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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301002, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848328

RESUMO

The known diversity of European middle and late Miocene hominids has increased significantly during the last decades. Most of these great apes were frugivores in the broadest sense, ranging from soft fruit frugivores most like chimpanzees to hard/tough object feeders like orangutans, varying in size from larger than siamangs (over 17 kg) to larger than most chimpanzees (~60-70 kg). In contrast to the frequent sympatry of hominoids in the early-to-middle Miocene of Africa, in no European Miocene locality more than one hominid taxon has been identified. Here we describe the first case of hominid sympatry in Europe from the 11.62 Ma old Hammerschmiede HAM 5 level, best known from its excellent record of Danuvius guggenmosi. The new fossils are consistent in size with larger pliopithecoids but differ morphologically from any pliopithecoid and from Danuvius. They are also distinguished from early and middle Miocene apes, share affinities with late Miocene apes, and represent a small hitherto unknown late Miocene ape Buronius manfredschmidi. With an estimated body mass of about 10 kg it represents the smallest known hominid taxon. The relative enamel thickness of Buronius is thin and contrasts with Danuvius, whose enamel is twice as thick. The differences between Buronius and Danuvius in tooth and patellar morphology, enamel thickness and body mass are indicative of differing adaptations in each, permitting resource partitioning, in which Buronius was a more folivorous climber.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Alemanha
2.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(6)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869374

RESUMO

The central sulcus divides the primary motor and somatosensory cortices in many anthropoid primate brains. Differences exist in the surface area and depth of the central sulcus along the dorso-ventral plane in great apes and humans compared to other primate species. Within hominid species, there are variations in the depth and aspect of their hand motor area, or knob, within the precentral gyrus. In this study, we used post-image analyses on magnetic resonance images to characterize the central sulcus shape of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii). Using these data, we examined the morphological variability of central sulcus in hominids, focusing on the hand region, a significant change in human evolution. We show that the central sulcus shape differs between great ape species, but all show similar variations in the location of their hand knob. However, the prevalence of the knob location along the dorso-ventral plane and lateralization differs between species and the presence of a second ventral motor knob seems to be unique to humans. Humans and orangutans exhibit the most similar and complex central sulcus shapes. However, their similarities may reflect divergent evolutionary processes related to selection for different positional and habitual locomotor functions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gorilla gorilla , Hominidae , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Motor , Pan troglodytes , Filogenia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Feminino , Córtex Motor/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Adulto , Mãos/fisiologia , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Pongo abelii/anatomia & histologia , Pongo abelii/fisiologia
4.
Am Nat ; 203(6): 644-654, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781523

RESUMO

AbstractWe live in a time of accelerated biological extinctions that has the potential to mirror past mass extinction events. However, the rarity of mass extinctions and the restructuring of diversity they cause complicate direct comparisons between the current extinction crisis and earlier events. Among animals, turtles (Testudinata) are one of few groups that have both a rich fossil record and sufficiently stable ecological and functional roles to enable meaningful comparisons between the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (∼66 Ma) and the ongoing wave of extinctions. Here we analyze the fossil record of the entire turtle clade and identify two peaks in extinction rates over their evolutionary history. The first coincides with the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition, reflecting patterns previously reported for other taxa. The second major extinction event started in the Pliocene and continues until now. This peak is detectable only for terrestrial turtles and started much earlier in Africa and Eurasia than elsewhere. On the basis of the timing, geography, and functional group of this extinction event, we postulate a link to co-occurring hominins rather than climate change as the cause. These results lend further support to the view that negative biodiversity impacts were already incurred by our ancestors and related lineages and demonstrate the severity of this continued impact through human activities.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Extinção Biológica , Fósseis , Hominidae , Tartarugas , Animais , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302435, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753816

