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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(13): e37587, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552079

RESUMO

The use of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) marked a revolutionary change in cancer treatment and opened new avenues for cancer therapy, but ICI can also trigger immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Here, we investigated the publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database to gain insight into the possible association between immune checkpoint inhibitors and hypophysitis. Data on adverse events (AEs) due to hypophysitisfor nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, and atezolizumab were collected from the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the first quarter of 2004 to the second quarter of 2021, and the signals for hypophysitis associated with the four drugs were examined using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) method. The number of reported hypophysitis events ≥ 3 and the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the ROR > 1 were considered positive for hypophysitis signals. A total of 1252 AE reports of hypophysitis associated with nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, and atezolizumab were collected, including 419, 149, 643, and 41 cases, respectively. The RORs of hypophysitis were 289.58 (95% CI 258.49-324.40), 171.74 (95% CI 144.91-203.54), 2248.57 (95% CI 2025.31-2496.45), and 97.29 (95% CI 71.28-132.79), respectively. All four drugs were statistically correlated with the target AE, with the correlation being, in descending order, ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab. Nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, and atezolizumab have all been associated with hypophysitis, which can negatively impact quality of life, and early recognition and management of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related hypophysitis is critical.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Hipofisite , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Farmacovigilância , United States Food and Drug Administration , Qualidade de Vida , Hipofisite/induzido quimicamente , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 69(6): 54-62, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311995

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autoimmune endocrinopathies, which are known to affect various levels of the endocrine system, including the pituitary gland. Hypophysitis is a general term used to describe any form of sellar and suprasellar inflammation that leads to structural changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary region and manifests itself in varying degrees of hormonal deficiency of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands. To date, there is a primary form of hypophysitis, which occurs as a result of an autoimmune lesion directly to the pituitary gland, and a secondary form of hypophysitis, which occurs as a result of the presence of a systemic autoimmune disease. Regardless of the etiology, patients with hypophysitis show various signs and symptoms caused by an inflammatory process in the pituitary gland, which can lead to the development of hypopituitarism, compression of the sellar and parasellar structures. MRI is currently the best non-invasive diagnostic tool for diagnosing hypopituitarism, however, the diagnosis can be made with certainty only by histological examination of the pituitary tissue, which requires an invasive approach, which greatly reduces the feasibility of this procedure. In this article, we present a patient with MRI showing signs of hypophysitis in the absence of clear clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Hipofisite , Hipopituitarismo , Doenças da Hipófise , Humanos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Hipofisite/complicações , Hipofisite/diagnóstico , Doenças da Hipófise/complicações , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico , Doenças da Hipófise/terapia , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipófise/patologia , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico
3.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 63(2): 192-197, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326046

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical features of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor-associated hypophysitis and improve the understanding of the disease. Methods: For the present retrospective case series study, the clinical data of patients with PD-1 inhibitor-associated hypophysitis who were treated at the Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University and the 3rd Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2020 to May 2023 were collected for analysis of clinical manifestations and prognosis. Results: Fifteen cases of PD-1 inhibitor-induced hypophysitis were included, with 13 males and 2 females. The mean age of onset was (62.1±7.5) years, and the median time of onset was 6.5 (4.7, 11.6) cycles of PD-1 inhibitor. At diagnosis, 14 patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, and 12 patients complained of fatigue. There were 12, 1, 1, 5, and 1 cases of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, hypotension, and fever, respectively. Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency occurred in all cases. Moreover, four patients had secondary hypothyroidism, and two patients had secondary hypogonadism. Posterior pituitary hypofunction was not found. Pituitary MRI showed one case each of vacuolar sella turcica, pituitary cystic lesion, pituitary stalk slightly shifted to the left, high metabolism in the sella turcica, and pituitary abnormal signal, while no abnormalities were found in 11 cases. The follow-up time was (47.66±11.93) weeks. At the last follow-up, one patient's serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol returned to normal. Conclusions: Hypophysitis associated with PD-1 inhibitors occurs later, and gastrointestinal symptoms and fatigue are the most common clinical manifestations. PD-1 inhibitor-associated hypophysitis mainly manifests as adrenocortical hypofunction, and some cases manifest as hypothyroidism and hypogonadism. In addition, patients with PD-1 inhibitor-associated hypophysitis show no obvious imaging changes in the pituitary gland.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Hipofisite , Hipotireoidismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Hipofisite/induzido quimicamente , Hipofisite/diagnóstico , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose
4.
Drug Discov Ther ; 18(1): 34-43, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382932

