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1.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 353, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594632

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are prolific vectors of human pathogens, therefore a clear and accurate understanding of the organization of their antimicrobial defenses is crucial for informing the development of transmission control strategies. The canonical infection response in insects, as described in the insect model Drosophila melanogaster, is pathogen type-dependent, with distinct stereotypical responses to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria/fungi mediated by the activation of the Imd and Toll pathways, respectively. To determine whether this pathogen-specific discrimination is shared by mosquitoes, we used RNAseq to capture the genome-wide transcriptional response of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) to systemic infection with Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, as well as challenge with heat-killed Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and fungal pathogens. From the resulting data, we found that Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae both mount a core response to all categories of infection, and this response is highly conserved between the two species with respect to both function and orthology. When we compared the transcriptomes of mosquitoes infected with different types of bacteria, we observed that the intensity of the transcriptional response was correlated with both the virulence and growth rate of the infecting pathogen. Exhaustive comparisons of the transcriptomes of Gram-negative-challenged versus Gram-positive-challenged mosquitoes yielded no difference in either species. In Ae. aegypti, however, we identified transcriptional signatures specific to bacterial infection and to fungal infection. The bacterial infection response was dominated by the expression of defensins and cecropins, while the fungal infection response included the disproportionate upregulation of an uncharacterized family of glycine-rich proteins. These signatures were also observed in Ae. aegypti challenged with heat-killed bacteria and fungi, indicating that this species can discriminate between molecular patterns that are specific to bacteria and to fungi.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções Bacterianas , Micoses , Animais , Humanos , Drosophila melanogaster , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Aedes/genética , Aedes/microbiologia , Bactérias , Fungos/genética
2.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13253, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575147

RESUMO

Partner specificity is a well-documented phenomenon in biotic interactions, yet the factors that determine specificity in plant-fungal associations remain largely unknown. By utilizing composite soil samples, we identified the predictors that drive partner specificity in both plants and fungi, with a particular focus on ectomycorrhizal associations. Fungal guilds exhibited significant differences in overall partner preference and avoidance, richness, and specificity to specific tree genera. The highest level of specificity was observed in root endophytic and ectomycorrhizal associations, while the lowest was found in arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The majority of ectomycorrhizal fungal species showed a preference for one of their partner trees, primarily at the plant genus level. Specialist ectomycorrhizal fungi were dominant in belowground communities in terms of species richness and relative abundance. Moreover, all tree genera (and occasionally species) demonstrated a preference for certain fungal groups. Partner specificity was not related to the rarity of fungi or plants or environmental conditions, except for soil pH. Depending on the partner tree genus, specific fungi became more prevalent and relatively more abundant with increasing stand age, tree dominance, and soil pH conditions optimal for the partner tree genus. The richness of partner tree species and increased evenness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in multi-host communities enhanced the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, it was primarily the partner-generalist fungi that contributed to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Micorrizas/genética , Árvores/microbiologia , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Fungos/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8380-8388, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578227

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxins produced by certain fungi. Exposure to mycotoxins may occur through the consumption of contaminated foods or from animals that are fed contaminated feed. To safeguard the nation's food supply, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes a comprehensive mycotoxin program which samples and analyzes foods for surveillance and compliance purposes, including enforcing action levels. Mycotoxin analysis is at the center of the mycotoxin program, as concentration data are needed for data analysis, scientific assessments, and risk management. This review focuses on the Agency's continuous efforts to develop and incorporate fit-for-purpose analytical tools for mycotoxin analysis with particular focus on the relationship between analytical methodologies and scientific assessments. The discussion further highlights challenges and advancements in analytical methods and discusses future possibilities to develop analytical tools and preventative risk management approaches to meet the evolving regulatory needs.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Animais , Micotoxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungos , Ração Animal/análise
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8633, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622240