RESUMO

Laetoli, Tanzania is one of the most important palaeontological and palaeoanthropological localities in Africa. We report on a survey of the extant terrestrial gastropod faunas of the Laetoli-Endulen area, examine their ecological associations and re-examine the utility of Pliocene fossil molluscs in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Standardised collecting at 15 sites yielded 7302 individuals representing 58 mollusc species. Significant dissimilarities were found among the faunas of three broad habitat types: forest, woodland/bushland and open (grassland and scattered, xeric shrubland). Overall, more species were recorded in the woodland/bushland sites than in the forest sites. Open sites were less diverse. Environmental factors contributing most strongly to the separation of habitat types were aridity index and elevation. The results are supplemented with new mollusc data from the Mbulu Plateau south of Lake Eyasi, and compared to the list of species cumulatively recorded from the Ngorongoro area. Some regional variation is apparent and historical factors may explain the absence of some fossil taxa from Laetoli today. Differences in seasonality separated upland forest sites on the Mbulu plateau from those at Lemagurut at Laetoli. Indicator species were identified for each habitat. These included several large-bodied species analogous to the Laetoli Pliocene fossil species that were then used for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Based on the estimated aridity index, and adopting the widely used United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) global climate classification, the four stratigraphic subunits of the Upper Laetolil Beds (3.6-3.85 Ma) would be placed in either the UNEP's Dry Sub-humid or Semi-arid climate classes, whereas the Upper Ndolanya Beds (2.66 Ma) and Lower Laetolil Beds (3.85-<4.36 Ma) would be assigned to the Humid and Semi-arid climate classes respectively. Pliocene precipitation at Laetoli is estimated as 847-965 mm per year, refining previous estimates. This is close or slightly higher than the present mean annual precipitation, and is likely to have corresponded to a mosaic of forest, woodland and bushland within a grassland matrix consistent with other reconstructions.


Assuntos
Clima , Ecossistema , Fósseis , Paleontologia , Animais , Tanzânia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Moluscos/classificação , Moluscos/fisiologia , Biodiversidade
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4380, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782905

RESUMO

SLC22A10 is an orphan transporter with unknown substrates and function. The goal of this study is to elucidate its substrate specificity and functional characteristics. In contrast to orthologs from great apes, human SLC22A10, tagged with green fluorescent protein, is not expressed on the plasma membrane. Cells expressing great ape SLC22A10 orthologs exhibit significant accumulation of estradiol-17ß-glucuronide, unlike those expressing human SLC22A10. Sequence alignments reveal a proline at position 220 in humans, which is a leucine in great apes. Replacing proline with leucine in SLC22A10-P220L restores plasma membrane localization and uptake function. Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes show proline at position 220, akin to modern humans, indicating functional loss during hominin evolution. Human SLC22A10 is a unitary pseudogene due to a fixed missense mutation, P220, while in great apes, its orthologs transport sex steroid conjugates. Characterizing SLC22A10 across species sheds light on its biological role, influencing organism development and steroid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Primatas , Animais , Humanos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hominidae/genética , Hominidae/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Primatas/genética , Pseudogenes , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
Hum Genomics ; 18(1): 53, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human lineage has undergone a postcranial skeleton gracilization (i.e. lower bone mass and strength relative to body size) compared to other primates and archaic populations such as the Neanderthals. This gracilization has been traditionally explained by differences in the mechanical load that our ancestors exercised. However, there is growing evidence that gracilization could also be genetically influenced. RESULTS: We have analyzed the LRP5 gene, which is known to be associated with high bone mineral density conditions, from an evolutionary and functional point of view. Taking advantage of the published genomes of archaic Homo populations, our results suggest that this gene has a complex evolutionary history both between archaic and living humans and within living human populations. In particular, we identified the presence of different selective pressures in archaics and extant modern humans, as well as evidence of positive selection in the African and South East Asian populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Furthermore, we observed a very limited evidence of archaic introgression in this gene (only at three haplotypes of East Asian ancestry out of the 1000 Genomes), compatible with a general erasing of the fingerprint of archaic introgression due to functional differences in archaics compared to extant modern humans. In agreement with this hypothesis, we observed private mutations in the archaic genomes that we experimentally validated as putatively increasing bone mineral density. In particular, four of five archaic missense mutations affecting the first ß-propeller of LRP5 displayed enhanced Wnt pathway activation, of which two also displayed reduced negative regulation. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these data suggest a genetic component contributing to the understanding of skeletal differences between extant modern humans and archaic Homo populations.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade , Homem de Neandertal , Humanos , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Animais , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Hominidae/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Densidade Óssea/genética , Genoma Humano/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11666, 2024 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778167

