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1.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 35(6): 509-518, dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213135

RESUMO

Infection caused by Monkeypox Virus (MPVX) has small rodents as its natural reservoir and both monkeys and humans are occasional hosts. The causative agent is an Orthopoxvirus (MPVX) that was isolated in monkeys in 1958 and proved capable of passing to humans in 1970. It remained contained in Africa, causing isolated episodes of infection, until 2003 when an outbreak occurred in the United States following importation of animals from that continent. Since then, anecdotal cases have continued to be reported outside Africa, usually very clearly linked to travelers to those countries, but in May 2022, a broad outbreak of this disease has begun, now affecting several continents, with the emergence of human cases of MPVX (H-MPVX) infection mainly among Men that have Sex with Men (MSM). The disease has an incubation time ranging from 5 to 15 days and is characterized by the presence of pustules, fever, malaise and headache. The presence of significant regional lymphadenopathy is a differential feature with episodes of classical smallpox. Proctitis and pharyngitis, with minimal skin lesions, may be another form of presentation. Diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR testing of lesions or by demonstration of MPVX in other body fluids or tissues, although in the appropriate epidemiologic setting the clinical picture is highly suggestive of the disease. Effective drug treatment has been developed as part of programs to protect against potential bioterrorist agents and smallpox vaccinees are known to have high protection against monkeypox. New vaccines are available, but neither the drugs nor the vaccines are yet freely available on the market. (AU)


La infección causada por el Virus de la Viruela del Mono o Monkeypox (MPVX) tiene como reservorio natural los pequeños roedores y tanto el mono como el hombre son huéspedes ocasionales. El agente causal es un Orthopoxvirus (MPVX) que fue aislado en monos en 1958 y se demostró capaz de pasar a humanos en 1970. Se mantuvo contenido en África, causando episodios aislados de infección, hasta el año 2003 en que se produjo un brote en los Estados Unidos tras la importación de animales desde dicho continente. Desde entonces, han seguido comunicándose casos fuera de África, por lo general muy claramente vinculados a viajeros a dichos países, pero en mayo de 2022 se ha iniciado un brote amplio de esta enfermedad que afecta ya a varios continentes, con la aparición de casos humanos de infección por MPVX (H-MPVX) principalmente vinculados a fiestas en las que hay relaciones sexuales de hombres con hombres (HSH). La enfermedad tiene un tiempo de incubación que puede oscilar entre 5 y 15 días y se caracteriza por la presencia de pústulas, fiebre, malestar general y cefalea. La presencia de importantes adenopatías regionales es una característica diferencial con los episodios de viruela clásica. La proctitis y la faringitis, con mínimas lesiones cutáneas, pueden ser otras formas de presentación. El diagnóstico puede confirmarse con una prueba de PCR en las lesiones o con la demostración de MPVX en otros fluidos o tejidos corporales, aunque en el contexto epidemiológico oportuno el cuadro clínico es altamente sugerente de la enfermedad. Hay tratamiento medicamentoso eficaz que ha sido desarrollado como parte de los programas de protección frente a potenciales agentes bioterroristas y se sabe que los vacunados de viruela tienen una protección elevada frente a H-MPVX. Se dispone de nuevas vacunas, pero ni los medicamentos ni las vacunas están todavía libremente disponibles en el mercado. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Homossexualidade , Surtos de Doenças
2.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 159(12): 563-568, diciembre 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213506

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of chemsex has raised several concerns about gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men's (GBMSM) health. In this study we aim to analyze illicit drugs and chemsex use, sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in GBMSM who attended to a sexual health clinic and to explore any potential association between drug use and STI.MethodsWe conducted an observational study between January and June 2019 among GBMSM population attending to a STI clinic in Barcelona, Spain. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was given consecutively to all participants older than 18 years who accepted to participate.ResultsA total of 514 GBMSM (median age of 34 years-old) were included. The median number of sexual partners in the last year was 20. Seventy-one percent did not use condoms consistently for receptive anal intercourse. Drug abuse prevalence in the preceding year was 64.2%, and 26.5% of the individuals practiced chemsex. Gamma-hydroxibutyrate/gammabutyrolactone, poppers and methamphetamine were the most common drugs in chemsex. Chemsex was associated to group sex (OR 9.8 [95 CI: 4–24]), HIV infection (OR 2.5 [95 CI: 1.1–5.8]), taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (OR 3.2 [95 CI: 1.5–7.1]), developing gonorrhea (OR 3.7 [95 CI: 1.5–8.8]) or syphilis (OR 6.7 [95 CI: 2.4–18.7]).ConclusionsThe prevalence of drug use and chemsex was high among GBMSM in Barcelona. Chemsex was associated with group sex, taking PrEP, and contracting syphilis, gonorrhea, and HIV. (AU)


