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1.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 73(5): 1-44, 2024 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980822

RESUMO

Problem/Condition: In 2021, approximately 75,000 persons died of violence-related injuries in the United States. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) on violent deaths that occurred in 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in 2021. Results are reported by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, method of injury, type of location where the injury occurred, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. This report introduces additional incident and circumstance variables, which now include child victim-specific circumstance information. This report also incorporates new U.S. Census Bureau race and ethnicity categories, which now account for more than one race and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander categories and include updated denominators to calculate rates for these populations. Period Covered: 2021. Description of System: NVDRS collects data regarding violent deaths from death certificates, coroner and medical examiner records, and law enforcement reports. This report includes data collected for violent deaths that occurred in 2021. Data were collected from 48 states (all states with exception of Florida and Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Forty-six states had statewide data, two additional states had data from counties representing a subset of their population (31 California counties, representing 64% of its population, and 13 Texas counties, representing 63% of its population), and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had jurisdiction-wide data. NVDRS collates information for each violent death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, homicide followed by suicide, or multiple suicides) into a single incident. Results: For 2021, NVDRS collected information on 68,866 fatal incidents involving 70,688 deaths that occurred in 48 states (46 states collecting statewide data, 31 California counties, and 13 Texas counties), and the District of Columbia. The deaths captured in NVDRS accounted for 86.5% of all homicides, legal intervention deaths, suicides, unintentional firearm injury deaths, and deaths of undetermined intent in the United States in 2021. In addition, information was collected for 816 fatal incidents involving 880 deaths in Puerto Rico. Data for Puerto Rico were analyzed separately. Of the 70,688 deaths, the majority (58.2%) were suicides, followed by homicides (31.5%), deaths of undetermined intent that might be due to violence (8.2%), legal intervention deaths (1.3%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force acting in the line of duty, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm injury deaths (<1.0%). The term "legal intervention" is a classification incorporated into the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement.Demographic patterns and circumstances varied by manner of death. The suicide rate was higher for males than for females. Across all age groups, the suicide rate was highest among adults aged ≥85 years. In addition, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons had the highest suicide rates among all racial and ethnic groups. Among both males and females, the most common method of injury for suicide was a firearm. Among all suicide victims, when circumstances were known (84.4%), suicide was most often preceded by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical health problem or by a recent or impending crisis during the previous or upcoming 2 weeks. The homicide rate was higher for males than for females. Among all homicide victims, the homicide rate was highest among persons aged 20-24 years compared with other age groups. Non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) males experienced the highest homicide rate of any racial or ethnic group. Among all homicide victims, the most common method of injury was a firearm. When the relationship between a homicide victim and a suspect was known, the suspect was most frequently an acquaintance or friend for male victims and a current or former intimate partner for female victims. Homicide most often was precipitated by an argument or conflict, occurred in conjunction with another crime, or, for female victims, was related to intimate partner violence. Nearly all victims of legal intervention deaths were male, and the legal intervention death rate was highest among men aged 30-34 years. The legal intervention death rate was highest among AI/AN males, followed by Black males. A firearm was used in the majority of legal intervention deaths. When circumstances were known, the most frequent circumstances reported for legal intervention deaths were as follows: the victim used a weapon in the incident and the victim had a substance use problem (other than alcohol use). Other causes of death included unintentional firearm injury deaths and deaths of undetermined intent. Unintentional firearm injury deaths were most frequently experienced by males, non-Hispanic White (White) persons, and persons aged 15-24 years. These deaths most frequently occurred while the shooter was playing with a firearm and were precipitated by a person unintentionally pulling the trigger. The rate of deaths of undetermined intent was highest among males, particularly among AI/AN and Black males, and among adults aged 30-54 years. Poisoning was the most common method of injury in deaths of undetermined intent, and opioids were detected in nearly 80% of decedents tested for those substances. Interpretation: This report provides a detailed summary of data from NVDRS on violent deaths that occurred in 2021. The suicide rate was highest among AI/AN and White males, whereas the homicide rate was highest among Black males. Intimate partner violence precipitated a large proportion of homicides for females. Mental health problems, intimate partner problems, interpersonal conflicts, and acute life stressors were primary precipitating circumstances for multiple types of deaths examined. Public Health Action: Violence is preventable, and data can guide public health action. NVDRS data are used to monitor the occurrence of violence-related fatal injuries and assist public health authorities in developing, implementing, and evaluating programs, policies, and practices to reduce and prevent violent deaths. NVDRS data can be used to enhance prevention efforts into actionable strategies. States or jurisdictions have used their Violent Death Reporting System (VDRS) data to guide suicide prevention efforts and highlight where additional focus is needed. For example, North Carolina VDRS program data have played a significant role in expanding activities related to firearm safety and injury prevention. The program served as a primary data source for partners, which led to the creation of the Office of Violence Prevention in the state, focusing on combatting firearm-related deaths. In Maine, the VDRS provided data on law enforcement officer suicides that were used to help support a bill mandating mental health resiliency and awareness training in the state's law enforcement training academy, along with plans for similar training addressing mental health, substance use, and alcohol problems among corrections officers. In addition, states and jurisdictions have also used their VDRS data to examine factors related to homicide in their state or jurisdiction. For example, Georgia VDRS collaborated with the City of Atlanta Mayor's Office of Violence Reduction to develop two public dashboards that not only offer comprehensive data on violent deaths but also present data on the geographic distribution of populations disproportionately affected by violence to help inform violence prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Homicídio , Vigilância da População , Suicídio , Violência , Humanos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Porto Rico/etnologia , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/etnologia , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , Distribuição por Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1870, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003451