RESUMO

The study aimed to find the best Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) strain for cotton growth in Xinjiang's salinity and alkali conditions. Cotton (Xinluzao 45) was treated with Funneliformis mosseae (GM), Rhizophagus irregularis (GI), and Claroideoglomus etunicatum (GE) as treatments, while untreated cotton served as the control (CK). Salinity stress was applied post-3-leaf stage in cotton. The study analyzed cotton's reactions to diverse saline-alkali stresses, focusing on nutrient processes and metabolism. By analyzing the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of plants inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae to evaluate its salt tolerance. Saline-alkali stress reduced chlorophyll and hindered photosynthesis, hampering cotton growth. However, AMF inoculation mitigated these effects, enhancing photosynthetic rates, CO2 concentration, transpiration, energy use efficiency, and overall cotton growth under similar stress levels. GM and GE treatments yielded similar positive effects. AMF inoculation enhanced cotton plant height and biomass. In GM treatment, cotton exhibited notably higher root length than other treatments, showing superior growth under various conditions. In summary, GM-treated cotton had the highest infection rate, followed by GE-treated cotton, with GI-treated cotton having the lowest rate (GM averaging 0.95). Cotton inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus irregularis, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum juvenile showed enhanced chlorophyll and photosynthetic levels, reducing salinity effects. Funneliformis mosseae had the most significant positive impact.


Assuntos
Fungos , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Plântula , Gossypium/metabolismo , Álcalis , Fotossíntese , Clorofila/metabolismo , Solução Salina
5.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 167, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592380

RESUMO

Microorganisms are crucial elements of terrestrial ecosystems, which play significant roles in improving soil physicochemical properties, providing plant growth nutrients, degrading toxic and harmful chemicals, and biogeochemical cycling. Variations in the types and quantities of root exudates among different plants greatly alter soil physicochemical properties and result in variations in the diversity, structure, and function of soil microorganisms. Not much is understood about the differences of soil fungi and archaea communities for different plant communities in coastal wetlands, and their response mechanisms to environmental changes. In this study, fungal and archaea communities in soils of Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, and Spartina alterniflora in the intertidal habitat of coastal wetlands were selected for research. Soil fungi and archaea were analyzed for diversity, community structure, and function using high throughput ITS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study revealed significant differences in fungi and archaea's diversity and community structure in the rhizosphere soil of three plant communities. At the same time, there is no significant difference in the functional groups. SOM, TP, AP, MC, EC and SOM, TN, TP, AP, MC, EC are the primary environmental determinants affecting changes in soil fungal and archaeal communities, respectively. Variations in the diversity, community structure, and ecological functions of fungi and archaea can be used as indicators characterizing the impact of external disturbances on the soil environment, providing a theoretical foundation for the effective utilization of soil microbial resources, thereby achieving the goal of environmental protection and health promotion.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Archaea/genética , Poaceae , Solo , Fungos/genética
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 129, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587647

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are being used as a new generation of biofertilizers to increase plant growth by improving plant nutrition and bio-protection. However, because of the obligatory nature of the plant host, large-scale multiplication of AM propagules is challenging, which limits its applicability. This study evaluates the ability of Burkholderia arboris to increase AM production in soybean mill waste and vermicompost amended by soil-sand mixture planted with sorghum as a host plant. The experiment was conducted in a nursery using a completely randomized design with four inoculation treatments (B. arboris, AM fungi, B. arboris + AM fungi, and control) under sterilized and unsterilized conditions. AM production was investigated microscopically (spore density and root colonization), and biochemically (AM-specific lipid biomarker, 16:1ω5cis derived from neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA), and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) fractions from both soil and roots). Integrating B. arboris with AM fungi in organically amended pots was found to increase AM fungal production by 62.16 spores g-1 soil and root colonization by 80.85%. Biochemical parameters also increased with B. arboris inoculation: 5.49 nmol PLFA g-1 soil and 692.68 nmol PLFA g-1 root and 36.72 nmol NLFA g-1 soil and 3147.57 nmol NLFA g-1 root. Co-inoculation also increased glomalin-related soil protein and root biomass. Principal component analysis (PCA) further supported the higher contribution of B. arboris to AM fungi production under unsterilized conditions. In conclusion, inoculation of AM plant host seeds with B. arboris prior to sowing into organic potting mix could be a promising and cost-effective approach for increasing AM inoculum density for commercial production. Furthermore, efforts need to be made for up-scaling the AM production with different plant hosts and soil-substrate types.


