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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251367, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355884

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of atmospheric plasma application on the inactivation of fungi on the surface of Erythrina velutina seeds and on isolated fungal colonies. Two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. First, plasma was applied to the surface of the seeds using helium gas and atmospheric plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min in addition to the control (untreated seeds), constituting seven treatments with five repetitions each. In the second experiment, Petri dishes containing the inoculum of different fungi were treated with atmospheric air plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min (Air-3, Air-6, and Air-9) and were compared with untreated fungi in Petri dishes without treatment (control), totaling four treatments and five repetitions each. We found that the application of atmospheric air plasma to E. velutina seeds for 9 min had an antimicrobial effect on the fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The formation of fungal colonies isolated from E. velutina seeds was also inhibited by 3 min of exposure to atmospheric air plasma, except for A. niger, whose inhibition occurred after 6 min of exposure to atmospheric plasma.


Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de plasma atmosférico na inativação de fungos na superfície de sementes de Erythrina velutina e em colônias fúngicas isoladas. Dois experimentos foram realizados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado: no primeiro, o plasma foi aplicado na superfície das sementes usando gás hélio e plasma atmosférico por três, seis e nove minutos, além do controle (sementes sem tratamento), constituindo sete tratamentos com cinco repetições cada; no segundo experimento, placas de Petri contendo o inóculo de diferentes fungos foram tratadas com plasma atmosférico por três, seis e nove minutos (Air-3, Air-6 e Air-9) e comparadas com fungos não tratados em placas de Petri sem tratamento (controle), totalizando quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições cada. Descobrimos que a aplicação de plasma atmosférico nas sementes de E. velutina por nove minutos teve efeito antimicrobiano sobre os fungos Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp. e Rhizopus sp. A formação de colônias fúngicas isoladas de sementes de E. velutina também foi inibida por três minutos de exposição à aplicação de plasma atmosférico, exceto para A. niger, cuja inibição ocorreu a partir de 6 minutos de exposição à aplicação de plasma atmosférico.


Assuntos
Erythrina , Fungos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

RESUMO

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242070, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278554

RESUMO

Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.


Resumo As interações entre fungos endofíticos (FEs) e suas plantas hospedeiras variam de positivas, neutras a negativas. Os resultados destas interações podem variar dependendo do órgão da planta hospedeira infectada. FEs isolados de folhas de algumas espécies de plantas têm potencial para serem usados como agentes inibidores da germinação de sementes e no controle de plantas invasoras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os FEs presentes nas folhas de Copaifera oblongifolia e avaliar o papel destes fungos na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Um total de 11 espécies de FEs foi isolado das folhas de C. oblongifolia e identificado através da sequência dos espaçadores internos transcritos do DNA ribossomal nuclear. As espécies de FEs isoladas são generalistas e provavelmente devem ser transmitidas horizontalmente. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que filtrados destes isolados fúngicos podem afetar diferentemente a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de C. oblongifolia. As espécies Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum e Phomopsis sp. afetaram negativamente a germinação das sementes de C. oblongifolia. Dentre estas espécies devemos destacar que N. parvum reduziu a germinação e a sobrevivência das plântulas em 89 e 222%, respectivamente. Além disso, Cochiliobolus intermedius afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Assim, o uso combinado de N. parvum e C. intermedius, ou de produtos do metabolismo destas espécies de fungos, têm potencial para serem usados no manejo de plantas invasoras.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fabaceae , Ascomicetos , Sementes , Folhas de Planta , Plântula , Fungos , Curvularia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247993, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278544

RESUMO

Abstract Bats are important for the homeostasis of ecosystems and serve as hosts of various microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi with pathogenic potential. This study aimed to isolate fungi from biological samples obtained from bats captured in the city of Sinop (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), where large areas of deforestation exist due to urbanization and agriculture. On the basis of the flow of people and domestic animals, 48 bats were captured in eleven urban forest fragments. The samples were processed and submitted to microbiological cultures, to isolate and to identify the fungal genera. Thirty-four (70.83%) of the captured bats were positive for fungi; 18 (37.5%) and 16 (33.33%) of these bats were female and male, respectively. Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp., which may cause opportunistic infections, were isolated. The bat species with the highest number of fungal isolates was Molossus molossus: 21 isolates (43.8%). According to our results, bats captured in urban forest fragments in Sinop harbor pathogenic fungi, increasing the risk of opportunistic fungal infections in humans and domestic animals.