RESUMO

Despite domestic violence and related homicides perpetrated by partners and/or in-laws being a significant public health problem in India, there are no reliable and valid instruments to identify and intervene with women in domestic violence relationships. Continued domestic violence can escalate to severe, near-lethal, or lethal violence or homicide. The Danger Assessment (DA) is a risk assessment instrument designed to assess the likelihood of severe, near-lethal, or lethal violence in abusive relationships. However, the DA is not designed to determine the risk of future severe, near-lethal, or lethal violence by in-laws. In-law abuse plays a significant role in domestic violence-related homicides in India and other countries with similar cultural norms. This study addressed this gap by developing the Danger Assessment for in-laws (DA-L) to assess risk from in-laws, alongside the Danger Assessment for Women in India (DA-WI) to assess risk from partners. The study also examined the psychometric properties of the DA-L and DA-WI. Longitudinal data from 150 women in India were used to measure the reliability and validity of the two versions of the DA. The original DA items and additional risk items were examined using relative risk ratios for their relationship with severe violence at three-month follow-ups. Predictive validity was tested with the receiver operating characteristic curve. The study resulted in reliable and valid measures (11 items DA-L and 26-items DA-WI) of risk. The versions of the DA can be useful for practitioners in India and those working with Indian women in the US and other countries. The DAs can be used for identifying women in domestic violence relationships who are at risk for future severe domestic violence and guide the provision of tailored safety plans.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Homicídio , Humanos , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Psicometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Masculino , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(6): e00228923, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922227

RESUMO

Information on how economic fluctuations affect educational inequalities in homicides in Latin America is scarce. This study aimed to: (a) analyze the temporal variations of educational inequalities related to homicide mortality and (b) compare these inequalities between years of economic growth and recession in southern South America cities from 2000 to 2019. Data from seven urban areas in three countries in the Southern Cone of South America were used: Mendoza and Rosario (Argentina); Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo (Brazil); and Santiago (Chile). Poisson models were estimated by using age, sex, city of residence, year of economic growth or recession, and schooling level as explanatory variables. Results showed significant differences in the temporal evolution of homicide rates in the seven cities, although populations with a low schooling level always showed the most vulnerability. The four Brazilian cities, analyzed together, showed greater educational inequalities related to homicides in years of economic recession when compared to those of economic growth. On the one hand, the indiscriminate use of force by the State against criminal groups seems to increase social inequality in homicide mortality. On the other hand, criminal fragmentation and economic crisis can exacerbate these inequalities by increasing territorial disputes between criminal groups.