RESUMO

To get a thorough understanding of PD-1/L1 inhibitor-related hypophysitis (PD-1/L1-irH), we utilized a combination of disproportionality analysis and case analysis to comprehensively characterize the clinical features of PD-1/L1-irH. Significant signals of hypophysitis were detected for all PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in the FAERS (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System). As revealed by both FAERS and the case analysis, PD-1/L1-irH occurred more commonly in males, PD-1 inhibitors users and patients older than 65 years. The median onset time was 101 days in FAERS and 8 cycles in the case analysis. In the case analysis, eight late-onset PD-1/L1-irHs occurred even after a discontinuation of several months (4-15 months). As revealed in FAERS, the outcome of PD-1/L1-irH tended to be poor, generally resulting in 64.66% hospitalization and 12.59% death. Fatigue was the most prominent symptom of PD-1/L1-irH, followed by anorexia, hyponatremia, and hypotension, as revealed by the analysis of 84 cases. Meanwhile isolated adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) deficiency was particularly prevalent for PD-1/L1-irH (85.71%), while gonadal hormones or posterior pituitary hormones deficiencies were rare. Glucocorticoids were administered to almost all cases (81/84), with a physiologic or stress dosage in 61.9% of cases, and a high-dose in 26.2% of cases. Most cases (58.3%) showed a favorable tumor response before diagnosis of PD-1/L1-irH. PD-1/L1-irH may occur throughout the whole therapy period even after discontinuation. Clinicians should pay more attention to PD-1 inhibitor users, males and older patients. Early diagnosis and prompt managements are crucial for PD-1/L1-irH as its potentially life-threatening nature.


Assuntos
Hipofisite , Neoplasias , Masculino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hipofisite/induzido quimicamente , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico
5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(2)2024 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418395

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related hypophysitis (RH) is a common immune-related adverse event. The early detection of ICI-RH prevents life-threatening adrenal insufficiency. However, good predictors of secondary adrenal insufficiency in ICI-RH have not yet been reported. We hypothesized that fluctuations in serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels occur similarly to those in thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) levels in ICI-related thyroiditis. Here, we sought to test this hypothesis. Patients who used ICI and had a history of measurement of serum ACTH and cortisol concentrations were retrieved from electronic medical records, and those with a history of glucocorticoid use were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated fluctuations in serum ACTH and cortisol concentrations and the development of ICI-RH. For patients with ICI-RH, data at three points (before ICI administration (pre), maximum ACTH concentration (peak), and onset of ICI-RH) were analyzed to evaluate hormone fluctuations. A total of 202 patients were retrieved from the medical record. Forty-three patients were diagnosed with ICI-RH. Twenty-six out of 43 patients had sufficient data to evaluate fluctuations in serum ACTH and cortisol concentrations and no history of glucocorticoid use. ACTH concentrations changed from 37.4 (29.9-48.3) (pre) to 64.4 (46.5-106.2) (peak) pg/mL (1.72-fold increase, p=0.0026) in the patients with ICI-RH before the onset. There were no differences in cortisol concentrations between the pre and peak values in patients with ICI-RH. We also evaluated the fluctuations in serum ACTH and cortisol levels in patients who did not receive ICI-RH (62 cases). However, elevation of serum ACTH levels was not observed in patients without ICI-RH, suggesting that transient elevation of serum ACTH levels is a unique phenomenon in patients with ICI-RH. In conclusion, serum ACTH levels were transiently elevated in some patients with ICI-RH before the onset of secondary adrenal insufficiency. Monitoring the ACTH levels and their fluctuations may help predict the onset of ICI-RH.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Hipofisite , Humanos , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hidrocortisona , Hipofisite/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2297455, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174857

RESUMO

With the widespread vaccination of COVID-19 vaccine, a few cases have been reported that COVID-19 vaccine may cause endocrine disorders. A 59-y-old man presented with a loss of appetite after the first COVID-19 vaccination, which resolved spontaneously after 3 d. After the second COVID-19 vaccination, the symptoms including the loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting reappeared and worsened along with loss of vision. He was found to have severe hyponatremia, and further investigations revealed secondary adrenal insufficiency, secondary hypothyroidism and Rathke's cleft cyst. The patient responded well to glucocorticoid and levothyroxine supplementation, and at 1-y follow-up the patient developed hypogonadism. We hypothesize that hypophysitis is probably induced by COVID-19 vaccine and report the rare but serious adverse reactions for early recognition and intervention.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central , Hipofisite , Humanos , Masculino , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Hipofisite/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Pituitary ; 27(2): 230-237, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38296897