Assuntos
Complexo Burkholderia cepacia , Burkholderia , Sorghum , Areia , Solo , Soja , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos , Fungos
7.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 339, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580669

RESUMO

Bridging molecular information to ecosystem-level processes would provide the capacity to understand system vulnerability and, potentially, a means for assessing ecosystem health. Here, we present an integrated dataset containing environmental and metagenomic information from plant-associated microbial communities, plant transcriptomics, plant and soil metabolomics, and soil chemistry and activity characterization measurements derived from the model tree species Populus trichocarpa. Soil, rhizosphere, root endosphere, and leaf samples were collected from 27 different P. trichocarpa genotypes grown in two different environments leading to an integrated dataset of 318 metagenomes, 98 plant transcriptomes, and 314 metabolomic profiles that are supported by diverse soil measurements. This expansive dataset will provide insights into causal linkages that relate genomic features and molecular level events to system-level properties and their environmental influences.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Microbiota , Populus , Transcriptoma , Fungos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Populus/genética , Solo
8.
Extremophiles ; 28(2): 23, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575688

RESUMO

We assessed the fungal diversity present in snow sampled during summer in the north-west Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctica using a metabarcoding approach. A total of 586,693 fungal DNA reads were obtained and assigned to 203 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). The dominant phylum was Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Penicillium sp., Pseudogymnoascus pannorum, Coniochaeta sp., Aspergillus sp., Antarctomyces sp., Phenoliferia sp., Cryolevonia sp., Camptobasidiaceae sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Bannozyma yamatoana were assessed as abundant taxa. The snow fungal diversity indices were high but varied across the different locations sampled. Of the fungal ASVs detected, only 28 were present all sampling locations. The 116 fungal genera detected in the snow were dominated by saprotrophic taxa, followed by symbiotrophic and pathotrophic. Our data indicate that, despite the low temperature and oligotrophic conditions, snow can host a richer mycobiome than previously reported through traditional culturing studies. The snow mycobiome includes a complex diversity dominated by cosmopolitan, cold-adapted, psychrophilic and endemic taxa. While saprophytes dominate this community, a range of other functional groups are present.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Neve , Regiões Antárticas , Fungos/genética , Temperatura Baixa , DNA Fúngico/genética
9.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 75(1): 13-20, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578113

RESUMO

Background: The rising prevalence of gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease explains the increased consumption of gluten-free foods (GFF). However, these foods must be safe in terms of both gluten content and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in order to avoid food poisoning. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of gluten-free meals, naturally gluten free foods, and gluten free-labelled products. Material and Methods: We collected 62 GFF samples including 20 meals (M-GF), 22 naturally gluten free (N-GFF) and 20 labelled (L-GFF) products, which were investigated for microbiological contamination according to Moroccan regulations guidelines, issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The analysis consisted of the detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in each sample, and the quantification of the microbial load of the following six micro-organisms: total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Sulphite-Reducing Anaerobic, and yeasts and molds. Results: A total of 372 analyses were carried out, showing a microbiological contamination rate of 5.1%. This contamination concerned N-GFF in 8.3% (predominantly with yeasts and molds), and meals prepared at home in 11.7 (predominantly with Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms). Only one case (0.8%) of contamination was observed in products labelled gluten-free and no contamination was noticed in meals prepared in food services. Listeria monocytgenes and Salmonella were not detected in any samples of food analyzed. These results indicate a good compliance of L-GFP and M-GF prepared in food services, while unsatisfactory quality was observed in N-GFF and M-GF prepared at home. Conclusion: Therefore, rigorous hygienic practices and adequate corrective measures should be considered by celiac patients, especially regarding the N-GFF and M-GF prepared at home.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Glutens/análise , Refeições , Fungos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 128, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580768