Antecedentes: El chemsex genera preocupaciones sobre la salud de gays, bisexuales y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (GBHSH). En este estudio analizamos el uso de sustancias recreativas, chemsex, comportamiento sexual e infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en GBHSH y exploramos cualquier asociación potencial entre el uso de drogas e ITS.MétodosEstudio observacional entre enero y junio de 2019 entre GBHSH atendidos en una clínica de ITS de Barcelona, España. Se entregó un cuestionario autoadministrado anónimo de forma consecutiva a todos los adultos que aceptaron participar.ResultadosSe incluyeron 514 GBHSH (edad mediana 34 años). La mediana del número de parejas sexuales en el último año fue de 20. El 71% no usó preservativo de manera consistente para el coito anal receptivo. La prevalencia de uso de drogas el año previo fue del 64,2% y el 26,5% de las personas practicó chemsex. Gamma-hidroxibutirato/gammabutirolactona, poppers y metanfetamina fueron las drogas más comunes en chemsex. El chemsex estuvo asociado a practicar sexo en grupo (OR 9,8 [IC 95%: 4-24]), infección por VIH (OR 2,5 [IC 95% 1,1-5,8]), profilaxis preexposición de VIH (PrEP) (OR 3,2 [IC 95% 1,5-7,1]), gonorrea (OR 3,7 [IC 95%: 1,5-8,8]) y sífilis (OR 6,7 [IC 95%: 2,4 - 18,7]).ConclusionesLa prevalencia de consumo de drogas y chemsex fue alta entre GBHSH en Barcelona. El chemsex se asoció con sexo en grupo, toma de PrEP e infección por sífilis, gonorrea y VIH. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Assunção de Riscos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero
5.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 34(3-4): 407-412, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151831

RESUMO

The Supreme Court of India, decriminalized same-sex activities in 2018 but the Indian medical curriculum has not been updated and inclusive of the sexual minorities despite the change. This study explores the attitude of medical students towards same-gender attraction and how it has shaped and reshaped in an ever-changing social environment. Medical students of four reputed Indian medical colleges were asked to self-administer an 18-item questionnaire anonymously. Internal consistency of the questionnaire statements was high. Of 729 initial responses, 84 were omitted for giving incomplete responses and 3 were omitted for not being Indian. A total of 642 responses was included in the analysis. More than 80% of the students believed homosexuality is a sexual orientation whereas only 15% believed it is an acquired behaviour and only 1.9% considered it an illness. However, more than 95%of students agreed that homosexuality is not an illness. Although the overall attitude of Indian medical students has changed since decriminalization, urgent work on the medical curriculum is needed to change some negative attitudes so that patients receive appropriate care.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(7): 3377-3393, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066677