RESUMO

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) rarely involves the pituitary gland. Pituitary involvement has been reported in ~ 1% of all cases of GPA. Most commonly, pituitary swelling and inflammation results in symptoms due to pituitary mass effect and arginine vasopressin deficiency. To date, there are no pituitary-specific treatment guidelines for this rare condition. We present three patients with GPA-related hypophysitis highlighting the spectrum of pituitary involvement. All three patients were successfully treated with immunosuppressive regimens that included rituximab (RTX). Following remission induction with high-dose glucocorticoids, patients received 6 monthly RTX for remission maintenance. RTX was well tolerated without significant side effects.


Assuntos
Granulomatose com Poliangiite , Hipofisite , Doenças da Hipófise , Humanos , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico , Hipófise , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 109(3): 802-814, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolomic pattern of pituitary stalk lesions. METHODS: CSF was collected from patients with different pituitary stalk lesions treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital: germ cell tumor (GCT, n = 27); hypophysitis (n = 10); and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) or Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) (LCH + ECD, n = 10). The CSF metabolome profiles were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: There were 44 metabolites that significantly differed between patients with GCT and those with hypophysitis (P < .05). Between patients with GCT with CSF level of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (ß-hCG) < 5 mIU/mL and those with hypophysitis, there were 15 differential metabolites (P < .05, fold change > 1.5 or < 1/1.5). All of the metabolites had an area under the curve (AUC) above 0.7. There were 9 metabolites that significantly differed between patients with GCT and those with LCH + ECD (P < .05) and 7 metabolites had significant differences between GCT (CSF ß-hCG < 5 mIU/mL) and LCH + ECD (P < .05, fold change > 1.5 or < 1/1.5). We found 6 metabolites that were significantly different between patients with hypophysitis and those with LCH + ECD (P < .05) and 5 of these had fold change more than 1.5 or less than 1/1.5. Three metabolites, 5-deoxydiplosporin, cloversaponin I, and phytosphingosine, showed excellent capabilities to differentiate the 3 disease categories. Furthermore, we identified 67 metabolites associated with clinical test results (ρ > 0.2, P < .05) and 29 metabolites showed strong correlation (ρ > 0.4, P < .05). CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to systematically investigate the metabolomics of CSF in different pituitary stalk lesions. CSF metabolomics is a useful strategy for biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Doença de Erdheim-Chester , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans , Hipofisite , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Humanos , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/complicações , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/patologia , Hipófise/patologia
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 190(1): K1-K7, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38146732

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of anti-pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (PIT-1) hypophysitis was gradually revealed as cases emerged. Our comprehensive analysis, including all reported cases, identified a new instance of anti-PIT-1 hypophysitis postimmune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. All 9 patients exhibited extremely low growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; 2 had a slightly atrophic pituitary gland; 4 had thymoma, and 5 had malignant neoplasms of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and other origins. Patients with thymoma showed multiple autoimmune diseases. HLA-A*24:02 and/or A*02:06 were present in six and DR53 in 5 cases analyzed. High anti-PIT-1 antibody titers and ectopic PIT-1 expression in the cytosol and nucleus of the tumor tissues were observed in patients with thymoma or DLBCL, whereas it was exclusively observed in the nuclei of a bladder cancer patient. These findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of paraneoplastic autoimmune hypophysitis.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Hipofisite Autoimune , Hipofisite , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Humanos , Autoanticorpos , Fator de Transcrição Pit-1 , Fatores de Transcrição
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1295865, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093958