Resumo Os morcegos apresentam grande importância na homeostasia dos ecossistemas e são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de micro-organismos como bactérias, vírus e fungos com potencial patogênico. Portanto, este estudo visou isolar fungos presentes em amostras biológicas de morcegos na cidade de Sinop - MT, que possui grandes áreas de desmatamento devido à urbanização e agricultura. Foram capturados 48 morcegos de diferentes espécies, em onze fragmentos florestais urbanos definidos de acordo com fluxo de pessoas e animais domésticos, para obtenção de amostras biológicas. Essas amostras foram processadas e submetidas aos cultivos microbiológicos, para isolamento e identificação dos gêneros dos fungos. Dos 48 morcegos, 34 (70,83%) foram positivos para pelos menos um gênero de fungo, sendo 18 (37,5%) fêmeas e 16 (33,33%) machos, e os gêneros isolados a partir das amostras biológicas foram Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp. e Candida sp., que podem ser causadores de infecções oportunistas. Desse total, a espécie que apresentou maior positividade para pelo menos um gênero de fungo foi Molossus molossus com 21 (43,8%). Nossos resultados demonstram que os morcegos capturados nos fragmentos florestais urbanos na cidade de Sinop - MT, podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, aumentando assim o risco de exposição e aquisição de infecções fúngicas oportunistas por pessoas e animais domésticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Quirópteros , Brasil , Florestas , Cidades , Ecossistema , Fungos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMO

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Aspergillus , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Organofosfonatos , Fungos , Glicina/análogos & derivados
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930466

RESUMO

Keratinophyton is a genus of well-known keratinophilic fungi found in various terrestrial habitats. During a survey of keratinolytic fungi in China, a total of 12 isolates of Keratinophyton species, representing eight taxa, were obtained from the soil. Two of these isolates were described as new species based on their morphological characteristics and molecular analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region and the rRNA gene of the nuclear large subunit. Descriptions and illustrations of these two novel species, which are named Keratinophyton chongqingense sp. nov. and Keratinophyton sichuanense sp. nov., are provided herein.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fungos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 191, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huperzine A (Hup A) has attracted considerable attention as an effective therapeutic candidate drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Whereas, the production of Hup A from wild plants faced a major challenge, which is the wild Huperzia Serrata harbor a low Hup A content, has a long-life cycle, and has a small yield. At present, several reports showed that Hup A is produced by various endophytic fungal strains isolated from H. serrata, thereby providing an alternative method to produce the compound and reduce the consumption of this rare and endangered plant. However, till now, very few comprehensive studies are available on the biological diversity and structural composition of endophytic fungi and the effects of endophytic fungi on the Hup A accumulation in H. serrata. RESULTS: In this research, the composition and diversity of fungal communities in H. serrata were deciphered based on high-throughput sequencing technology of fungal internal transcribed spacer regions2 (ITS2). The correlation between endophytic fungal community and Hup A content was also investigated. Results revealed that the richness and the diversity of endophytic fungi in H. serrata was various according to different tissues and different ecological areas. The endophytic fungal communities of H. serrata exhibit species-specific, ecological-specific, and tissue-specific characteristics. There are 6 genera (Ascomycota_unclassified, Cyphellophora, Fungi_unclassified, Sporobolomyces, and Trichomeriaceae_unclassified) were significantly positively correlated with Hup A content in all two areas, whereas, there are 6 genera (Auricularia, Cladophialophora, Cryptococcus, Mortierella, and Mycena) were significantly negatively correlated with Hup A content of in all two areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated a different composition and diverse endophytic fungal communities in H. serrata from different organs and ecological areas. The current study will provide the realistic basis and theoretical significance for understanding the biological diversity and structural composition of endophytic fungal communities in H. serrata, as well as providing novel insights into the interaction between endophytic fungi and Hup A content.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Huperzia , Micobioma , Alcaloides , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos , Huperzia/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(9): 281, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934756

RESUMO

The changes of microbial communities of rhizospheric soil in different ages are speculated to cause soil-borne diseases and replanting problem in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) cultivation. This study analyzed the physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizospheric soil during the planting of American ginseng in the Wendeng area of Weihai, China. The water content and organic matter content of American ginseng rhizospheric soil decreased year by year. A decline in the diversity of bacteria and fungi was observed in the rhizospheric soils planting American ginseng compared with the traditional crop wheat in the control group. During the later planting stage, the abundances of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Basidiomycota were lower, whereas that of Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Mucoromycota were higher. Through the correlation analysis between environmental factors and microbial community, it was found that the content of soil phosphorus was significantly positively correlated with the root rot pathogen Fusarium. The results of functional prediction showed that the decrease of secondary metabolite synthesis of rhizospheric soil bacteria and the increase of plant pathogenic fungi may be the important reasons for the increase of diseases in the later stage of American ginseng planting. This study revealed the evolution of rhizosphere microbial community and function in the process of American ginseng planting, which is valuable for planting management.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Panax , Bactérias/genética , Fungos , Panax/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 298, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922808

