched in Filaria+ individuals. These subsets were sorted and analyzed by multiomic single-cell RNA immunoprofiling. SingleR-annotated Th2 cells from Tem2 and Tem17.2 cell subsets had features of pathogenic Th2 effector cells based on their transcriptional signatures, with downregulated CD27 and elevated expression levels of ITGA4, IL17RB, HPGDS, KLRB1, PTGDR2, IL9R, IL4, IL5, and IL13 genes. When the Filaria+ individuals were subdivided based on their allergic status, Tem2 cells in HDM+Filaria+ individuals showed an overall reduction in TCR diversity, suggesting the occurrence of antigen-driven clonal expansion. Moreover, HDM+Filaria+ individuals showed not only an expansion in the frequency of both Tem2 and Tem17.2 cell subsets, but also a change in their molecular program by overexpressing GATA3, IL17RB, CLRF2, and KLRB1, as well as increased antigen-induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 production, suggesting that aeroallergens reshape the transcriptional and functional programming of Th2 cell subsets in human filarial infection toward a pathogenic immunophenotype.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Animais , Humanos , Células Th2 , Alérgenos , Pyroglyphidae
8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 35(4): e14116, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatricians are often the first point of contact for children in Primary Care (PC), but still perceive gaps in their allergy knowledge. We investigated self-perceived knowledge gaps and educational needs in pediatricians across healthcare systems in Europe so that future educational initiatives may better support the delivery of allergy services in PC. METHOD: A multinational survey was circulated to pediatricians who care for children and adolescents with allergy problems in PC by the EAACI Allergy Educational Needs in Primary Care Pediatricians Task Force from February to March 2023. A 5-point Likert scale was used to assess the level of agreement with questionnaire statements. Thirty surveys per country were the cut-off for inclusion and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In this study, 1991 respondents were obtained from 56 countries across Europe and 210 responses were from countries with a cut-off below 30 participants per country. Primary care pediatricians (PCPs) comprised 74.4% of the respondents. The majority (65.3%) were contracted to state or district health services. 61.7% had awareness of guidelines for onward allergy referral in their countries but only 22.3% were aware of the EAACI competencies document for allied health professionals for allergy. Total sample respondents versus PCPs showed 52% and 47% of them have access to allergy investigations in their PC facility (mainly specific IgE and skin prick tests); 67.6% and 58.9% have access to immunotherapy, respectively. The main barrier to referral to a specialist was a consideration that the patient's condition could be diagnosed and treated in this PC facility, (57.8% and 63.6% respectively). The main reasons for referral were the need for hospital assessment, and partial response to first-line treatment (55.4% and 59.2%, 47% and 50.7%, respectively). Learning and assessment methods preference was fairly equally divided between Traditional methods (45.7% and 50.1% respectively) and e-learning 45.5% and 44.9%, respectively. Generalist physicians (GPs) have the poorest access to allergy investigations (32.7%, p = .000). The majority of the total sample (91.9%) assess patients with allergic pathology. 868 (43.6%) and 1117 (46.1%), received allergy training as undergraduates and postgraduates respectively [these proportions in PCPs were higher (45% and 59%), respectively]. PCPs with a special interest in allergology experienced greater exposure to allergy teaching as postgraduates. GPs received the largest amount of allergy teaching as undergraduates. Identifying allergic disease based on clinical presentation, respondents felt most confident in the management of eczema/atopic dermatitis (87.4%) and rhinitis/asthma (86.2%), and least confident in allergen immunotherapy (36.9%) and latex allergy (30.8%). CONCLUSION: This study exploring the confidence of PCPs to diagnose, manage, and refer patients with allergies, demonstrated knowledge gaps and educational needs for allergy clinical practice. It detects areas in need of urgent improvement especially in latex and allergen immunotherapy. It is important to ensure the dissemination of allergy guidelines and supporting EAACI documents since the majority of PCPs lack awareness of them. This survey has enabled us to identify what the educational priorities of PCPs are and how they would like to have them met.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atenção à Saúde , Pediatras , Atenção Primária à Saúde
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612486

RESUMO

Mites are highly prevalent arthropods that infest diverse ecological niches globally. Approximately 55,000 species of mites have been identified but many more are yet to be discovered. Of the ones we do know about, most go unnoticed by humans and animals. However, there are several species from the Acariformes superorder that exert a significant impact on global human health. House dust mites are a major source of inhaled allergens, affecting 10-20% of the world's population; storage mites also cause a significant allergy in susceptible individuals; chiggers are the sole vectors for the bacterium that causes scrub typhus; Demodex mites are part of the normal microfauna of humans and their pets, but under certain conditions populations grow out of control and affect the integrity of the integumentary system; and scabies mites cause one of the most common dermatological diseases worldwide. On the other hand, recent genome sequences of mites provide novel tools for mite control and the development of new biomaterial with applications in biomedicine. Despite the palpable disease burden, mites remain understudied in parasitological research. By better understanding mite biology and disease processes, researchers can identify new ways to diagnose, manage, and prevent common mite-induced afflictions. This knowledge can lead to improved clinical outcomes and reduced disease burden from these remarkably widespread yet understudied creatures.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Hipersensibilidade , Animais , Humanos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Ecossistema
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612607