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypophysitis is reported in 8.5%-14% of patients receiving combination immune checkpoint inhibition (cICI) but can be a diagnostic challenge. This study aimed to assess the role of routine diagnostic imaging performed during therapeutic monitoring of combination anti-CTLA-4/anti-PD-1 treatment in the identification of hypophysitis and the relationship of imaging findings to clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified patients treated with cICI between January 2016 and January 2019 at a quaternary melanoma service. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with a documented diagnosis of hypophysitis based on clinical criteria. Available structural brain imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) of the brain and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) were assessed retrospectively. The main radiological outcome measures were a relative change in pituitary size or FDG uptake temporally attributed to cICI. Results: There were 162 patients (median age 60 years, 30% female) included. A total of 100 and 134 had serial CT/MRI of the brain and FDG-PET/CT, respectively. There were 31 patients who had a documented diagnosis of hypophysitis and an additional 20 who had isolated pituitary imaging findings. The pituitary gland enlargement was mild, and the largest absolute gland size was 13 mm, with a relative increase of 7 mm from baseline. There were no cases of optic chiasm compression. Pituitary enlargement and increased FDG uptake were universally transient. High-dose glucocorticoid treatment for concurrent irAEs prevented assessment of the pituitary-adrenal axis in 90% of patients with isolated imaging findings. Conclusion: Careful review of changes in pituitary characteristics on imaging performed for assessment of therapeutic response to iICI may lead to increased identification and more prompt management of cICI-induced hypophysitis.


Assuntos
Hipofisite , Neoplasias , Doenças da Hipófise , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Hipofisite/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 83(6): 1007-1012, 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117724

RESUMO

Hypophysitis is a pathology with low incidence and prevalence. Likewise, deep fungal infections in immunocompetent patients also represent a rare phenomenon. Even rarer is the case described below, where these two mentioned elements are combined, namely: pituitary cryptococcoma or granulomatous hypophysitis caused by said pathogen in a host without altered immune response. After research in PubMed, there are limited cases in the medical literature of granulomatous hypophysitis caused by Cryptococcus spp., which simulated a pituitary macroadenoma by clinical and imaging manifestations. We did not find reports in which there is no evidence of involvement of the meningeal tissue. The fungal etiology is scarcely described in the reference guidelines for hypophysitis and we believe that Cryptococcus spp. it should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of secondary granulomatous hypophysitis since it is a ubiquitous pathogen and the treatment is substantially different from other entities. It becomes more relevant given the current trend towards the use of high-dose systemic glucocorticoids for the treatment of hypophysitis, which could have generated greater damage if the correct diagnosis had not been made.


La hipofisitis es una afección con baja incidencia y prevalencia. Asimismo, las infecciones profundas por hongos en pacientes inmunocompetentes también representan un fenómeno infrecuente. Más raro aún es el caso que se describe a continuación, en donde se conjugan estos dos elementos mencionados, a saber: cryptococcoma hipofisario o hipofisitis granulomatosa causado por dicho patógeno en un huésped sin alteración de la respuesta inmune. Luego de una búsqueda realizada en PubMed, existen limitados casos en la literatura médica de hipofisitis granulomatosa por Cryptococcus spp., que simuló por manifestaciones clínicas e imagenológicas un macroadenoma hipofisario. No encontramos informes en los que no haya evidencia de afectación del tejido meníngeo. La etiología micótica está escasamente descrita en las guías de referencia para hipofisitis y creemos que Cryptococcus spp. debe ser tenido en cuenta en el diagnóstico diferencial de las hipofisitis granulomatosas secundarias dado que es un patógeno ubicuo y el tratamiento es sustancialmente diferente a otras entidades. Cobra mayor relevancia ante la tendencia actual al uso de glucocorticoides sistémicos a altas dosis para el tratamiento de la hipofisitis, que podría haber generado mayor daño de no haberse hecho el diagnóstico correcto.


Assuntos
Hipofisite Autoimune , Hipofisite , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Hipofisite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Hipofisite Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Hipofisite Autoimune/patologia , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipófise/patologia , Hipofisite/complicações , Hipofisite/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico
12.
Curr Oncol ; 30(12): 10509-10518, 2023 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38132400

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 inhibitors, have become the standard of care for many cancer types. However, they induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including neurotoxicity and hypophysitis. The incidence and outcomes of neurotoxicity and hypophysitis in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are not well established. We conducted a retrospective study of 812 patients with solid cancers who received immune checkpoint inhibitors at the University General Hospital of Ioannina between January 2018 and January 2023. We assessed demographic and clinical data, including the severity of symptoms, treatment regimen, other irAEs, resolution type and time, and death. Two patients experienced neurotoxicity and two hypophysitis. All four patients required inpatient administration and received corticosteroids or/and hormone replacement. Three patients responded to the initial therapy, experiencing full recovery, while one patient was corticosteroid-resistant, and immunoglobin G was administered. Two patients never received immunotherapy after their toxicity due to the severity of symptoms; one patient continued monotherapy with nivolumab, changing from combination therapy with ipilimumab-nivolumab, while the fourth patient continued his initial treatment with nivolumab. Our study suggests that the incidence of neurotoxicity and hypophysitis in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors is low, but careful monitoring and prompt treatment with corticosteroids are necessary for effective management.