RESUMO

High stocking densities, closed animal houses, and elevated concentrations of bacteria, fungi, and the products of their activity, including ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, have adverse health effects. Active techniques used to reduce unfavourable environmental conditions, such as ventilation, sprinkling, bedding sorbents, and nutritional treatments, are not always sufficient to improve the animals' living environment. The current paper aims to evaluate the effect of radiant catalytic ionization (RCI) on airborne microorganisms, cage microbiological status, gaseous ammonia concentrations, and the haematological status of mice in animal houses. After one week of operation of an RCI system, the number of airborne bacteria and fungi in the experimental room decreased in comparison to the first day of the experiment (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 respectively), as did the concentrations of ammonia (p < 0.01) and dust. At the same time, the basic health parameters of the mice, determined in the blood, were very similar between the control and experimental room. RCI seems to be an ideal solution to ensure high hygiene standards in animal rooms and houses with limited use of disinfectants or antibiotic treatment of sick animals. An additional, environmental benefit is the limited amount of nitrogen released.


Assuntos
Amônia , Roedores , Alérgenos , Amônia/análise , Animais , Bactérias , Poeira/análise , Fungos , Abrigo para Animais , Camundongos , Ventilação
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 189, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918663

RESUMO

Despite the known influence of continuous cropping on soil microorganisms, little is known about the associated difference in the effects of continuous cropping on the community compositions of soil bacteria and fungi. Here, we assessed soil physicochemical property, as well as bacterial and fungal compositions across different years (Uncropped control, 1, 6, 11, 16, and 21 years) and in the watermelon system of a gravel mulch field in the Loess Plateau of China. Our results showed that long-term continuous cropping led to substantial shifts in soil bacterial and fungal compositions. The relative abundances of dominant bacterial and fungal genera (average relative abundance > 1.0%) significantly varied among different continuous cropping years (P < 0.05). Structural equation models demonstrated that continuous cropping alter soil bacterial and fungal compositions mainly by causing substantial variations in soil attributes. Variations in soil pH, nutrient, salinity, and moisture content jointly explained 73% and 64% of the variation in soil bacterial and fungal compositions, respectively. Variations in soil moisture content and pH caused by continuous cropping drove the shifts in soil bacterial and fungal compositions, respectively (Mantel R = 0.74 and 0.54, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the variation in soil bacterial and fungal composition showed significant correlation with watermelon yield reduction (P < 0.01). Together, long-term continuous cropping can alter soil microbial composition, and thereby influencing watermelon yield. Our findings are useful for alleviating continuous cropping obstacles and guiding agricultural production.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Fungos/genética , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2123379119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914151

RESUMO

Xylomyrocins, a unique group of nonribosomal peptide secondary metabolites, were discovered in Paramyrothecium and Colletotrichum spp. fungi by employing a combination of high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS)-based chemometrics, comparative genome mining, gene disruption, stable isotope feeding, and chemical complementation techniques. These polyol cyclodepsipeptides all feature an unprecedented d-xylonic acid moiety as part of their macrocyclic scaffold. This biosynthon is derived from d-xylose supplied by xylooligosaccharide catabolic enzymes encoded in the xylomyrocin biosynthetic gene cluster, revealing a novel link between carbohydrate catabolism and nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis. Xylomyrocins from different fungal isolates differ in the number and nature of their amino acid building blocks that are nevertheless incorporated by orthologous nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzymes. Another source of structural diversity is the variable choice of the nucleophile for intramolecular macrocyclic ester formation during xylomyrocin chain termination. This nucleophile is selected from the multiple available alcohol functionalities of the polyol moiety, revealing a surprising polyspecificity for the NRPS terminal condensation domain. Some xylomyrocin congeners also feature N-methylated amino acid residues in positions where the corresponding NRPS modules lack N-methyltransferase (M) domains, providing a rare example of promiscuous methylation in the context of an NRPS with an otherwise canonical, collinear biosynthetic program.