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria serve as a rich source of diverse antimicrobial compounds. Recently, there has been a growing interest in utilizing endophytic Bacillus spp. as biological agents against phytogenic fungi, owing to their potential to produce a wide range of antimicrobial substances. The objective of this research was to investigate the protective abilities of 15 endophytic Bacillus spp. isolated from previous study from wheat plant, against the phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina. A dual culture plate assay was conducted as a preliminary analysis, revealing that 7 out of 15 endophytic Bacillus spp. demonstrated inhibition against one or both of the phytopathogenic fungi used in this study. All seven endophytes were further assessed for the presence of diffusible antifungal metabolites. The cultures were grown in potato dextrose broth for 120 h, and the cell-free supernatant was extracted and analyzed using the cup plate method. The methanolic extract yielded similar results to the dual culture plate analysis, except for WL2-15. Additionally, deformities in the mycelial structure were examined under the light microscope upon exposure to methanolic extract. Furthermore, the analysis and identification of metabolites were carried out via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of methanolic extract from selected seven endophytic Bacillus spp. The chromatogram revealed the presence of some major peaks such as tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, hydroperoxide, 1-methylbutyl, 9-octadecenamide, (z)-, hexane-1,3,4-triol, 3,5-dimethyl- tetradecanoic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these biocontrol agents in endophytic Bacillus spp. Interestingly, volatile organic compound production was also seen in all the isolates against the phytopathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bacillus , Antifúngicos/química , Bacillus/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Endófitos
11.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13257, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615691

RESUMO

Fungi are present in a wide variety of natural environments, and in the last years, various studies have shown that they are quite abundant in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, a whole new highly diverse phylum, the Cryptomycota, was discovered. Nevertheless, research on aquatic fungi and a detailed evaluation of their functions and distribution are still sparse. One of the main reasons is a limitation in reliable identification and quantification methods. To bridge part of the research gap, this study aims to implement a quantitative PCR method to detect and quantify the newly discovered phylum. We developed and validated a Cryptomycota-specific qPCR primer pair targeting the 5.8S region that detects the majority of Cryptomycota, but Microsporidia. The resulting amplicon is 102 bp long. We used different environmental samples to evaluate the primer pair, various fungal sequences as negative control and positive control sequences. Obtained amplicons were sequenced using Illumina, and the obtained ASVs were all classified as Cryptomycota. The qPCR method works reliably and specifically for the quantification of Cryptomycota in environmental samples.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microsporídios , Fungos/genética , Meio Ambiente
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7757, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565875

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms with diverse bioactive compounds such as Streptomyces are appreciated as valuable resources for the discovery of eco-friendly fungicides. This study isolated a novel Streptomyces from soil samples collected in the organic green tea fields in South Korea. The isolation process involved antifungal activity screening around 2400 culture extracts, revealing a strain designated as S. collinus Inha504 with remarkable antifungal activity against diverse phytopathogenic fungi. S. collinus Inha504 not only inhibited seven phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger in bioassays and but also showed a control effect against F. oxysporum infected red pepper, strawberry, and tomato in the in vivo pot test. Genome mining of S. collinus Inha504 revealed the presence of the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) in the chromosome encoding a polyene macrolide which is highly homologous to the lucensomycin (LCM), a compound known for effective in crop disease control. Through genetic confirmation and bioassays, the antifungal activity of S. collinus Inha504 was attributed to the presence of LCM BGC in the chromosome. These results could serve as an effective strategy to select novel Streptomyces strains with valuable biological activity through bioassay-based screening and identify biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the metabolites using genome mining approach.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Streptomyces , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Lucensomycin/metabolismo , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Família Multigênica , Solo
13.
Int. microbiol ; 27(2): 377-391, Abr. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-151

RESUMO

The influence of elevation on natural terrestrial ecosystems determines the arrangements of microbial communities in soils to be associated with biotic and abiotic factors. To evaluate changes of fungi and bacteria at the community level along an elevational gradient (between 1000 and 3800 m.a.s.l.), physicochemical measurements of soils, taxonomic identifications of plants, and metabarcoding sequences of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ITS1 region for fungi were obtained. The bacterial taxonomic composition showed that Acidobacteriota increased in abundance with elevation, while Actinobacteriota and Verrucomicrobiota decreased. Furthermore, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria maintained maximum levels of abundance at intermediate elevations (1200 and 2400 m.a.s.l.). In fungi, Ascomycota was more abundant at higher elevations, Basidiomycota tended to dominate at lower elevations, and Mortierellomycota had a greater presence at intermediate sites. These results correlated with the edaphic parameters of decreasing pH and increasing organic carbon and available nitrogen with elevation. In addition, the Shannon index found a greater diversity in bacteria than fungi, but both showed a unimodal pattern with maximum values in the Andean Forest at 2400 m.a.s.l. Through the microbial characterization of the ecosystems, the elevational gradient, soil properties, and vegetation were found to exert significant effects on microbial communities and alpha diversity indices. We conclude that the most abundant soil microorganisms at the sampling points differed in abundance and diversity according to the variations in factors influencing ecological communities. (AU)