Assuntos
Hipofisite , Neoplasias , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipofisite/induzido quimicamente , Hipofisite/diagnóstico , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico
13.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1284301, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035072

RESUMO

Introduction: A recently discovered facet of paraneoplastic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency exists in two forms: a paraneoplastic spontaneous isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) and an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related hypophysitis. Autoantibodies against corticotrophs, such as circulating anti-proopiomelanocortin (POMC) antibodies are considered disease markers. However, the number of identified cases was limited, implying that the characteristics of these autoantibodies are not fully understood. Methods: We investigate circulating autoimmune autoantibodies in detail through a novel case of IAD that developed as a paraneoplastic autoimmune ACTH deficiency. Results: The patient developed IAD after 25 weeks of ICI therapy for metastasis of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma at 69 years of age. Ectopic ACTH expression and infiltration of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD20+ lymphocytes were observed in the tumor tissues and circulating anti-POMC antibodies were detected specifically in the patient's serum. Moreover, detailed analyses of immunofluorescence staining using patient serum revealed that the recognition site of the autoantibody was ACTH25-39, which had not been identified in previous cases of paraneoplastic autoimmune ACTH deficiency. Conclusion: This case involved a combination of paraneoplastic spontaneously acquired IAD and ICI-related hypophysitis occupying the middle ground. Moreover, our study reveals new aspects of anti-POMC antibodies in patients with paraneoplastic ACTH deficiency. This report expands our understanding of the immunological landscape and provides new insights for the identification of antibodies associated with paraneoplastic autoimmune ACTH deficiency.


Assuntos
Corticotrofos , Hipofisite , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Humanos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Corticotrofos/metabolismo , Corticotrofos/patologia , Hipofisite/diagnóstico , Hipofisite/etiologia , Hipofisite/metabolismo , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Pró-Opiomelanocortina
14.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 83(5): 744-752, 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37870332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary hypophysitis (PH) is a rare disease that represents a challenge among differential diagnosis and management. Our aim was to describe clinical characteristics, diagnostic criteria and different treatment outcomes in patients with PH. Multicentric, retrospective study. Clinical presentation, endocrine function, magnetic resonance imaging findings, visual field defects at diagnosis and treatment outcomes were recorded. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (23 women), with PH were included. Median age: 37. RESULTS: The most frequent symptoms: headache: 68%, polyuria-polydipsia: 50% and visual disturbances: 48%. At diagnosis, anterior pituitary deficiency was present in 71%, being hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism the most frequent manifestation. The radiological findings: symmetric lesion: 78.5%, homogeneous enhancement: 78.5% and pituitary stalk thickening: 70%. Association with pregnancy or puerperium was found in 4/23 women (17%). Fourteen patients did not receive any treatment ("wait and see" group), 8 underwent surgery for mass reduction or resection and 6 were treated with immunosuppression therapy. Among 15 patients with histopathological diagnosis, 9 were lymphocytic hypophysitis, 5 IgG4 related hypophysitis and 1 xanthomatous hypophysitis. Thirteen were diagnosed by established clinical criteria. Mass reduction was observed in 43% of "wait and see group" patients, 62.5% of operated patients and 50% with immunosuppression therapy. Compressive symptoms showed improvement in the 3 groups, with modest effect on anterior pituitary function, diabetes insipidus did not resolve in any patients. DISCUSSION: In patients without severe compressive symptoms, we adopted a "wait and see" approach. In patients with uncertain diagnosis of PH or severe compressive symptoms, transsphenoidal surgery was the best option.