RESUMO

The Latium area in Italy has yielded rich evidence of Lower Paleolithic sites with both faunal remains, artefacts, and human fossil remains, such as the Ceprano human skull. Many are the sites where lithic industry has been found in association with bone industry. Medium and large animals were a key resource because they provided an enormous amount of meat and fat. However, they were extensively exploited for their bones, rich in marrow, and as raw material for tool production. Bone tools are so far few documented for early period of time and especially for the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. We report here evidence of bone tools and their efficiency of use for hominin groups living in the Frosinone-Ceprano basin during the MIS 11/10, a key period which records behavioral innovations and onset of the Neanderthal behaviors. In three sites, Isoletta, Colle Avarone and Selvotta, several bone tools and bone flakes have been discovered (MIS 11/10). They were associated to stone artefacts part of the hominins tool-kit. Technological and use-wear analyses conducted on these bone industries, dated between 410 and 430 ka, yield relevant results to understand the effectiveness of the bones tools found associated with lithic series, including handaxes.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos , Fósseis , Itália , Animais , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal , Hominidae , História Antiga , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
10.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 568, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745082

RESUMO

Interpretations of Late Pleistocene hominin adaptative capacities by archaeologists have focused heavily on their exploitation of certain prey and documented contemporary behaviours for these species. However, we cannot assume that animal prey-taxa ecology and ethology were the same in the past as in the present, or were constant over archaeological timescales. Sequential isotope analysis of herbivore teeth has emerged as a particularly powerful method of directly reconstructing diet, ecology and mobility patterns on sub-annual scales. Here, we apply 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis, in combination with δ18O and δ13C isotope analysis, to sequentially sampled tooth enamel of prevalent herbivore species that populated Europe during the Last Glacial Period, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus sp. and Mammuthus primigenius. Our samples come from two open-air archaeological sites in Central Germany, Königsaue and Breitenbach, associated with Middle Palaeolithic and early Upper Palaeolithic cultures, respectively. We identify potential inter- and intra-species differences in range size and movement through time, contextualised through insights into diet and the wider environment. However, homogeneous bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr across large parts of the study region prevented the identification of specific migration routes. Finally, we discuss the possible influence of large-herbivore behaviour on hominin hunting decisions at the two sites.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono , Herbivoria , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Fósseis , Hominidae/fisiologia , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Arqueologia , Europa (Continente) , Migração Animal , Esmalte Dentário/química , Dieta , Alemanha , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 156: 106582, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781774

RESUMO

Chip scars in fossil teeth are a lasting evidence that bears on human evolution. Chip dimensions in posterior teeth of hominins, apes and white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) are measured from published occlusal images. The results are plotted as D/Dm vs. h/Dm, where h, D and Dm denote indent distance, chip width and mean tooth crown diameter. The hominin species follow a similar pattern where D/Dm monotonically increases up to h/Dm ≈ 0.3. The behavior for the apes is characterized by two phases. In the first, h/Dm monotonically increases up to h/Dm ≈ 0.26 while in the second (h/Dm ≈ 0.26 to 0.42), D/Dm experiences a drastic change in behavior. The interpretation of chip morphology is assisted by results from controlled spherical indentation tests on extracted human molars. This study shows that in addition to the commonly recognized chipping due to cusp loading, a chip may also initiate from the inner wall of the tooth's central fossa. Accordingly, it is suggested that the chipping in hominins generally initiates from a (worn) cusp while that in apes involves cusp loading up to h/Dm ≈ 0.26 and fossa loading thereafter. The behavior for T. pecari is much similar to that of the apes. The fossa chipping is facilitated by a consumption of hard, large-size diet (e.g., plants, roots, barks and nuts) and presence of broad central fossa, conditions that are met in apes. Finally, a simple expression for the critical chipping force Pch due to fossa loading is developed.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fenômenos Mecânicos
12.
J Hum Evol ; 191: 103547, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781711