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the venom sac extracts (VSEs) of the European hornet (EH) Vespa crabro (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), focusing on the differences between stinging females, gynes (G), and workers (W), at the protein level. Using a quantitative "Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra" (SWATH-MS) analysis, we identified and quantified a total of 240 proteins. Notably, within the group, 45.8% (n = 110) showed significant differential expression between VSE-G and VSE-W. In this set, 57.3% (n = 63) were upregulated and 42.7% (n = 47) downregulated in the G. Additionally, the two-hundred quantified proteins from the class Insecta belong to sixteen different species, six of them to the Hymenoptera/Apidae lineage, comprising seven proteins with known potential allergenicity. Thus, phospholipase A1 (Vesp v 1), phospholipase A1 verutoxin 2b (VT-2b), hyaluronidase A (Vesp v 2A), hyaluronidase B (Vesp v 2B), and venom allergen 5 (Vesp v 5) were significantly downregulated in the G, and vitellogenin (Vesp v 6) was upregulated. Overall, 46% of the VSE proteins showed differential expression, with a majority being upregulated in G. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD047955. These findings shed light on the proteomic differences in VSE between EH castes, potentially contributing to our understanding of their behavior and offering insights for allergy research.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Vespas , Feminino , Abelhas , Animais , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Fosfolipases A1 , Proteômica
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612830

RESUMO

Ocular allergy (OA) is characterised by ocular surface itchiness, redness, and inflammation in response to allergen exposure. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in the human tear metabolome and lipidome between OA and healthy controls (HCs) across peak allergy (spring-summer) and off-peak (autumn-winter) seasons in Victoria, Australia. A total of 19 participants (14 OA, 5 HCs) aged 18-45 were recruited and grouped by allergy questionnaire score. Metabolites and lipids from tear samples were analysed using mass spectrometry. Data were analysed using TraceFinder and Metaboanalyst. Metabolomics analysis showed 12 differentially expressed (DE) metabolites between those with OA and the HCs during the peak allergy season, and 24 DE metabolites were found in the off-peak season. The expression of niacinamide was upregulated in OA sufferers vs. HCs across both seasons (p ≤ 0.05). A total of 6 DE lipids were DE between those with OA and the HCs during the peak season, and 24 were DE in the off-peak season. Dysregulated metabolites affected oxidative stress, inflammation, and homeostasis across seasons, suggesting a link between OA-associated itch and ocular surface damage via eye rubbing. Tear lipidome changes were minimal between but suggested tear film destabilisation and thinning. Such metabolipodome findings may pave new and exciting ways for effective diagnostics and therapeutics for OA sufferers in the future.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Nymphaeaceae , Humanos , Vitória , Estações do Ano , Estresse Oxidativo , Prurido , Inflamação , Lipídeos
12.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613010

RESUMO

Immunoreactive gluten peptides that are not digested by peptidases produced by humans can trigger celiac disease, allergy and non-celiac gluten hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of selected probiotic strains to hydrolyze immunoreactive gliadin peptides and to identify peptidase-encoding genes in the genomes of the most efficient strains. Residual gliadin immunoreactivity was measured after one- or two-step hydrolysis using commercial enzymes and bacterial peptidase preparations by G12 and R5 immunoenzymatic assays. Peptidase preparations from Lacticaseibacillus casei LC130, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei LPC100 and Streptococcus thermophilus ST250 strains significantly reduced the immunoreactivity of gliadin peptides, including 33-mer, and this effect was markedly higher when a mixture of these strains was used. In silico genome analyses of L. casei LC130 and L. paracasei LPC100 revealed the presence of genes encoding peptidases with the potential to hydrolyze bonds in proline-rich peptides. This suggests that L. casei LC130, L. paracasei LPC100 and S. thermophilus ST250, especially when used as a mixture, have the ability to hydrolyze immunoreactive gliadin peptides and could be administered to patients on a restricted gluten-free diet to help treat gluten-related diseases.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Lactobacillales , Probióticos , Humanos , Glutens , Lactobacillales/genética , Gliadina , Peptídeos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Endopeptidases
13.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 161, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies have identified childhood asthma as a risk factor for obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) where persistent airflow limitation can develop more aggressively. However, a causal link between childhood asthma and COPD/ACO remains to be established. Our study aimed to model the natural history of childhood asthma and COPD and to investigate the cellular/molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression. METHODS: Allergic airways disease was established in three-week-old young C57BL/6 mice using house dust mite (HDM) extract. Mice were subsequently exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) and HDM for 8 weeks. Airspace enlargement (emphysema) was measured by the mean linear intercept method. Flow cytometry was utilised to phenotype lung immune cells. Bulk RNA-sequencing was performed on lung tissue. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bronchoalveolar lavage-fluid were analysed to screen for disease-specific biomarkers. RESULTS: Chronic CS exposure induced emphysema that was significantly augmented by HDM challenge. Increased emphysematous changes were associated with more abundant immune cell lung infiltration consisting of neutrophils, interstitial macrophages, eosinophils and lymphocytes. Transcriptomic analyses identified a gene signature where disease-specific changes induced by HDM or CS alone were conserved in the HDM-CS group, and further revealed an enrichment of Mmp12, Il33 and Il13, and gene expression consistent with greater expansion of alternatively activated macrophages. VOC analysis also identified four compounds increased by CS exposure that were paradoxically reduced in the HDM-CS group. CONCLUSIONS: Early-life allergic airways disease worsened emphysematous lung pathology in CS-exposed mice and markedly alters the lung transcriptome.