Introducción: La hipofisitis es una enfermedad infrecuente que plantea un desafío en el diagnóstico y tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio multicéntrico y retrospectivo fue describir: a) características de pacientes con hipofisitis primaria (HP), b) métodos diagnósticos, y c) tratamientos realizados. Además, evaluar: a) presentación clínica, b) bioquímica, c) radiológica, d) oftalmológica al diagnóstico y evolución según el tratamiento recibido. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo donde se estudiaron 28 pacientes (23 mujeres/5 varones) con HP, edad promedio de 38±11.1 años. Resultados. Los síntomas fueron: cefalea: 68%, poliuria- polidipsia: 50% y alteraciones visuales: 48%. El examen de laboratorio inicial informó disfunción adenohipofisaria en 71% de los pacientes, siendo el eje gonadal el más afectado. Los hallazgos radiológicos más frecuentes fueron: lesión simétrica:78.5%, aumento homogéneo post contraste: 78.5% y engrosamiento de tallo:70%. En 4/23 mujeres (17%) se relacionó con embarazos o puerperio La conducta inicial fue expectante (CE) en 14 pacientes, cirugía de resección/descompresión en 8 y tratamiento con inmunosupresores en 6. Quince pacientes tuvieron confirmación histológica, 9 resultaron hipofisitis linfocitaria, 5 hipofisitis por IgG4 y una xantomatosa. Trece fueron diagnosticados por criterios clínicos establecidos. El tamaño de la lesión disminuyó en 43% de pacientes con CE, 62.5% con cirugía y 50% con inmunosupresores. Los síntomas compresivos mejoraron en los 3 grupos, con escaso efecto sobre la función adenohipofisaria, sin resolución de la diabetes insípida. Discusión: En pacientes sin síntomas compresivos adoptamos CE. En aquellos pacientes sin certeza diagnóstica o con síntomas compresivos graves, se optó por cirugía transesfenoidal.


Assuntos
Hipofisite Autoimune , Hipofisite , Hipopituitarismo , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipofisite/diagnóstico , Hipofisite/terapia , Hipofisite/patologia , Hipófise/patologia , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico , Hipofisite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Hipofisite Autoimune/terapia , Hipofisite Autoimune/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 189(3): 309-317, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37602514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine pituitary function before and after nonglucocorticoid immunosuppressive therapy (NGIT) in subjects with hypophysitis and evaluate their clinical and radiologic outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal study. METHODS: We reviewed a large database, selected subjects with hypophysitis treated with NGIT, and collected information on the duration of therapy, and clinical, hormonal, and radiologic outcomes. RESULTS: Twelve subjects met the inclusion criteria. Five subjects had primary hypophysitis (PH), while seven had secondary hypophysitis (SH) due to an underlying systemic inflammatory disease. Mean age ± SD was 48.0 ± 15.7 years and 40.9 ± 13.0 years, for PH and SH, respectively. The majority were female (PH 60% and SH 86%). BMI ± SD at presentation was 25.2 ± 2.5 kg/m2 and 26.8 ± 6.7 kg/m2 for PH and SH, respectively. The most common symptom at presentation was fatigue (75%). All PH subjects (100%) and 2 (28.6%) SH subjects had polyuria/polydipsia. There was a significant decrease in mean pituitary stalk thickness after NGIT (P = .0051) (mean duration 16.5 ± 4.8 months). New hormone loss or recovery occurred rarely. Mycophenolate mofetil was the most used NGIT: adverse effects prompted discontinuation in 2 out of 7 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with hypophysitis receiving NGIT had stable or improved brain/pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings with a significant decrease in pituitary stalk thickness. NGITs did not improve anterior pituitary function. Our findings suggest that NGIT may be considered as an alternative therapy for patients with hypophysitis who require immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Hipofisite , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Hipofisite/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(3): 618-620, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37530354

RESUMO

Dual pathology in the pituitary gland is a unique phenomenon. Coexistence of a pituitary adenoma with primary hypophysitis has been reported rarely with very few cases in the literature. Among the primary hypophysitis, primary granulomatous subtype has been proposed to be idiopathic and autoimmune in nature. Plurihormonal pituitary adenomas produce hormones of more than one different pituitary cell lineage. Pituitary adenoma with a single hormonal content has been documented with concurrent primary granulomatous hypophysitis. The present case describes the unique coexistence of a plurihormonal adenoma showing somatotroph, lactotroph, and corticotroph lineage with primary granulomatous inflammation in the sellar region in a 36-year-old woman.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Hipofisite , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Hipofisite/complicações , Hipofisite/diagnóstico , Hipófise/patologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 72(11): 3543-3558, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37550428