RESUMO

Historical biogeography provides crucial insights into understanding the evolutionary history of hominins. We applied maximum-likelihood and biogeographical stochastic mapping to infer the ancestral ranges of hominins and estimate the frequency of biogeographical events. These events were inferred using two time-calibrated phylogenetic trees that differ in the position of Australopithecus sediba. Results suggest that regardless of which phylogeny was selected, Northcentral Africa was the preferred ancestral region for the ancestor of the Homo-Pan clade, as well as the ancestor of Sahelanthropus and later hominins. The northern and middle part of eastern Africa was the preferred ancestral region for several clades originating at subsequent deep nodes of the trees (∼5-4 Ma). The choice of tree topology had one important effect on results: whether hominin ancestors appearing after ∼4 Ma were widespread or endemic. These different patterns highlight the biogeographic significance of the phylogenetic relationships of A. sediba. Overall, the results showed that dispersal, local extinction, and sympatry played vital roles in creating the hominin distribution, whereas vicariance and jump dispersal were not as common. The results suggested symmetry in the directionality of dispersals. Distance probably influenced how rapidly taxa colonized a new region, and dispersals often followed the closest path. These findings are potentially impacted by the imperfection of the fossil record, suggesting that the results should be interpreted cautiously.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Filogeografia , Distribuição Animal
13.
J Hum Evol ; 191: 103517, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781712

RESUMO

The Kocabas specimen comes from a travertine quarry near the homonymous village in the Denizli basin (Turkey). The specimen comprises three main fragments: portions of the right and left parietal and left and right parts of the frontal bone. The fossil was assumed to belong to the Homo erectus s.l. hypodigm by some authors, whereas others see similarities with Middle Pleistocene fossils (Broken Hill 1/Kabwe, Bodo, or Ceprano). Here, we present the first attempt to make a complete reconstruction of the missing medial portion of the frontal bone and a comprehensive geometric morphometric analysis of this bone. We restored the calotte by aligning and mirroring the three preserved fragments. Afterward, we restored the missing portion by applying the thin-plate spline interpolation algorithm of target fossils onto the reconstructed Kocabas specimen. For the geometric morphometric analyses, we collected 80 landmarks on the frontal bone (11 osteometric points, 14 bilateral curve semilandmarks, and 41 surface semilandmarks). The comparative sample includes 21 fossils from different chronological periods and geographical areas and 30 adult modern humans from different populations. Shape analyses highlighted the presence in Kocabas of features usually related to Middle Pleistocene Homo, such as a developed supraorbital torus associated with a relatively short frontal squama and reduced post-toral sulcus. Cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis classification procedure suggest Kocabas being part of the same taxonomic unit of Eurasian and African Middle Pleistocene Homo. In light of our results, we consider that attributing the Kocabas hominin to H. erectus s.l. may be unwarranted. Results of our analyses are compatible with different evolutionary scenarios, but a more precise chronological framework is needed for a thorough discussion of the evolutionary significance of this specimen. Future work should clarify its geological age, given uncertainties regarding its stratigraphic provenance.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Hominidae , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/classificação , Animais , Turquia , Osso Frontal/anatomia & histologia
14.
J Hum Evol ; 191: 103546, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795630

RESUMO

Vegetation change in eastern Africa during the Pliocene would have had an important impact on hominin adaptation and ecology, and it may have been a key driver of hominin macroevolution, including the extinction of Australopithecus and the emergence of Paranthropus and Homo. The Pliocene paleoanthropological site of Laetoli in Tanzania provides an opportunity to investigate the relationship between vegetation change and hominin turnover because it encompasses the time period when grass cover was spreading across eastern Africa and because hominin species turnover occurred locally at Laetoli, with Paranthropus aethiopicus in the Upper Ndolanya Beds (UNB) replacing Australopithecus afarensis in the Upper Laetolil Beds (ULB). However, it remains unresolved how the vegetation of the UNB and the ULB differed from each other. To examine differences between the two stratigraphic units, multiple proxies-hypsodonty, mesowear, and stable carbon isotopes of tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel)-are used to infer the diets of large herbivores and compare the dietary guild structure of the large herbivore communities. All three proxies indicate an increase in the abrasiveness and C4-content in the diets of the large herbivores in the UNB relative to those in the ULB. After inferring the diets of species based on all three proxies, the large herbivore community of the UNB had a greater proportion of grazers and a smaller proportion of mixed feeders than in the ULB but maintained a similar proportion of browsers and frugivores. The ULB community has few modern-day analogs, whereas the UNB community is most closely analogous to those in modern African grasslands. Thus, hominin turnover at Laetoli is associated with an increase in grass cover within a woodland-grassland mosaic and is part of a broader transformation of the herbivore community structure.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Herbivoria , Hominidae , Animais , Tanzânia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Dieta , Evolução Biológica , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Esmalte Dentário
15.
Nature ; 630(8016): 401-411, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811727