Assuntos
Microbiota , Fatores Bióticos , Fatores Abióticos , Fungos , Bactérias
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171879, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521271

RESUMO

Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous throughout built environments and are suspended in the air, potentially affecting human health. However, the impacts of climate zones on the diversity, structure, and stochastic assembly of indoor airborne microbes remain unknown. This study comprehensively analyzed indoor airborne microbes across five climate zones in China during the summer and winter using high-throughput sequencing. The diversity and structure of indoor airborne communities vary across climatic zones. A random forest model was used to identify biomarkers in different climate zones. The results showed no relationship between the biomarkers and their rankings in mean relative abundance. The Sloan neutral model fitting results indicated that the impact of climate zones on the stochastic process in the assembly of indoor airborne microbes was considerably more important than that of seasons. Additionally, the influence of seasons on the diversity, structure, and stochastic assembly process of indoor airborne microbes differed among different climate zones. The diversity, structure, and stochastic assembly processes of bacteria present distinctive outcomes in climate zones and seasons compared with those of fungi. Overall, these findings indicate that customized strategies are necessary to manage indoor airborne microbial communities in each climate zone, season, and for specific microbial species.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Microbiota , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Fungos , Bactérias , Microbiologia do Ar , Biomarcadores , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise
15.
Biochemistry ; 63(8): 953-957, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545902

RESUMO

A major challenge currently facing medicinal chemists is designing agents that can selectively destroy drug resistant fungi and bacteria that have begun to emerge. One factor that has been overlooked by virtually all drug discovery/development approaches is the supramolecular factor, in which aggregated forms of a drug candidate exhibit low selectivity in destroying targeted cells while the corresponding monomers exhibit high selectivity. This Perspective discusses how we were led to the supramolecular factor through fundamental studies with simple model systems, how we reasoned that the selectivity of monomers of the antifungal agent amphotericin B should be much greater than the selectivity of the corresponding aggregates, and how we confirmed this hypothesis using derivatives of amphotericin B. In a broader context, these findings provide a strong rationale for considering the supramolecular factor in the design of new drug candidates and the testing of virtually all of them.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B , Antifúngicos , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300381, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489283

RESUMO

Water-borne plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes are a major threat in greenhouse production systems. Early detection and quantification of these pathogens would enable us to ascertain both economic and biological thresholds required for a timely treatment, thus improving effective disease management. Here, we used Oxford nanopore MinION amplicon sequencing to analyze microbial communities in irrigation water collected from greenhouses used for growing tomato, cucumber and Aeschynanthus sp. Fungal and oomycete communities were characterized using primers that amplify the full internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. To assess the sensitivity of the MinION sequencing, we spiked serially diluted mock DNA into the DNA isolated from greenhouse water samples prior to library preparation. Relative abundances of fungal and oomycete reads were distinct in the greenhouse irrigation water samples and in water samples from setups with tomato that was inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum. Sequence reads derived from fungal and oomycete mock communities were proportionate in the respective serial dilution samples, thus confirming the suitability of MinION amplicon sequencing for environmental monitoring. By using spike-ins as standards to test the reliability of quantification using the MinION, we found that the detection of spike-ins was highly affected by the background quantities of fungal or oomycete DNA in the sample. We observed that spike-ins having shorter length (538bp) produced reads across most of our dilutions compared to the longer spikes (>790bp). Moreover, the sequence reads were uneven with respect to dilution series and were least retrievable in the background samples having the highest DNA concentration, suggesting a narrow dynamic range of performance. We suggest continuous benchmarking of the MinION sequencing to improve quantitative metabarcoding efforts for rapid plant disease diagnostic and monitoring in the future.