Assuntos
Depsipeptídeos , Proteínas Fúngicas , Fungos , Aminoácidos/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Quimiometria , Depsipeptídeos/química , Depsipeptídeos/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Biossíntese de Peptídeos Independentes de Ácido Nucleico , Peptídeo Sintases/química , Açúcares
13.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(6): 206, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896903

RESUMO

Fungal infections are considered one of the most serious conditions as their occurrence has increased lately. Fungi like Candida, Fusarium, and Aspergillus species mostly affect immunocompromised patients as they are considered opportunistic pathogens. These infections can be superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, or systemic fungal infections that require specific treatment. There is a wide variety of antifungal drugs that can be used to cure fungal infections; however, most of them have many systemic side effects due to their physicochemical characteristics and high toxicity profile. Hence, the current review focuses on various advanced vesicular carriers with high biocompatibility that can encapsulate the antifungal drugs owing to increase their efficacy and limit the undesirable side effects. These advanced systems can manage stability, solubility, bioavailability, safety, and effectiveness issues present in conventional systems.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Micoses , Administração Cutânea , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Fungos , Humanos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35892942

RESUMO

Anthraquinones are an interesting chemical class of polyketides since they not only exhibit a myriad of biological activities but also contribute to managing ecological roles. In this review article, we provide a current knowledge on the anthraquinoids reported from marine-derived fungi, isolated from various resources in both shallow waters such as mangrove plants and sediments of the mangrove habitat, coral reef, algae, sponges, and deep sea. This review also tentatively categorizes anthraquinone metabolites from the simplest to the most complicated scaffolds such as conjugated xanthone-anthraquinone derivatives and bianthraquinones, which have been isolated from marine-derived fungi, especially from the genera Apergillus, Penicillium, Eurotium, Altenaria, Fusarium, Stemphylium, Trichoderma, Acremonium, and other fungal strains. The present review, covering a range from 2000 to 2021, was elaborated through a comprehensive literature search using the following databases: ACS publications, Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, Wiley Online Library, MDPI, Springer, and Thieme. Thereupon, we have summarized and categorized 296 anthraquinones and their derivatives, some of which showed a variety of biological properties such as enzyme inhibition, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitubercular (against Mycobacterium tuberculosis), cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifouling, and antioxidant activities. In addition, proposed biogenetic pathways of some anthraquinone derivatives are also discussed.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Penicillium , Policetídeos , Antraquinonas/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Penicillium/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 907489, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846743

RESUMO

Diseases contribute to the decline of pollinator populations, which may be aggravated by the interspecific transmission of honey bee pests and pathogens. Flowers increase the risk of transmission, as they expose the pollinators to infections during the foraging activity. In this study, both the prevalence and abundance of 21 honey bee pathogens (11 viruses, 4 bacteria, 3 fungi, and 3 trypanosomatids) were assessed in the flower-visiting entomofauna sampled from March to September 2021 in seven sites in the two North-Italian regions, Emilia-Romagna and Piedmont. A total of 1,028 specimens were collected, identified, and analysed. Of the twenty-one pathogens that were searched for, only thirteen were detected. Altogether, the prevalence of the positive individuals reached 63.9%, with Nosema ceranae, deformed wing virus (DWV), and chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) as the most prevalent pathogens. In general, the pathogen abundance averaged 5.15 * 106 copies, with CBPV, N. ceranae, and black queen cell virus (BQCV) as the most abundant pathogens, with 8.63, 1.58, and 0.48 * 107 copies, respectively. All the detected viruses were found to be replicative. The sequence analysis indicated that the same genetic variant was circulating in a specific site or region, suggesting that interspecific transmission events among honey bees and wild pollinators are possible. Frequently, N. ceranae and DWV were found to co-infect the same individual. The circulation of honey bee pathogens in wild pollinators was never investigated before in Italy. Our study resulted in the unprecedented detection of 72 wild pollinator species as potential hosts of honey bee pathogens. Those results encourage the implementation of monitoring actions aiming to improve our understanding of the environmental implications of such interspecific transmission events, which is pivotal to embracing a One Health approach to pollinators' welfare.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Vírus , Animais , Abelhas , Fungos , Itália/epidemiologia , Vírus de RNA/genética
16.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 391, 2022 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810161