RESUMO

Combined immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is effective therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the dynamic changes in circulating B cells induced by combined ICB have not been clarified. The present study prospectively examined 22 patients scheduled to receive ICB for unresectable or metastatic RCC between March 2018 and August 2021. Eleven patients received combined therapy with anti-PD-1 (nivolumab) and anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), and the other 11 patients received nivolumab monotherapy. Comprehensive phenotypes of circulating immune cells obtained prior to and after ICB therapy were analyzed by flow cytometry. Although the proportion of naïve B cells among total B cells was significantly decreased, that of switched memory B cells was significantly increased after combined therapy. In responders, the proportion of B cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly higher prior to ICB therapy, and the proportion of switched memory B cells among total B cells tended to increase after ICB therapy. Of note, the proportion of plasmablasts among total B cells was significantly increased after ICB therapy in patients who developed severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs), and the proportion of B cells among peripheral blood decreased significantly. Furthermore, in four of five patients who developed immune-related hypophysitis following combined therapy, anti-pituitary antibody was detected in the serum. These results suggested that immune-related hypophysitis was closely related to the increase in circulating plasmablasts. Collectively, this study suggests that combined ICB promotes the differentiation of B cell populations, which is associated with efficient tumor suppression and development of irAEs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Hipofisite , Neoplasias Renais , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Diferenciação Celular
19.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 11: 23247096231186046, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37431875

RESUMO

Either optic neuritis (neuropathy) or hypopituitarism has been known to occur separately after COVID-19 vaccination. In this report, we describe the rare combination of hypophysitis and optic neuritis which occurred after COVID-19 vaccination. A 74-year-old woman began to have thirst, polydipsia, and polyuria, and was diagnosed as central diabetes insipidus 1 month after the fourth COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed the thickened pituitary stalk and enlarged pituitary gland with high contrast enhancement as well as the absence of high-intensity signals in the posterior pituitary lobe on the T1-weighted image, leading to the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis. She was well with desmopressin nasal spray until further 2 months later, when she developed bilateral optic neuritis, together with gait disturbance, intention tremor of the upper extremities, urinary retention, constipation, abnormal sensation in the distal part of the lower extremities, and moderate hemiplegia on the left side. Autoantibodies, including anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), were all negative. She showed multifocal spinal cord lesions on MRI and oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by spinal tap, and so underwent steroid pulse therapy with methylprednisolone in the tentative diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, resulting in visual acuity recovery and alleviation of neurological symptoms. In the literature review, the combination of optic neuritis and hypophysitis, mostly with diabetes insipidus, was reported in 15 patients as case reports before the years of COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 vaccination would trigger the onset of hypophysitis and optic neuritis in this patient.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Insípido , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipofisite , Neurite Óptica , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , COVID-19/complicações , Diabetes Insípido/etiologia , Vacinas de mRNA
20.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 8(1): 163-171, 2023 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37417460

RESUMO

A 65-year-old man presented with apparent bronchopneumonia. After treatment with antibiotics, he showed eosinophilia. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed bilateral consolidation, ground-glass opacities with nodular consolidations, and pleural effusion. Lung biopsy showed organising pneumonia with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the alveolar septa and in the thickened pleura and interlobular septa. All pulmonary abnormalities spontaneously went into remission within 12 months. At 73 years old, a follow-up CT scan revealed small nodules in both lungs and the review of the head CT scan showed thickening of the pituitary stalk in studying prolonged headache. Two years later, he visited the hospital complaining of severe oedema on the lower extremities with high serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 186 mg/dl. A whole-body CT scan showed retroperitoneal mass surrounding aortic bifurcation and compressing inferior vena cava, pituitary stalk thickening and gland swelling, and enlarged pulmonary nodules. Anterior pituitary stimulation tests showed central hypothyroidism, central hypogonadism, and adult growth hormone deficiency with partial primary hypoadrenocorticism. Retroperitoneal mass biopsy showed storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis with marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with moderate IgG4-positivity. Immunostaining of the former lung specimen revealed dense interstitial infiltration of IgG4-positive cells. These findings indicated metachronous development of IgG4-related disease in lung, hypophysis, and retroperitoneum, according to the recent comprehensive diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related disease. Glucocorticoid therapy ameliorated oedema, on the other hand, unmasked partial diabetes insipidus at the initial dose of the treatment. Hypothyroidism and retroperitoneal mass regressed at 6 months of the treatment. This case warns us that long-term follow-up from prodromal to remission is necessary for the treatment of IgG4-related disease.


Assuntos
Hipofisite , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4 , Pneumopatias , Fibrose Retroperitoneal , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Criança , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/complicações , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Retroperitoneal/complicações , Fibrose Retroperitoneal/diagnóstico , Remissão Espontânea , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Edema
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