Se sabe poco sobre cómo las fluctuaciones económicas afectan las desigualdades educativas en homicidios en países latinoamericanos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (a) analizar las variaciones temporales de las desigualdades relativas educacionales de la mortalidad por homicidio, y (b) comparar estas desigualdades entre años de crecimiento económico y años de recesión en ciudades del sur sudamericano durante el período 2000-2019. Se utilizaron datos de siete áreas urbanas, en tres países del Cono Sur Sudamericano: Mendoza y Rosario (Argentina); Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro y São Paulo (Brasil); y Santiago (Chile). Se estimaron modelos de Poisson, utilizando como variables explicativas la edad, sexo, año, ciudad de residencia, año de expansión o recesión económica y nivel educativo. Encontramos diferencias marcadas en la evolución temporal de las tasas de homicidio entre las siete ciudades, aunque siempre las poblaciones de nivel educativo bajo fueron las más vulnerables. Las cuatro ciudades de Brasil, analizadas en conjunto, tuvieron desigualdades educativas relativas de homicidios mayores en años de recesión económica, con respecto a años de crecimiento económico. Por un lado, el uso de la fuerza indiscriminado por parte del Estado enfocado hacia grupos criminales parece haber llevado a una creciente desigualdad social de la mortalidad por homicidio. Por el otro, en un contexto de fragmentación criminal y crisis económica se podrían agravar estas desigualdades a través de mayores disputas territoriales entre grupos criminales.


São escassas as informações sobre como as flutuações econômicas afetam as desigualdades educacionais em homicídios na América Latina. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a) analisar as variações temporais das desigualdades educacionais relacionadas à mortalidade por homicídio, e (b) comparar essas desigualdades entre os anos de crescimento econômico e os anos de recessão nas cidades do sul da América do Sul no período de 2000 a 2019. Foram utilizados dados de sete áreas urbanas, em três países do Cone Sul da América do Sul: Mendoza e Rosário (Argentina); Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo (Brasil); e Santiago (Chile). Os modelos de Poisson foram estimados utilizando como variáveis explicativas a idade, sexo, ano, cidade de residência, ano de expansão ou recessão econômica e nível de escolaridade. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas na evolução temporal das taxas de homicídio entre as sete cidades, apesar de que as populações com baixo nível de escolaridade sempre foram as mais vulneráveis. As quatro cidades brasileiras, analisadas em conjunto, apresentaram maiores desigualdades educacionais relacionadas a homicídios em anos de recessão econômica em relação aos anos de crescimento econômico. Por um lado, o uso indiscriminado da força pelo Estado contra grupos criminosos parece ter levado ao aumento da desigualdade social na mortalidade por homicídio. Por outro lado, em um contexto de fragmentação criminal e crise econômica, essas desigualdades podem ser exacerbadas pelo aumento das disputas territoriais entre grupos criminosos.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Homicídio , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/tendências , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Argentina/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Chile/epidemiologia , Cidades , Recessão Econômica , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Idoso , População Urbana
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(5): 682-690, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709960

