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1.
Nature ; 598(7881): 397-398, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646029
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705853

RESUMO

Predictive models have become an integral part of archaeological research, particularly in the discovery of new archaeological sites. In this paper, we apply predictive modeling to map high potential Pleistocene archaeological locales on the island of Cyprus in the Eastern Mediterranean. The model delineates landscape characteristics that denote areas with high potential to unearth Pleistocene archaeology while at the same time highlighting localities that should be excluded. The predictive model was employed in surface surveys to systematically access high probability locales on Cyprus. A number of newly identified localities suggests that the true density of mobile hunter-gatherer sites on Cyprus is seriously underestimated in current narratives. By adding new data to this modest corpus of early insular sites, we are able to contribute to debates regarding island colonisation and the role of coastal environments in human dispersals to new territories.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Animais , Fósseis , Hominidae
3.
Am J Primatol ; 83(10): e23326, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478153

RESUMO

Although individuals in some species refuse foods they normally accept if their partner receives a more preferred one, this is not true across all species. The cooperation hypothesis proposes that this species-level variability evolved because inequity aversion is a mechanism to identify situations in which cooperation is not paying off, and that species regularly observed cooperating should be more likely to be averse to inequity. To rule out other potential explanations of inequity aversion, we need to test the converse as well: species rarely observed cooperating, especially those phylogenetically close to more cooperative species, should be less likely to be inequity averse. To this end, we tested eight zoo-housed Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) on a token exchange task in which subjects received either the same food reward or a less-preferred reward for the same or more effort than their partner, recording both refusals to participate in the exchange and refusals to accept the reward. Supporting the cooperation hypothesis, even with procedural differences across sessions, gorillas were significantly more likely to refuse in all conditions in which they received a low-value food reward after completing an exchange, regardless of what their partner received, suggesting that gorillas were not inequity averse, but instead would not work for a low-value reward. Additionally, gorillas were more likely to refuse later in the session; while the pattern of refusals remained unchanged after accounting for this, this suggests that species should be tested on as many trials as is practical.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla , Hominidae , Animais , Alimentos , Recompensa
4.
Curr Biol ; 31(21): 4689-4696.e5, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478645

RESUMO

Estimating viral timescales is fundamental in understanding the evolutionary biology of viruses. Molecular clocks are widely used to reveal the recent evolutionary histories of viruses but may severely underestimate their longer-term origins because of the inverse correlation between inferred rates of evolution and the timescale of their measurement. Here, we provide a predictive mechanistic model that readily explains the rate decay phenomenon over a wide range of timescales and recapitulates the ubiquitous power-law rate decay with a slope of -0.65. We show that standard substitution models fail to correctly estimate divergence times once the most rapidly evolving sites saturate, typically after hundreds of years in RNA viruses and thousands of years in DNA viruses. Our model successfully recreates the observed pattern of decay and explains the evolutionary processes behind the time-dependent rate phenomenon. We then apply our model to re-estimate the date of diversification of genotypes of hepatitis C virus to 423,000 (95% highest posterior density [HPD]: 394,000-454,000) years before present, a time preceding the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and show that the most recent common ancestor of sarbecoviruses dates back to 21,000 (95% HPD: 19,000-22,000) years ago, nearly thirty times older than previous estimates. This creates a new perspective for our understanding of the origins of these viruses and also suggests that a substantial revision of evolutionary timescales of other viruses can be similarly achieved.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Modelos Genéticos , Vírus , África , Animais , Hominidae , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus/genética
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502760

RESUMO

A 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APES) fiber-optic sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) was demonstrated. The MZI was constructed with a core-offset fusion single mode fiber (SMF) structure with a length of 3.0 cm. As APES gradually attaches to the MZI, the external environment of the MZI changes, which in turn causes change in the MZI's interference. That is the reason why we can obtain the relationships between the APES amount and resonance dip wavelength by measuring the transmission variations of the resonant dip wavelength of the MZI. The optimized amount of 1% APES for 3.0 cm MZI biosensors was 3 mL, whereas the optimized amount of 2% APES was 1.5 mL.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hominidae , Animais , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Interferometria , Fibras Ópticas
6.
Nature ; 597(7876): 338-339, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471243
7.
Nature ; 597(7876): 376-380, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471286