Assuntos
Asma , Fumar Cigarros , Enfisema , Hipersensibilidade , Enfisema Pulmonar , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pyroglyphidae , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Inflamação
14.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 457, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615103

RESUMO

Visceral hypersensitivity, a common clinical manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome, may contribute to the development of chronic visceral pain, which is a major challenge for both patients and health providers. Neural circuits in the brain encode, store, and transfer pain information across brain regions. In this review, we focus on the anterior cingulate cortex and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to highlight the progress in identifying the neural circuits involved in visceral pain. We also discuss several neural circuit mechanisms and emphasize the importance of cross-species, multiangle approaches and the identification of specific neurons in determining the neural circuits that control visceral pain.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Dor Visceral , Humanos , Encéfalo , Neurônios
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(869): 766-767, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616688

RESUMO

Asymptomatic bacteriuria is frequently encountered in clinical practice and should be treated only in pregnant women and before invasive urological procedures. Inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with numerous adverse effects including allergic reactions, increased antibiotics resistance and increase risk of Clostridioides difficile infection. Positive urinary culture often leads to antimicrobial treatment, irrespective of urinary symptoms. Therefore, urine analysis and culture should be performed only in symptomatic individuals or in asymptomatic individuals with a clear indication for treatment.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Hipersensibilidade , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Bacteriúria/diagnóstico , Bacteriúria/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Exp Med ; 221(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563820

RESUMO

Inborn errors of immunity lead to autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy, infection, and/or malignancy. Disease-causing JAK1 gain-of-function (GoF) mutations are considered exceedingly rare and have been identified in only four families. Here, we use forward and reverse genetics to identify 59 individuals harboring one of four heterozygous JAK1 variants. In vitro and ex vivo analysis of these variants revealed hyperactive baseline and cytokine-induced STAT phosphorylation and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) levels compared with wild-type JAK1. A systematic review of electronic health records from the BioME Biobank revealed increased likelihood of clinical presentation with autoimmunity, atopy, colitis, and/or dermatitis in JAK1 variant-positive individuals. Finally, treatment of one affected patient with severe atopic dermatitis using the JAK1/JAK2-selective inhibitor, baricitinib, resulted in clinically significant improvement. These findings suggest that individually rare JAK1 GoF variants may underlie an emerging syndrome with more common presentations of autoimmune and inflammatory disease (JAACD syndrome). More broadly, individuals who present with such conditions may benefit from genetic testing for the presence of JAK1 GoF variants.


Assuntos
Colite , Dermatite , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Autoimunidade , Colite/genética , Inflamação , Janus Quinase 1/genética
20.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1325998, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601166

RESUMO

Background: The house dust mite (HDM) is widely recognized as the most prevalent allergen in allergic diseases. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been successfully implemented in clinical treatment for HDM. Hypoallergenic B-cell epitope-based vaccine designed by artificial intelligence (AI) represents a significant progression of recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives. Method: The three-dimensional protein structure of Der f 36 was constructed using Alphafold2. AI-based tools were employed to predict B-cell epitopes, which were subsequently verified through IgE-reaction testing. Hypoallergenic Der f 36 was then synthesized, expressed, and purified. The reduced allergenicity was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and basophil activation test. T-cell response to hypoallergenic Der f 36 and Der f 36 was evaluated based on cytokine expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients. The immunogenicity was evaluated and compared through rabbit immunization with hypoallergenic Der f 36 and Der f 36, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blocking IgG antibody on the specific IgE-binding activity and basophil activation of Der f 36 allergen was also examined. Results: The final selected non-allergic B-cell epitopes were 25-48, 57-67, 107-112, 142-151, and 176-184. Hypoallergenic Der f 36 showed significant reduction in IgE-binding activity. The competitive inhibition of IgE-binding to Der f 36 was investigated using the hypoallergenic Der f 36, and only 20% inhibition could be achieved, which is greatly reduced when compared with inhibition by Der f 36 (98%). The hypoallergenic Der f 36 exhibited a low basophil-stimulating ratio similar to that of the negative control, and it could induce an increasing level of IFN-γ but not Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in PBMCs. The vaccine-specific rabbit blocking IgG antibodies could inhibit the patients' IgE binding and basophil stimulation activity of Derf 36. Conclusion: This study represents the first application of an AI strategy to facilitate the development of a B-cell epitope-based hypoallergenic Der f 36 vaccine, which may become a promising immunotherapy for HDM-allergic patients due to its reduced allergenicity and its high immunogenicity in inducing blocking of IgG.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Vacinas , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Inteligência Artificial , Imunoglobulina E , Proteínas de Artrópodes , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Alérgenos , Pyroglyphidae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G
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