RESUMO

Women who are pregnant or recently gave birth are significantly more likely to be killed by an intimate partner than nonpregnant, nonpostpartum women of reproductive age, implicating the risk of fatal violence conferred by pregnancy itself. The rapidly increasing passage of state legislation has restricted or banned access to abortion care across the US. We used the most recent and only source of population-based data to examine the association between state laws that restrict access to abortion and trends in intimate partner violence-related homicide among women and girls ages 10-44 during the period 2014-20. Using robust difference-in-differences ecologic modeling, we found that enforcement of each additional Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers (TRAP) law was associated with a 3.4 percent increase in the rate of intimate partner violence-related homicide in this population. We estimated that 24.3 intimate partner violence-related homicides of women and girls ages 10-44 were associated with TRAP laws implemented in the states and years included in this analysis. Assessment of policies that restrict access to abortion should consider their potential harm to reproductive-age women through the risk for violent death.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Homicídio , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Gravidez , Adulto , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Governo Estadual , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 94: 91-99, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide deaths among Black youth in the US have increased rapidly over the past decade. Direct or vicarious racial trauma experienced through exposure to police brutality may underlie these concerning trends. METHODS: We obtained nationally aggregated monthly counts of suicides for non-Hispanic Black and White youth (age ≤ 24 years) and adults (age > 24 years) from the National Mortality Vital Statistics restricted-use data files provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from 2013 to 2019. Monthly counts of Black youth suicides constituted our main outcome. We defined our exposure as the monthly counts of police killings of unarmed Black persons over 84 months (2013 to 2019), retrieved from the Mapping Police Violence database. We used ARIMA (AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average) time-series analyses to examine whether Black youth suicides increased within 0 to 3 months following police killings of unarmed Black persons, controlling for autocorrelation and corresponding series of White youth suicides. RESULTS: Suicides among Black youth increase by ∼1 count three months following an increase in police killings of unarmed Black persons (exposure lag 0 coefficient = 0.16, p > 0.05; exposure lag 1 coefficient = -0.70, p > 0.05; exposure lag 2 coefficient = -0.54, p > 0.05; exposure lag 3 coefficient = 0.95, p < 0.05). The observed increase in suicides concentrates among Black male youth (exposure lag 3 coefficient = 0.88, p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Polícia , Suicídio , Humanos , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Feminino , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/etnologia , Adolescente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , População Branca/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/etnologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/etnologia
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 352: 116997, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815284

RESUMO

Black adolescent males are disproportionally impacted by violence exposure and violent loss. The primary aim of this study was to explore the bereavement experiences of Black adolescent males who have lost a friend or family member to murder. Participants were Black adolescent males between the ages of 14-19 years. This was a purposive sample recruited from a community-based study that took place in urban neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants who completed their final survey for the parent study were recruited from January to June 2017. Participants completed a brief computerized survey and those who responded affirmatively to a screening question about losing a friend or family member to murder were invited to a qualitative interview. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify key themes. Among the 31 youth interviewed, 30 had lost more than one person to murder. Four primary themes emerged from their narratives: (1) self-preservation through isolation, (2) finding sanctuary through shared narratives of loss, (3) freedom from the mind, and (4) post-traumatic growth (i.e., motivation, healing, resilience). Findings suggest that interventions that provide sanctuary for youth that are culturally relevant and create opportunities for youth to process violent loss may aid in promoting opportunities for youth to grieve and heal from violent loss.


Assuntos
Luto , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Homicídio , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/etnologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Pennsylvania , Adulto Jovem , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mexico, homicides are the leading cause of death among men aged 15 to 44 years; however, despite their increase in recent decades, the study of this issue is insufficient, given its magnitude and impact. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns and associated factors of homicides in Mexico from 2015 to 2022. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted, analyzing death records from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography's general mortality databases. Simple frequencies and incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants by sex, year, and state of the Mexican Republic were calculated. Mortality was evaluated by age groups and geographic areas, and bivariate logistic regression models with sociodemographic variables were performed. RESULTS: Records of 229,182 homicides in Mexico were analyzed, with a median age of 33 years, interquartile range 18. A total of 203,898 (88.96%) were men and 25,284 (11.04%) were women. The majority of deaths occurred in public places and were caused by firearms; women had a higher percentage of homicides at home. States with high incidence rates for both sexes were Chihuahua, Zacatecas, Michoacán, Colima, and Estado de México. The total years of life lost were 9.19 million years. The national incidence of homicides in men showed an upward trend from 2015 to 2019; however, in the case of women, this incidence increased in various age groups during the study period. Occupation, education, marital status, and place of occurrence had significant associations in the logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a spatial-temporal characterization of homicides in Mexico between 2015 and 2022, highlighting the high incidence in men and the upward trend in certain age groups among women. These findings underscore the need for preventive measures and public policies to address this issue in a multisectoral manner.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Idoso , Recém-Nascido , Incidência
11.
Compr Psychiatry ; 133: 152503, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the occurrence, demographics, and circumstances of homicides of physicians. METHOD: Authors interrogated the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's surveillance system tracking violent deaths between 2003 and 2018 which integrates data from law enforcement and coroner/medical examiner reports. Authors identified cases of homicide decedents whose profession was physician, surgeon, or psychiatrist. Data collected included decedents' demographics as well as circumstances of death. RESULTS: Data were provided by 7-41 states as participating states increased over time. Fifty-six homicides were reported, most were male (73.2%) and white (76.8%). Most (67.9%) identified assailants reportedly knew decedents: 23.2% were perpetrated by partners/ex-partners; 10.7% by patients/patients' family members. Deaths were mainly due to gunshot wounds (44.6%), stabbing (16.1%), and blunt force trauma (16.1%). More (58.9%) homicides occurred at victims' homes than work (16.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Physician homicides are relatively rare and occur at lower rates than in the general population. Physicians were more frequently killed by partners or ex-partners than by patients. Most homicides occurred away from the workplace. Broader efforts are needed to promote interventions throughout America's violent society to reduce domestic/partner violence and gun violence.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Médicos , Humanos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia
12.
J Forensic Sci ; 69(4): 1171-1182, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798041