RESUMO

Sexual orientation change efforts (SOCEs) signify activities designed to change or reduce homosexual orientation. Recent studies have claimed that such therapies increase suicide risk by showing positive associations between SOCE and lifetime suicidality, without excluding behavior that pre-dated SOCE. In this way, Blosnich et al.'s (2020) recent analysis of a national probability sample of 1518 sexual minority persons concluded that SOCE "may compound or create…suicidal ideation and suicide attempts" but after correcting for pre-existing suicidality, SOCE was not positively associated with any form of suicidality. For suicidal ideation, Blosnich et al. reported an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.92 (95% CI 1.01-3.64); the corrected AOR was .44 (.20-.94). For suicide planning, Blosnich et al.'s AOR was 1.75 (1.01-3.06); corrected was .60 (.32-1.14). For suicide attempts, Blosnich et al.'s AOR was 1.75 (.99-3.08); corrected was .74 (.36-1.43). Undergoing SOCE after expressing suicidal behavior reduced subsequent suicide attempts from 72 to 80%, compared to those not undergoing SOCE, when SOCE followed a prior expression of suicidal ideation (AOR .17, .05-.55), planning (AOR .13, .04-.45) or intention (AOR .10, .03-.30); however, SOCE following an initial suicide attempt did not significantly reduce further attempts. By violating the principle that a cause cannot occur after an effect, Blosnich et al. misstated the correct conclusion. Experiencing SOCE does not result in higher suicidality, as they claim, and may sharply reduce subsequent suicide attempts. Restrictions on SOCE will not reduce suicidal risk among sexual minorities and may deprive them of an important resource for reducing suicide attempts.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Tentativa de Suicídio , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Ideação Suicida
7.
J Sch Health ; 92(12): 1148-1154, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant health disparities exist for sexual minority youth (SMY). While supportive adults in schools have been shown to improve mental wellbeing and academic outcomes for students, most teachers do not receive training specific to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) students. METHODS: The project aimed at providing staff from a Hawaii middle school with "Safe Space" professional training to increase knowledge and comfort in supporting SMY. Pre- and post-training surveys were used to measure knowledge of LGBTQ issues and comfort in supporting LGBTQ students and a 2-week and 3-month survey assessed staff's application of newly learned material. RESULTS: Sixty-four staff participated in the first of 2 training sessions with 59 completing both sessions. Results from the pre- and post-survey showed a 34.9% increase in knowledge of LGBTQ issues (effect size = 1.22) and a 5.5% increase in self-rated comfort level in supporting LGBTQ students (effect size = 0.22). A 3-month follow-up indicated that 52.9% of the respondents were actively applying knowledge learned within their school setting. CONCLUSIONS: The project results demonstrate the value of the training not only in the short term but also staff's ability to apply the knowledge they learned. Given the success of implementation, expansion to other schools could facilitate ally-building attitudes and behaviors as a protective factor for SMY throughout the state.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Bissexualidade , Homossexualidade , Comportamento Sexual
8.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 58(4): 459-466, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054837

RESUMO

Katharine B. Davis was an important progressive-era figure, a pioneering professional, an innovative penologist, and an iconoclastic sexologist. Although scholars have long been aware of Davis's tolerant attitude toward same-sex relationships at the New York State Female Reformatory at Bedford Hills, where she was Superintendent from 1901 to 1913, and her open discussion of same-sex attraction in her study of "normal" women's sexuality, published in 1929, little has been known about Davis's personal life. Thus, it was a feminist biographer's dream come true to gain access to what Davis called her "autobiographical biography," the never-finished, never-published, story of her life. Or so I thought. As it turns out, my quest to understand Davis's personal life and how it informed her professional trajectory has been a bit more complicated.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Feminino , Humanos , New York
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 50-55, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170702

RESUMO

Gender identity is strictly connected to biological sex, but it is not determined by it. The sex-gender distinction made it possible to challenge biological determinism, which had historically claimed to provide a scientific foundation for gender differences. Gender does not have a biological origin, but a sociocultural one; it is the centennial conditioning that has determined gender differences, making them perceive as natural rather than culturally learned dispositions. In the last few years homosexuality, and the various characteristics that distinguish it, is becoming an increasingly visible and relevant reality both in sociocultural and the scientific fields, also and above all within clinical psychology and mental health.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade , Feminino , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(7): 3569-3581, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042068