RESUMO

Apes possess two sex chromosomes-the male-specific Y chromosome and the X chromosome, which is present in both males and females. The Y chromosome is crucial for male reproduction, with deletions being linked to infertility1. The X chromosome is vital for reproduction and cognition2. Variation in mating patterns and brain function among apes suggests corresponding differences in their sex chromosomes. However, owing to their repetitive nature and incomplete reference assemblies, ape sex chromosomes have been challenging to study. Here, using the methodology developed for the telomere-to-telomere (T2T) human genome, we produced gapless assemblies of the X and Y chromosomes for five great apes (bonobo (Pan paniscus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii)) and a lesser ape (the siamang gibbon (Symphalangus syndactylus)), and untangled the intricacies of their evolution. Compared with the X chromosomes, the ape Y chromosomes vary greatly in size and have low alignability and high levels of structural rearrangements-owing to the accumulation of lineage-specific ampliconic regions, palindromes, transposable elements and satellites. Many Y chromosome genes expand in multi-copy families and some evolve under purifying selection. Thus, the Y chromosome exhibits dynamic evolution, whereas the X chromosome is more stable. Mapping short-read sequencing data to these assemblies revealed diversity and selection patterns on sex chromosomes of more than 100 individual great apes. These reference assemblies are expected to inform human evolution and conservation genetics of non-human apes, all of which are endangered species.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Cromossomo X , Cromossomo Y , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Cromossomo Y/genética , Hominidae/genética , Hominidae/classificação , Cromossomo X/genética , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/genética , Telômero/genética , Gorilla gorilla/genética , Pan paniscus/genética , Pongo abelii/genética , Hylobates/genética , Hylobates/classificação , Pongo pygmaeus/genética , Filogenia
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610452

RESUMO

Hip-worn accelerometers are commonly used to assess habitual physical activity, but their accuracy in precisely measuring sedentary behavior (SB) is generally considered low. The angle for postural estimation (APE) method has shown promising accuracy in SB measurement. This method relies on the constant nature of Earth's gravity and the assumption that walking posture is typically upright. This study investigated how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body mass index (BMI) are related to APE output. A total of 3475 participants with adequate accelerometer wear time were categorized into three groups according to CRF or BMI. Participants in low CRF and high BMI groups spent more time in reclining and lying postures (APE ≥ 30°) and less time in sitting and standing postures (APE < 30°) than the other groups. Furthermore, the strongest partial Spearman correlation with CRF (r = 0.284) and BMI (r = -0.320) was observed for APE values typical for standing. The findings underscore the utility of the APE method in studying associations between SB and health outcomes. Importantly, this study emphasizes the necessity of reserving the term "sedentary behavior" for studies wherein the classification of SB is based on both intensity and posture.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Animais , Postura , Posição Ortostática , Postura Sentada
17.
Evol Anthropol ; 33(3): e22027, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623594

RESUMO

The human species presents a paradox. No other species possesses the propensity to carry out coalitionary lethal attacks on adult conspecifics coupled with the inclination to establish peaceful relations with genetically unrelated groups. What explains this seemingly contradictory feature? Existing perspectives, the "deep roots" and "shallow roots" of war theses, fail to capture the plasticity of human intergroup behaviors, spanning from peaceful cooperation to warfare. By contrast, this article argues that peace and war have both deep roots, and they co-evolved through an incremental process over several million years. On the one hand, humans inherited the propensity for coalitionary lethal violence from their chimpanzee-like ancestor. Specifically, having first inherited the skills to engage in cooperative hunting, they gradually repurposed such capacity to execute coalitionary killings of adult conspecifics and subsequently enhanced it through tech`nological innovations like the use of weapons. On the other hand, they underwent a process of cumulative cultural evolution and, subsequently, of self-domestication which led to heightened cooperative communication and increased prosocial behavior within and between groups. The combination of these two biocultural evolutionary processes-coupled with feedback loop effects between self-domestication and Pleistocene environmental variability-considerably broadened the human intergroup behavioral repertoire, thereby producing the distinctive combination of conflictual and peaceful intergroup relations that characterizes our species. To substantiate this argument, the article synthesizes and integrates the findings from a variety of disciplines, leveraging evidence from evolutionary anthropology, primatology, archeology, paleo-genetics, and paleo-climatology.