RESUMO

The Country Compendium of the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS) is a collation of data across 196 individual country checklists of alien species, along with a designation of those species with evidence of impact at a country level. The Compendium provides a baseline for monitoring the distribution and invasion status of all major taxonomic groups, and can be used for the purpose of global analyses of introduced (alien, non-native, exotic) and invasive species (invasive alien species), including regional, single and multi-species taxon assessments and comparisons. It enables exploration of gaps and inferred absences of species across countries, and also provides one means for updating individual GRIIS Checklists. The Country Compendium is, for example, instrumental, along with data on first records of introduction, for assessing and reporting on invasive alien species targets, including for the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goals. The GRIIS Country Compendium provides a baseline and mechanism for tracking the spread of introduced and invasive alien species across countries globally. Design Type(s) Data integration objective ● Observation design Measurement Type(s) Alien species occurrence ● Evidence of impact invasive alien species assessment objective Technology Type(s) Agent expert ● Data collation Factor Type(s) Geographic location ● Origin / provenance ● Habitat Sample Characteristics - Organism Animalia ● Bacteria ● Chromista ● Fungi ● Plantae ● Protista (Protozoa) ● Viruses Sample Characteristics - Location Global countries.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Ecossistema , Eucariotos , Fungos , Plantas
17.
J Vis Exp ; (184)2022 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815981

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi are successful inhabitants of soil and play a major role in soil ecosystems, such as in the decomposition of organic and inorganic matter, as well as regulation of nutrient levels. There they also find numerous opportunities to interact with a variety of other microbes such as bacteria or other fungi. Studying fungal interactions at the cellular level, however, can be challenging owing to the black box-like nature of soil. New microfluidic tools are being developed for the study of fungal interactions; two platforms designed to study bacterial-fungal and fungal-fungal interactions are highlighted. Within these microchannels, fungal-microbial interactions can be monitored in controlled physico-chemical environments at higher temporal and spatial resolution than previously possible. Application of these tools have yielded numerous novel biological insights, such as the observation of bacterial polar attachment to hyphae or revealing uncharacterised fungal-fungal antagonisms. A key feature of these methodologies regards the ease of use of this tool by non-experts, yielding highly translatable technologies for use in microbiology labs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias , Fungos , Interações Microbianas , Microfluídica , Solo/química
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806172

RESUMO

The microbiota refers to the great number of microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) that live on and in humans and has sparked a surge of recent interest [...].


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vírus , Bactérias , Fungos , Humanos , Imunidade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806445

RESUMO

Codon usage bias (CUB) could reflect co-evolutionary changes between viruses and hosts in contrast to plant and animal viruses, and the systematic analysis of codon usage among the mycoviruses that infect plant pathogenic fungi is limited. We performed an extensive analysis of codon usage patterns among 98 characterized RNA mycoviruses from eight phytopathogenic fungi. The GC and GC3s contents of mycoviruses have a wide variation from 29.35% to 64.62% and 24.32% to 97.13%, respectively. Mycoviral CUB is weak, and natural selection plays a major role in the formation of mycoviral codon usage pattern. In this study, we demonstrated that the codon usage of mycoviruses is similar to that of some host genes, especially those involved in RNA biosynthetic process and transcription, suggesting that CUB is a potential evolutionary mechanism that mycoviruses adapt to in their hosts.


Assuntos
Micovírus , Vírus , Animais , Uso do Códon , Evolução Molecular , Micovírus/genética , Fungos/genética , RNA , Seleção Genética , Vírus/genética
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20201243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830070

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of microbial inoculants and fertilizer application on cowpea (BRS Pujante) growth and on the structure and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) assemblages were evaluated. A completely randomized experiment was set up involving 17 treatments: four with AMF, three with nodulating bacteria, six with AMF + nodulating bacteria, two with phosphorus, one with nitrogen and one control (reference) in five replicates. Plant growth and nutritional content, mycorrhizal colonization, glomerospores number, spore-based AMF assemblages and ecological indices were evaluated. Mycorrhizal inoculants associated with Bradyrhizobium BR3267 strain were more effective than the Microvirga BR3296 strain. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that Acaulospora longula treatments were more similar among themselves, and distinct from the other treatments. A difference was observed in the structure of AMF community assemblage between treatments with G. albida + Bradyrhizobium BR 3267 and A. longula, with greater Shannon diversity and Pielou equitability indices in the first treatment and greater dominance in the treatment with A. longula only. Long-term studies are required to determine if the successful establishment of A. longula among indigenous species persists over time and if its dominant behavior is not deleterious to the AMF native community.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Vigna , Fertilizantes , Fungos , Fósforo , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Esporos
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