RESUMO

Skeletal evidence usually constitutes the only source of information to interpret lesion patterns that help to clarify the circumstances surrounding death. The examination and interpretation of bone trauma are essential to the application and utility of anthropology as a forensic science. When discussing the effect of gunshot wounds in bone, it becomes imperative to differentiate between short and long-distance injuries based on clear, distinct, and observable signs. To contribute to the debate, our focus is directed toward the external analysis of the so-called circumferential delamination defect (CDD) as an observable proxy for close-range shooting (≤30 cm) and contact gunshot wounds in the skull. In the context of known extrajudicial killings, in which the perpetrators used short 9 × 19 FMJ ammunition in a close-range shooting, instances of CDD have been documented. Empirical evidence reinforcing the causal relationship between CDD and close-range shootings is presented. Elements' characteristics of firearm residues were also found in remains buried for up to 30 years. Primarily, this work shows that the concentrations of gunshot residues (Pb, Ba, and Sb) resemble those observed in fresh corpses with the same gunshot wound (GSW). Moreover, the correlation observed between CDD and gunshot residues, where the likelihood of CDD increases the closer to the head and the more perpendicular the shot angle is, reinforces CDD as a pivotal discriminatory factor in the skeletal evidence of short-range or contact shot. This research contributes to the field of forensic anthropology by providing fundamental insights into the etiology of CDD and its practical application.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Balística Forense , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Humanos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/patologia , Masculino , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/patologia , Bário/análise , Chumbo/análise , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Homicídio , Crânio/lesões , Crânio/patologia , Cicloexanonas
13.
J Med Philos ; 49(4): 414-432, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728420

RESUMO

When an abortion is performed, someone dies. Are we killing a human person? Widespread disagreement exists. However, it is not necessary to establish personhood in order to establish the wrongness of abortion: a substantial chance of personhood is enough. We defend The Do Not Risk Homicide Argument: abortions are wrong after 10 weeks gestation because they substantially and unjustifiably risk homicide, the unjust killing of a human person. Why 10 weeks? Because the cumulative evidence establishes a substantial chance (a more than one in five chance) that preborn human beings are persons after 10 weeks (if not before then). We submit evidence from our bad track record, widespread disagreement about personhood (after 10 weeks gestation), problems with theories of personhood, the similarity between preborn human beings and premature newborns, miscalculations of gestational age, and the common intuitive responses of women to their pregnancies and miscarriages. Our argument is cogent because it bypasses the stalemate over preborn personhood and rests on common ground rather than contentious metaphysics. It also strongly suggests that society must do more to protect preborn human beings. We briefly discuss its practical implications for fetal pain relief, social policy, and abortion law.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Homicídio , Pessoalidade , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Aborto Induzido/ética , Idade Gestacional , Filosofia Médica , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1326467, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741914