Assuntos
Guerra , Humanos , Animais , Evolução Cultural , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Social , Comportamento Cooperativo , Hominidae/fisiologia , Violência
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299292, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630666

RESUMO

Recent advances in interdisciplinary archaeological research in Arabia have focused on the evolution and historical development of regional human populations as well as the diverse patterns of cultural change, migration, and adaptations to environmental fluctuations. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of cultural developments such as the emergence and lifeways of Neolithic groups has been hindered by the limited preservation of stratified archaeological assemblages and organic remains, a common challenge in arid environments. Underground settings like caves and lava tubes, which are prevalent in Arabia but which have seen limited scientific exploration, offer promising opportunities for addressing these issues. Here, we report on an archaeological excavation and a related survey at and around Umm Jirsan lava tube in the Harrat Khaybar, north-western Saudi Arabia. Our results reveal repeated phases of human occupation of the site ranging from at least the Neolithic through to the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age. Pastoralist use of the lava tube and surrounding landscape is attested in rock art and faunal records, suggesting that Umm Jirsan was situated along a pastoral route linking key oases. Isotopic data indicates that herbivores primarily grazed on wild grasses and shrubs rather than being provided with fodder, while humans had a diet consistently high in protein but with increasing consumption of C3 plants through-time, perhaps related to the emergence of oasis agriculture. While underground and naturally sheltered localities are globally prominent in archaeology and Quaternary science, our work represents the first such combined records for Saudi Arabia and highlight the potential for interdisciplinary studies in caves and lava tubes.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Arábia , Arábia Saudita , Arqueologia/métodos , Ocupações
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8690, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622216

RESUMO

In the era of artificial intelligence, privacy empowerment illusion has become a crucial means for digital enterprises and platforms to "manipulate" users and create an illusion of control. This topic has also become an urgent and pressing concern for current research. However, the existing studies are limited in terms of their perspectives and methodologies, making it challenging to fully explain why users express concerns about privacy empowerment illusion but repeatedly disclose their personal information. This study combines the associative-propositional evaluation model (APE) and cognitive load theory, using event-related potential (ERP) technology to investigate the underlying mechanisms of how the comprehensibility and interpretability of privacy empowerment illusion cues affect users' immediate attitudes and privacy disclosure behaviours; these mechanisms are mediated by psychological processing and cognitive load differences. Behavioural research results indicate that in the context of privacy empowerment illusion cues with low comprehensibility, users are more inclined to disclose their private information when faced with high interpretability than they are when faced with low interpretability. EEG results show that in the context of privacy empowerment illusion cues with low comprehensibility, high interpretability induces greater P2 amplitudes than does low interpretability; low interpretability induces greater N2 amplitudes than does high interpretability. This study extends the scopes of the APE model and cognitive load theory in the field of privacy research, providing new insights into privacy attitudes. Doing so offers a valuable framework through which digital enterprises can gain a deeper understanding of users' genuine privacy attitudes and immediate reactions under privacy empowerment illusion situations. This understanding can help increase user privacy protection and improve their overall online experience, making it highly relevant and beneficial.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Ilusões , Humanos , Animais , Privacidade/psicologia , Revelação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Inteligência Artificial , Cognição
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2021): 20232738, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628118

RESUMO

Midfacial morphology varies between hominoids, in particular between great apes and humans for which the face is small and retracted. The underlying developmental processes for these morphological differences are still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the cellular mechanism of maxillary development (bone modelling, BM), and how potential changes in this process may have shaped facial evolution. We analysed cross-sectional developmental series of gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and present-day humans (n = 183). Individuals were organized into five age groups according to their dental development. To visualize each species's BM pattern and corresponding morphology during ontogeny, maps based on microscopic data were mapped onto species-specific age group average shapes obtained using geometric morphometrics. The amount of bone resorption was quantified and compared between species. Great apes share a highly similar BM pattern, whereas gibbons have a distinctive resorption pattern. This suggests a change in cellular activity on the hominid branch. Humans possess most of the great ape pattern, but bone resorption is high in the canine area from birth on, suggesting a key role of canine reduction in facial evolution. We also observed that humans have high levels of bone resorption during childhood, a feature not shared with other apes.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hylobates , Estudos Transversais , Gorilla gorilla , Pan troglodytes , Morfogênese , Evolução Biológica
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