RESUMO

Gender nonconforming children are at heightened risk for negative parenting interactions. This study investigated possible explanations for differences in parenting behaviors with gender conforming and nonconforming boys. A sample of 201 adults (43% women/57% men; 81% White, 10% Black/African American, 6% Multiracial, 3% Asian, and 1% American Indian or Alaska Native; and 7% Hispanic/Latinx) ranging in age from 20 to 74 years (M = 35.44, SD = 9.76) were presented two vignettes describing a gender conforming and nonconforming boy. Following each vignette, participants provided endorsements of parenting behaviors and reported their concern for that child's future. In addition, participants completed measures assessing their attitudes toward homosexuality and need for closure. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences in endorsements of physical discipline or positive parenting for the two boys. Participants did, however, report higher concern for the gender nonconforming boy's future. Individual differences in homonegativity were associated with greater endorsements of physical discipline toward the gender nonconforming boy, after accounting for endorsements of physical discipline toward the gender conforming boy. Further, higher concern for the gender nonconforming boy's future was associated with greater endorsements of physical discipline and lower endorsements of positive parenting, after accounting for endorsements of each behavior for the gender conforming boy as well as concern for their future. Intervention efforts to support the parent-child relationship for gender nonconforming boys may benefit from identifying and responding to both negative attitudes toward homosexuality and addressing motivations to change behavior resulting from concern for their child's future.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Adulto Jovem
12.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 50(6): 575-589, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer (LGBQ) people may increase their risk of mental illness and reduce their access to and/or benefit from evidence-based psychological treatments. Little is known about the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of adapted psychological interventions for sexual minority individuals in the UK. AIMS: To describe and evaluate a novel LGBQ Wellbeing group therapy for sexual minority adults experiencing common mental health problems, provided in a UK Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service. METHOD: An eight-session LGBQ Wellbeing group intervention was developed drawing on CBT and LGBQ affirmative principles. We compare the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who completed and dropped out of the groups, and explore changes in self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and functional impairment. RESULTS: Over eight courses provided, 78 service-users attended at least one session, of whom 78.2% completed the intervention (drop-out rate 21.8%). Older participants were more likely to drop out. There was a lower proportion of female and bisexual or ethnic/racial minority individuals than would be expected. There were significant reductions in severity of depression, anxiety and functional impairment following the group, and more than half of those who completed the intervention needed no further treatment. CONCLUSIONS: There was preliminary evidence of the feasibility of, and potential clinical benefit in, a group therapy intervention for sexual minority adults experiencing common mental health problems. Future research should investigate access and outcomes for participants with additional social disadvantage, e.g. those who are female, older, bisexual or ethnic/racial minority.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Ansiedade , Bissexualidade , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886435

RESUMO

Recent advances in sexual equality and diversity have not been able to mitigate the serious problem of discrimination suffered by sexual minorities. The most serious cases involve violence and physical or psychological aggression towards sexual orientations that differ from the heterosexual norm. This research analyses the dimensions of the personality and the moral disengagement mechanisms related to homophobia and the predictive value they have for hostile attitudes towards sexual diversity. The sample was made up of 849 university students between 18 and 24 years of age. The instruments used were the Modern Homophobia Scale (MHS), the Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement Scale (MMDS), and the reduced version of the Neo Personality Inventory-Reduced Version (NEO-FFI). The results show the involvement of moral disengagement in homophobia. It highlights evidence of subtle intimidatory behaviour patterns of rejection towards homosexuality. Furthermore, the low levels in the dimensions of a friendly personality and openness to experiences can be seen to predict homophobic behaviour. Thus, young people fall back on diverse mechanisms of moral disengagement to justify harmful attitudes towards the LGTBI collective. The results of the research are particularly relevant and useful for setting up programmes aimed at preventing and mitigating this serious problem of sexual discrimination.


Assuntos
Homofobia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Homofobia/psicologia , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Personalidade
15.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(6): 2867-2877, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859261