RESUMO

Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for homicides and suicides. As poverty is both a predictor and a consequence of IPV, interventions that alleviate poverty-related stressors could mitigate IPV-related harms. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), a monthly cash assistance program, is one such potential intervention. In the state of Georgia, the TANF diversion program, which provides a non-recurrent lump-sum payment to deter individuals from monthly TANF benefits, is an understudied component of TANF that may influence the effectiveness of state TANF programs in supporting IPV survivors. Aim: This study quantifies and qualifies the role of Georgia's TANF diversion program in shaping IPV-related mortality. Methods: This study relies on a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design. Using data from the Georgia Violent Death Reporting System (GA-VDRS), an interrupted time series analysis was conducted to estimate the effect of TANF diversion on IPV-related homicides and suicides. Semi-structured interviews were then administered with TANF policy experts and advocates, welfare caseworkers, and benefit recipients (n = 20) to contextualize the quantitative findings. Results: The interrupted time series analysis revealed three fewer IPV-related deaths per month after implementing TANF diversion, compared to pre-diversion forecasts (coefficient = -3.003, 95%CI [-5.474, -0.532]). However, the qualitative interviews illustrated three themes regarding TANF diversion: (1) it is a "band-aid" solution to the access barriers associated with TANF, (2) it provides short-term relief to recipients making hard choices, and (3) its limitations reveal avenues for policy change. Discussion: While diversion has the potential to reduce deaths from IPV, it may be an insufficient means of mitigating the poverty-related contributors to IPV harms. Its limitations unveil the need for improved programs to better support IPV survivors.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Georgia , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2412535, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776084

RESUMO

Importance: Reducing the pretrial detention population has been a cornerstone of movements to end mass incarceration. Across many US cities, there are ongoing public debates on policies that would end pretrial detention due to the inability to afford bail, with some raising concerns that doing so would increase community violence. Objective: To evaluate changes in firearm violence after New Jersey's 2017 bail reform policy that eliminated financial barriers to avoiding pretrial detention. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study used synthetic control methods to examine changes in firearm mortality and combined fatal and nonfatal shootings in New Jersey (2014-2019). New Jersey was chosen because it was one of the first states to systematically implement cash bail reform. Outcomes in New Jersey were compared with a weighted combination of 36 states that did not implement any kind of reform to pretrial detention during the study period. Data were analyzed from April 2023 to March 2024. Exposure: Implementation of New Jersey's cash bail reform law in 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Quarterly rates of fatal and nonfatal firearm assault injuries and firearm self-harm injuries per 100 000 people. Results: Although New Jersey's pretrial detention population dramatically decreased under bail reform, the study did not find evidence of increases in overall firearm mortality (average treatment effect on the treated, -0.26 deaths per 100 000) or gun violence (average treatment effect on the treated, -0.24 deaths per 100 000), or within racialized groups during the postpolicy period. Conclusions and Relevance: Incarceration and gun violence are major public health problems impacting racially and economically marginalized groups. Cash bail reform may be an important tool for reducing pretrial detention and advancing health equity without exacerbating community violence.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Humanos , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Armas de Fogo/economia , Masculino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/economia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 85(2)2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814111