RESUMO

Pleistocene hominin dispersals out of, and back into, Africa necessarily involved traversing the diverse and often challenging environments of Southwest Asia1-4. Archaeological and palaeontological records from the Levantine woodland zone document major biological and cultural shifts, such as alternating occupations by Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. However, Late Quaternary cultural, biological and environmental records from the vast arid zone that constitutes most of Southwest Asia remain scarce, limiting regional-scale insights into changes in hominin demography and behaviour1,2,5. Here we report a series of dated palaeolake sequences, associated with stone tool assemblages and vertebrate fossils, from the Khall Amayshan 4 and Jubbah basins in the Nefud Desert. These findings, including the oldest dated hominin occupations in Arabia, reveal at least five hominin expansions into the Arabian interior, coinciding with brief 'green' windows of reduced aridity approximately 400, 300, 200, 130-75 and 55 thousand years ago. Each occupation phase is characterized by a distinct form of material culture, indicating colonization by diverse hominin groups, and a lack of long-term Southwest Asian population continuity. Within a general pattern of African and Eurasian hominin groups being separated by Pleistocene Saharo-Arabian aridity, our findings reveal the tempo and character of climatically modulated windows for dispersal and admixture.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Migração Humana/história , Animais , Antropologia , Arábia , Ásia , História Antiga , Paleontologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
8.
J Exp Biol ; 224(19)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477837

RESUMO

Chimpanzees are knuckle walkers, with forelimbs contacting the ground by the dorsum of the finger's middle phalanges. As these muscular apes are given to high-velocity motions, the question arises of how the ground reaction forces are buffered so that no damage ensues in the load-bearing fingers. In the literature, it was hypothesized that the finger flexors help buffer impacts because in knuckle stance the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPJs) are strongly hyperextended, which would elongate the finger flexors. This stretching of the finger flexor muscle-tendon units would absorb impact energy. However, EMG studies did not report significant finger flexor activity in knuckle walking. Although these data by themselves question the finger flexor impact buffering hypothesis, the present study aimed to critically investigate the hypothesis from a biomechanical point of view. Therefore, various aspects of knuckle walking were modeled and the finger flexor tendon displacements in the load-bearing fingers were measured in a chimpanzee cadaver hand, of which also an MRI was taken in knuckle stance. The biomechanics do not support the finger flexor impact buffering hypothesis. In knuckle walking, the finger flexors are not elongated to lengths where passive strain forces would become important. Impact buffering by large flexion moments at the MCPJs from active finger flexors would result in impacts at the knuckles themselves, which is dysfunctional for various biomechanical reasons and does not occur in real knuckle walking. In conclusion, the current biomechanical analysis in accumulation of previous EMG findings suggests that finger flexors play no role in impact buffering in knuckle walking.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Articulação Metacarpofalângica , Caminhada
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5632, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561432

RESUMO

Wild great apes harbor clades of gut bacteria that are restricted to each host species. Previous research shows the evolutionary relationships among several host-restricted clades mirror those of great-ape species. However, processes such as geographic separation, host-shift speciation, and host-filtering based on diet or gut physiology can generate host-restricted bacterial clades and mimic patterns of co-diversification across host species. To gain insight into the distribution of host-restricted taxa, we examine captive great apes living under conditions where sharing of bacterial strains is readily possible. Here, we show that increased sampling of wild and captive apes identifies additional host-restricted lineages whose relationships are not concordant with the host phylogeny. Moreover, the gut microbiomes of captive apes converge through the displacement of strains that are restricted to their wild conspecifics by human-restricted strains. We demonstrate that host-restricted and co-diversifying bacterial strains in wild apes lack persistence and fidelity in captive environments.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Hominidae/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Variação Genética , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(4): 652-671, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In humans, the pelvis is the most sexually dimorphic skeletal element and is often utilized in aging and sexing remains. The pelvis has become greatly relied upon in anthropological research (e.g., forensics, demographics, obstetrics, evolutionary history); however, pelvis morphology is highly variable, and very little is known about the nature, sources, patterning, and interpretation of this variation. This study aims to quantify pelvis shape variation, document sexual shape variation, and estimate the plasticity of morphology. This will ultimately give greater ability to interpret modern, archaeological, and evolutionary patterns to gain deeper insight into processes which shape human anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a sample of 129 Medieval Danish skeletons, shape variation is documented in the greater sciatic notch (GSN), iliac crest (IC), arcuate line (AL), and sub-pubic angle (SPA) using 3D geometric morphometrics. The landmarking method applied here has the advantage of being applicable to fragmentary remains, rather than requiring whole bones. This allows it to be easily applied to archaeological samples and for the interpretation of separate bone features. Differences in shape were statistically analyzed by principle component analysis, linear discriminate analysis, and morphological disparity. Relationships between maximum femur length, body mass, and shape centroid size were also test by allometric regression. RESULTS: Results quantify the sexual dimorphism and shape variation present in these features. The GSN shape is the most variable, while the AL is the least. Similarly, the IC is the only feature which shows almost no dimorphism in shape, and instead best reflects lifestyle/activity patterns. Evidence of dimorphism in the IC is likely a result of cultural labor patterns rather than genetic and hormonal influence. Finally, the shapes of the GSN, AL, and SPA are more related to body mass than to femur length, such that individuals with increased mass exhibit more classically "male" shapes and those with less mass have more "female" shapes. DISCUSSION: The results have important implications for the evolution of pelvic anatomy, and sexual dimorphism, but also highlight the plasticity inherent in pelvic morphology. Analyzing pelvis features separately in a clearly defined, relatively genetically homogenous population gives insight into the determinants of bone morphology, which are not readily observable by other means. The relationship between body mass and shape suggests dimorphism in body size and composition may affect bone shape.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Ossos Pélvicos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Pelve , Gravidez , Osso Púbico , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
J Comp Psychol ; 135(3): 382-393, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553977