RESUMO

Jealousy is an affective state activated by a perceived threat to a valued relationship by a third party. On average, males report higher distress about their partner's sexual extra-pair involvement, while females show higher emotional jealousy. These sex differences are specific to heterosexuals and to contexts with potential reproductive costs. We tested the effect of sex and sexual orientation of the individual, and sex of the partner and potential rival on sexual versus emotional jealousy. Sexual orientation was operationalized as a willingness to form long-term relationships with men, women, or both. Heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual males (N = 416) and females (N = 1328) from Brazil, Chile, and Portugal responded to the Sexual vs. Emotional Jealousy Scale and then ranked their distress to four hypothetical scenarios: sexual or emotional involvement of their partner with a male or a female rival. This is the first study to simultaneously test for an effect of self, partner, and rival sex on jealousy: bisexual individuals responded twice, about a hypothetical female and about a male partner. Individuals were most preoccupied with their partner's emotional relationship with a rival of the same sex as the respondent. Heterosexual males reported higher sexual jealousy than the other groups, but did not differ from bisexual men responding about female partners. Bisexual females were more upset by sexual extra-pair involvement of their female (versus male) partners with a male rival. Thus, jealousy was influenced by sex and sexual orientation of the individuals, sex of the partners, and also by sex of the rivals: same-sex rivals were perceived as most threatening. This suggests that besides being a strategy to maintain a primary relationship, jealousy is particularly sensitive to same-sex competitors, being an intra-sexual competition strategy.


Assuntos
Ciúme , Comportamento Sexual , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
17.
Nurse Educ Today ; 116: 105472, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have assessed attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding providing care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients among student nurses, nurses, and nursing educators individually, but few studies have compared these aspects among these groups. OBJECTIVES: To examine the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding providing care for LGBT patients among student nurses, nurses, and nursing educators in Taiwan. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTINGS: The study was advertised in 8 nursing schools, 14 nursing associations, 209 nursing homes, and 2 online chatrooms in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1150 participants were recruited: 447 student nurses, 475 nurses, and 228 nursing educators. METHODS: Data were collected between August 2021 and January 2022 through a questionnaire with five sections: demographics, knowledge of LGBT health, the Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire, the Attitude Toward Lesbian and Gay Men Scale, and the Gay Affirmative Practice Scale. RESULTS: The results suggest that the participants had limited knowledge of LGBT health. The nursing educators had the lowest scores for knowledge of LGBT health and homosexuality and the most negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among the groups; however, they were most likely to report their beliefs regarding providing nursing care to LGBT patients than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the importance of providing nursing educators with training courses and resources related to culturally competent care to improve education for nursing students and care for LGBT patients.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pessoas Transgênero , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(6): 2855-2865, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590034

RESUMO

Previous research has documented several reliable differences between men and women in terms of mate preferences regarding age, physical appearance, financial prospects, and more. However, most of the research has been on heterosexual populations. The current study attempted to further explore those differences in non-heterosexual populations. The project was part replication regarding heterosexual populations and part exploratory regarding non-heterosexual populations. The sample contained 3298 participants, including 1863 males (1675 gynephiles, 56 androphiles, 132 bisexuals) and 1435 females (1037 androphiles, 33 gynephiles, 365 bisexuals). Participants responded to questions about mate preferences in terms of good financial prospects, good looks, chastity, ambition/industriousness, youth/age, uncommitted sex, visual sexual stimuli, status, physical attractiveness, jealousy, and interest in short- versus long-term mating. Results replicated typical sex differences between heterosexual men and women in all measures we analyzed. We also found several instances when bisexual respondents were more different from heterosexual respondents than homosexual respondents (specifically regarding interest in uncommitted sex, the importance of chastity, and interest in short-term mating). Despite limitations in data collection, the results demonstrate that homosexual and bisexual individuals do not always form a heterogenous group.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Bissexualidade , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino
19.
EMBO Rep ; 23(6): e55290, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575021

RESUMO

Homosexuality has been a constant throughout human evolution and civilization, and yet, science has been slow to look at the causes of sexual preferences.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Comportamento Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
20.
J Comput Biol ; 29(5): 483-493, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544039

RESUMO

While several studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the homosexual and heterosexual population have demonstrated substantial advantages in controlling HIV transmission in these groups, the overall benefits of the models with a bisexual population and initiation of antiretroviral therapy have not had enough attention in dynamic modeling. Thus, we used a mathematical model based on studying the impacts of bisexual behavior in a global community developed in the PhD thesis work of Espitia (2021). The model is governed by a nonlinear ordinary differential equation system, the parameters of which are calibrated with data from the cumulative cases of HIV infection and AIDS reported in San Juan de Pasto in 2019. Our model estimations show which parameters are the most influential and how to modulate them to decrease the HIV infection.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
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