Assuntos
Nanoporos , Oomicetos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Oomicetos/genética , Fungos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
17.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2328868, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485702

RESUMO

The role of gut fungal species in tumor-related processes remains largely unexplored, with most studies still focusing on fungal infections. This review examines the accumulating evidence suggesting the involvement of commensal and pathogenic fungi in cancer biological process, including oncogenesis, progression, and treatment response. Mechanisms explored include fungal influence on host immunity, secretion of bioactive toxins/metabolites, interaction with bacterial commensals, and migration to other tissues in certain types of cancers. Attempts to utilize fungal molecular signatures for cancer diagnosis and fungal-derived products for treatment are discussed. A few studies highlight fungi's impact on the responsiveness and sensitivity to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and fecal microbiota transplant. Given the limited understanding and techniques in fungal research, the studies on gut fungi are still facing great challenges, despite having great potentials.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Micobioma , Humanos , Fungos/genética , Carcinogênese , Transformação Celular Neoplásica
18.
J Exp Med ; 221(5)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497818

RESUMO

Gut-resident fungi have a broad influence over health and disease. In this issue of JEM, Sekeresova Kralova et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20231686) identify a commensal yeast that displaced fungal pathogen Candida albicans and protected against subsequent invasive infections that originate from the gut.


Assuntos
Fungos
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298599, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498492

RESUMO

Evolutionary radiations are one of the most striking processes biologists have studied in islands. A radiation is often sparked by the appearance of ecological opportunity, which can originate in processes like trophic niche segregation or the evolution of key innovations. Another recently proposed mechanism is facilitation mediated by the bacterial communities associated with the radiating species. Here we explore the role of the bacterial communities in a radiation of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Macaronesia. Bacterial diversity was quantified by high throughput sequencing of the V1-V2 hyper-variable region of 172 specimens. We characterized the taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial communities associated with the different species, tested for compositional differences between these communities, carried out a functional prediction, explored the relative importance of different factors in bacterial community structure, searched for phylosymbiosis and tried to identify the origin of this pattern. The species of the radiation differed in the composition of their bacterial communities, which were mostly comprised of Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteriia, but not in the functionality of those communities. A phylosimbiotic pattern was detected, but it was probably caused by environmental filtering. These findings are congruent with the combined effect of secondary chemistry and mycobiont identity being the main driver of bacterial community structure. Altogether, our results suggest that the associated bacterial communities are not the radiation's main driver. There is one possible exception, however, a species that has an abnormally diverse core microbiome and whose bacterial communities could be subject to a specific environmental filter at the functional level.


Assuntos
Líquens , Microbiota , Filogenia , Bactérias/genética , Fungos/genética , Microbiota/genética
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 273: 116157, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430578

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stress and promote plant growth in contaminated soil. However, the interaction mechanism between rhizosphere microbial communities under chromium (Cr) stress remains unclear. This study conducted a greenhouse pot experiment and metagenomics analysis to reveal the comprehensive effects of the interaction between AMF (Rhizophagus intraradices) and nitrogen-N metabolizing plant growth promoters on the growth of Iris tectorum. The results showed that AMF significantly increased the biomass and nutrient levels of I. tectorum in contaminated soil and decreased the content of Cr in the soil. Metagenomics analysis revealed that the structure and composition of the rhizosphere microbial community involved in nitrogen metabolism changed significantly after inoculation with AMF under Cr stress. Functional genes related to soil nitrogen mineralization (gltB, gltD, gdhA, ureC, and glnA), nitrate reduction to ammonium (nirB, nrfA, and nasA), and soil nitrogen assimilation (NRT, nrtA, and nrtC) were up-regulated in the N-metabolizing microbial community. In contrast, the abundance of functional genes involved in denitrification (nirK and narI) was down-regulated. In addition, the inoculation of AMF regulates the synergies between the N-metabolic rhizosphere microbial communities and enhances the complexity and stability of the rhizosphere ecological network. This study provides a basis for improving plant tolerance to heavy metal stress by regulating the functional abundance of N-metabolizing plant growth-promoting bacteria through AMF inoculation. It helps to understand the potential mechanism of wetland plant remediation of Cr-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Iris (Planta) , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Iris (Planta)/genética , Plantas , Bactérias , Solo/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Fungos
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