RESUMO

The embodied theory of tooling predicts that when using a grasped object as a tool, individuals accommodate their actions to manage the altered degrees of freedom in the body-plus-object system. We tested predictions from this theory by studying how 3 tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and 6 humans (Homo sapiens) used a hoe to retrieve a token. The hoe's handle was rigid, had 2 segments with 1 planar joint, or had 3 segments with 2 (orthogonal) planar joints. When jointed, rotating the handle could render it rigid. The monkeys used more actions to retrieve the token when the handle had 1 joint than when it had no joints or 2 joints. They did not use exploratory actions frequently nor in a directed manner in any condition. Although they sometimes rotated the handle of the hoe, they did not make it rigid. In a follow-up study, we explored whether humans would rotate the handle to use a 2-jointed hoe in a conventional manner, as predicted both by the embodied theory and theories of functional fixedness in humans. Two people rotated the handle to use the hoe conventionally, but 4 people did not; instead, they used the hoe as it was presented, as did the monkeys. These results confirm some predictions but also highlight shortcomings of the embodied theory with respect to specifying the consequences of adding multiple degrees of freedom. The study of species' perceptual sensitivity to jointed object's inertial properties could help to refine the embodied theory of tooling. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Hominidae , Sapajus , Animais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Sapajus apella
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490176

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, affecting all countries, with millions of cases and deaths, and economic disruptions due to lockdowns, also threatens the health and conservation of endangered mountain gorillas. For example, increased poaching due to absence of tourism income, led to the killing on 1st June 2020 of a gorilla by a hungry community member hunting duiker and bush pigs. Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH), a grassroots NGO and non-profit founded in 2003 promotes biodiversity conservation by enabling people to co-exist with wildlife through integrated programs that improve animal health, community health, and livelihoods in and around Africa's protected areas and wildlife rich habitats. Through these programs, we have helped to mitigate these impacts. CTPH worked with Uganda Wildlife Authority and other NGOs to improve great ape viewing guidelines and prevent transmission of COVID-19 between people and gorillas. Park staff, Gorilla Guardians herding gorillas from community land to the park and Village Health and Conservation Teams were trained to put on protective face masks, enforce hand hygiene and a 10-meter great ape viewing distance. To reduce the communities' need to poach, CTPH found a UK-based distributor, for its Gorilla Conservation Coffee social enterprise enabling coffee farmers to earn revenue in the absence of tourism and provided fast growing seedlings to reduce hunger in vulnerable community members. Lessons learned show the need to support non-tourism dependent community livelihoods, and more responsible tourism to the great apes, which CTPH is advocating to governments, donors and tour companies through an Africa CSO Biodiversity Alliance policy brief.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hominidae , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Florestas , Gorilla gorilla , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos , Uganda
13.
Primates ; 62(6): 931-943, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460009

RESUMO

In humans, inflammatory markers predict health risks. As great apes experience many similar conditions, measuring inflammation may provide valuable health information. We examined four serum inflammatory markers in zoo-housed gorillas (n = 48): albumin, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α. We first analyzed age- and sex-associated patterns, then used multimodel inference to evaluate models with age, sex, and inflammatory markers as predictors of all-cause morbidity, cardiac disease, and mortality. Older gorillas had lower albumin and higher IL-6, and males had higher albumin, lower CRP, and lower TNF-α. All-cause morbidity was best predicted by age, sex, and TNF-α, but the second model containing only age and sex was equivalent. Cardiac disease was best predicted by TNF-α alongside age and sex, with lower levels associated with increased risk. When outliers were removed, the model with TNF-α was second to the model containing only age and sex. Finally, mortality risk was best predicted by the model with only age and sex. Other models containing individual inflammatory markers were within top model sets for each health outcome. Our results indicate that age and sex are robust for predicting all-cause morbidity and mortality risk in gorillas; while models which include individual inflammatory markers also predict risk, they may not improve predictions over age and sex alone. However, given the prevalence of cardiac disease in great apes, these results suggest that TNF-α warrants further investigation. With their potential to provide valuable health information, data on inflammatory markers may contribute to the care and management of gorillas in human care.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Hominidae , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Biomarcadores , Gorilla gorilla , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254848, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428206