RESUMO

Objective: The Mind after Midnight hypothesis proposes that nocturnal wakefulness increases the risk for dysregulated behaviors. Prior studies highlight a greater risk for suicide at night after adjusting for population wakefulness. How this risk varies hour to hour, differs across subgroups, or applies to other behaviors is unknown.Methods: Data on 78,647 suicides and 50,526 homicides from the National Violent Death Reporting System were combined with population wakefulness data for 2003-2017 from the American Time Use Survey. Hourly incident risk ratios (IRRs) were estimated after adjusting for population wakefulness. Two-way analysis of variances identified significant time-by-subgroup interactions that were quantified in post hoc analyses.Results: Suicide counts peaked at 12:00 PM, while homicide counts peaked at 10:00- 11:00 PM. Adjusting for demographics and population wakefulness revealed a 5-fold greater risk for suicide at 3:00 AM (aIRR: 5.20 [4.74-5.70]) and an 8-fold greater risk for homicide at 2:00 AM (aIRR: 8.04 [6.35-10.2]). Hourly risk for suicide varied by age, ethnicity, blood alcohol level, and current partner conflict. Hourly risk for homicide varied by sex and blood alcohol level.Conclusions: Risk for suicide and homicide is greater at night than expected based on the number of people awake at that time. Nighttime risk was greater among young adults and those intoxicated with alcohol, but not among those with a history of suicidal ideation or attempts. Further research should evaluate mechanisms of risk and confirm these findings at an individual level.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Suicídio , Humanos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Idoso , Vigília , Fatores de Tempo , Ritmo Circadiano
20.
JAMA ; 331(20): 1732-1740, 2024 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703403

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality rates in US youth have increased in recent years. An understanding of the role of racial and ethnic disparities in these increases is lacking. Objective: To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality trends and rates among youth with Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, and White race. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study conducted temporal analysis (1999-2020) and comparison of aggregate mortality rates (2016-2020) for youth aged 1 to 19 years using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database. Data were analyzed from June 30, 2023, to January 17, 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality rates per 100 000 youth (hereinafter, per 100 000) for leading underlying causes of death were compared. Injuries were classified by mechanism and intent. Results: Between 1999 and 2020, there were 491 680 deaths among US youth, including 8894 (1.8%) American Indian or Alaska Native, 14 507 (3.0%) Asian or Pacific Islander, 110 154 (22.4%) Black, 89 251 (18.2%) Hispanic, and 267 452 (54.4%) White youth. Between 2016 and 2020, pooled all-cause mortality rates were 48.79 per 100 000 (95% CI, 46.58-51.00) in American Indian or Alaska Native youth, 15.25 per 100 000 (95% CI, 14.75-15.76) in Asian or Pacific Islander youth, 42.33 per 100 000 (95% CI, 41.81-42.86) in Black youth, 21.48 per 100 000 (95% CI, 21.19-21.77) in Hispanic youth, and 24.07 per 100 000 (95% CI, 23.86-24.28) in White youth. All-cause mortality ratios compared with White youth were 2.03 (95% CI, 1.93-2.12) among American Indian or Alaska Native youth, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.61-0.66) among Asian or Pacific Islander youth, 1.76 (95% CI, 1.73-1.79) among Black youth, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.88-0.91) among Hispanic youth. From 2016 to 2020, the homicide rate in Black youth was 12.81 (95% CI, 12.52-13.10) per 100 000, which was 10.20 (95% CI, 9.75-10.66) times that of White youth. The suicide rate for American Indian or Alaska Native youth was 11.37 (95% CI, 10.30-12.43) per 100 000, which was 2.60 (95% CI, 2.35-2.86) times that of White youth. The firearm mortality rate for Black youth was 12.88 (95% CI, 12.59-13.17) per 100 000, which was 4.14 (95% CI, 4.00-4.28) times that of White youth. American Indian or Alaska Native youth had a firearm mortality rate of 6.67 (95% CI, 5.85-7.49) per 100 000, which was 2.14 (95% CI, 1.88- 2.43) times that of White youth. Black youth had an asthma mortality rate of 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01-1.18) per 100 000, which was 7.80 (95% CI, 6.78-8.99) times that of White youth. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, racial and ethnic disparities were observed for almost all leading causes of injury and disease that were associated with recent increases in youth mortality rates. Addressing the increasing disparities affecting American Indian or Alaska Native and Black youth will require efforts to prevent homicide and suicide, especially those events involving firearms.


Assuntos
Asma , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Suicídio , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Causas de Morte/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/etnologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Grupos Raciais/etnologia , Grupos Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Indígena Americano ou Nativo do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Brancos/estatística & dados numéricos , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Nativo Asiático-Americano do Havaí e das Ilhas do Pacífico/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etnologia , Asma/mortalidade , Homicídio/etnologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/etnologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade
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