RESUMO

To investigate the mobility patterns of Neanderthals and modern humans in Europe during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition period, we applied strontium isotope analysis to Neanderthal (n = 3) and modern human (n = 2) teeth recovered from the site of Fumane Cave in the Monti Lessini region of Northern Italy. We also measured a large number of environmental samples from the region, to establish a strontium 'baseline', and also micromammals (vole teeth) from the levels associated with the hominin teeth. We found that the modern humans and Neanderthals had similar strontium isotope values, and these values match the local baseline values we obtained for the site and the surrounding region. We conclude that both groups were utilizing the local mountainous region where Fumane Cave is situated, and likely the nearby Lessini highlands and Adige plains, and therefore the strontium evidence does not show differening mobility patterns between Neanderthals and modern humans at the Fumane site.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Homem de Neandertal/fisiologia , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Animais , Arqueologia , Esmalte Dentário/química , Geografia , Hominidae , Humanos , Itália , Fatores de Tempo , Dente/química
15.
J Hum Evol ; 158: 103048, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340120

RESUMO

Homo naledi fossils from the Rising Star cave system provide important insights into the diversity of hand morphology within the genus Homo. Notably, the pollical (thumb) metacarpal (Mc1) displays an unusual suite of characteristics including a median longitudinal crest, a narrow proximal base, and broad flaring intrinsic muscle flanges. The present study evaluates the affinities of H. naledi Mc1 morphology via 3D geometric morphometric analysis of shaft shape using a broader comparative sample (n = 337) of fossil hominins, recent humans, apes, and cercopithecoid monkeys than in prior work. Results confirm that the H. naledi Mc1 is distinctive from most other hominins in being narrow at the proximal end but surmounted by flaring muscle flanges distally. Only StW 418 (Australopithecus cf. africanus) is similar in these aspects of shape. The gracile proximal shaft is most similar to cercopithecoids, Pan, Pongo, Australopithecus afarensis, and Australopithecus sediba, suggesting that H. naledi retains the condition primitive for the genus Homo. In contrast, Neandertal Mc1s are characterized by wide proximal bases and shafts, pinched midshafts, and broad distal flanges, while those of recent humans generally have straight shafts, less robust muscle flanges, and wide proximal shafts/bases. Although uncertainties remain regarding character polarity, the morphology of the H. naledi thumb might be interpreted as a retained intermediate state in a transformation series between the overall gracility of the shaft and the robust shafts of later hominins. Such a model suggests that the addition of broad medial and lateral muscle flanges to a primitively slender shaft was the first modification in transforming the Mc1 into the overall more robust structure exhibited by other Homo taxa including Neandertals and recent Homo sapiens in whose shared lineage the bases and proximal shafts became expanded, possibly as an adaptation to the repeated recruitment of powerful intrinsic pollical muscles.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Metacarpais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cavernas , Haplorrinos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal/anatomia & histologia
16.
J Hum Evol ; 158: 103029, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384939

RESUMO

The aspects of hominin behavior responsible for Oldowan stone tool variation are the focus of much debate. There is some consensus that this variation arises from a combination of ecological and cultural factors. The diversity of raw material types and technological strategies present at Kanjera South, Kenya, provide an opportunity to examine the interacting influences of ecology and culture on Oldowan stone tool variation. Here, we combine previous analyses of raw material properties, provenance, and technology with quantitative measures of core reduction intensity and tool utilization to examine the influence of both ecological and technocultural factors on stone tool variation at Kanjera South. The results of this analysis reflect a dynamic relationship between raw material properties, provenance, and hominin mobility. Exotic raw materials are generally more resistant to edge attrition compared with those available locally, which may have incentivized their transport over long distances and more extensive reduction. Cores produced on raw materials from distant sources also exhibit more complex core reduction strategies than locally acquired materials. While this pattern is partially due to the differences in the quality of knappable stone, bifacial centripetal and multifacial core reduction strategies also arise due to the continuous transport and use of exotic raw materials. Moreover, the variation in stone tool reduction is not consistent with neutral models of stone tool transport and discard. These results demonstrate that ecological factors such as raw material provenance and physical properties have strong impacts on reduction intensity and the technological strategies used by hominins.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Hominidae , Tecnologia/história , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Quênia
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5118, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433829

RESUMO

TRP channel-associated factor 1/2 (TCAF1/TCAF2) proteins antagonistically regulate the cold-sensor protein TRPM8 in multiple human tissues. Understanding their significance has been complicated given the locus spans a gap-ridden region with complex segmental duplications in GRCh38. Using long-read sequencing, we sequence-resolve the locus, annotate full-length TCAF models in primate genomes, and show substantial human-specific TCAF copy number variation. We identify two human super haplogroups, H4 and H5, and establish that TCAF duplications originated ~1.7 million years ago but diversified only in Homo sapiens by recurrent structural mutations. Conversely, in all archaic-hominin samples the fixation for a specific H4 haplotype without duplication is likely due to positive selection. Here, our results of TCAF copy number expansion, selection signals in hominins, and differential TCAF2 expression between haplogroups and high TCAF2 and TRPM8 expression in liver and prostate in modern-day humans imply TCAF diversification among hominins potentially in response to cold or dietary adaptations.


Assuntos
Duplicação Gênica , Hominidae/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal , Filogenia
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4889, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429408

RESUMO

Whilst an African origin of modern humans is well established, the timings and routes of their expansions into Eurasia are the subject of heated debate, due to the scarcity of fossils and the lack of suitably old ancient DNA. Here, we use high-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions to estimate how difficult it would have been for humans in terms of rainfall availability to leave the African continent in the past 300k years. We then combine these results with an anthropologically and ecologically motivated estimate of the minimum level of rainfall required by hunter-gatherers to survive, allowing us to reconstruct when, and along which geographic paths, expansions out of Africa would have been climatically feasible. The estimated timings and routes of potential contact with Eurasia are compatible with archaeological and genetic evidence of human expansions out of Africa, highlighting the key role of palaeoclimate variability for modern human dispersals.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Hominidae/genética , Migração Humana/história , África , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Emigração e Imigração , Fósseis , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , História Antiga , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17018, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426640

RESUMO

Insights into potential differences among the bony labyrinths of Plio-Pleistocene hominins may inform their evolutionary histories and sensory ecologies. We use four recently-discovered bony labyrinths from the site of Kromdraai to significantly expand the sample for Paranthropus robustus. Diffeomorphometry, which provides detailed information about cochlear shape, reveals size-independent differences in cochlear shape between P. robustus and Australopithecus africanus that exceed those among modern humans and the African apes. The cochlea of P. robustus is distinctive and relatively invariant, whereas cochlear shape in A. africanus is more variable, resembles that of early Homo, and shows a degree of morphological polymorphism comparable to that evinced by modern species. The curvature of the P. robustus cochlea is uniquely derived and is consistent with enhanced sensitivity to low-frequency sounds. Combined with evidence for selection, our findings suggest that sound perception shaped distinct ecological adaptations among southern African early hominins.


Assuntos
Cóclea/anatomia & histologia , Audição/fisiologia , Hominidae/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Fósseis , Análise de Componente Principal , África do Sul
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16135, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373471

RESUMO

Humans are unique in their diet, physiology and socio-reproductive behavior compared to other primates. They are also unique in the ubiquitous adaptation to all biomes and habitats. From an evolutionary perspective, these trends seem to have started about two million years ago, coinciding with the emergence of encephalization, the reduction of the dental apparatus, the adoption of a fully terrestrial lifestyle, resulting in the emergence of the modern anatomical bauplan, the focalization of certain activities in the landscape, the use of stone tools, and the exit from Africa. It is in this period that clear taphonomic evidence of a switch in diet with respect to Pliocene hominins occurred, with the adoption of carnivory. Until now, the degree of carnivorism in early humans remained controversial. A persistent hypothesis is that hominins acquired meat irregularly (potentially as fallback food) and opportunistically through klepto-foraging. Here, we test this hypothesis and show, in contrast, that the butchery practices of early Pleistocene hominins (unveiled through systematic study of the patterning and intensity of cut marks on their prey) could not have resulted from having frequent secondary access to carcasses. We provide evidence of hominin primary access to animal resources and emphasize the role that meat played in their diets, their ecology and their anatomical evolution, ultimately resulting in the ecologically unrestricted terrestrial adaptation of our species. This has major implications to the evolution of human physiology and potentially for the evolution of the human brain.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Hominidae/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Algoritmos , Animais , Arqueologia , Ecossistema , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Carne/história , Tanzânia
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