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1.
Wounds ; 34(8): E57-E62, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108243

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Perianal abscess is defined as a local collection of pus in the perianal tissues. It is among the most common anorectal problems encountered by surgeons. Further extension of this infection into the unilateral or bilateral ischiorectal fossa leads to a horseshoe abscess. Morbid obesity is a risk factor for horseshoe perianal abscess with the potential to disrupt the normal healing process. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old male with morbid obesity presented to the surgery outpatient clinic in a hospital in Subang, West Java, Indonesia, with continuous severe pain and swelling around the anus of approximately 7 days' duration. Local examination of the anogenital area revealed a horseshoe perianal abscess extending to the ischiorectal fossa, approximately 1 cm from the anal verge and measuring 7.5 cm × 4.5 cm × 10 cm. Physical examination findings included tenderness to palpation; the presence of blood, pus, and necrotic tissue; and fluctuance. Incision and drainage were performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. In lieu of colostomy, the patient chose wound healing by secondary intention. Postoperative open wound care consisted of wet-to-moist gauze dressings during the first 2 postoperative days, followed by hydrocolloid dressing after the pus and blood were adequately drained, and finally, alginate dressing after granulation tissue formed. Aluminum silicate (microporous ceramic) was used as the external (secondary) wound dressing. Time to healing was 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Horseshoe abscesses are challenging to manage. Thorough and careful diagnosis, prompt fluid resuscitation to overcome fluid and electrolyte imbalance and to ensure proper antibiotic administration, nutrition intake, and a planned surgical approach as well as individualized postoperative care are necessary to achieve healing.


Assuntos
Doenças do Ânus , Obesidade Mórbida , Abscesso/cirurgia , Adulto , Alginatos , Silicatos de Alumínio , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Ânus/complicações , Doenças do Ânus/cirurgia , Eletrólitos , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Cicatrização
2.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(7): e221835, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977220

RESUMO

Importance: The increase in rural hospital closures has strained access to inpatient care in rural communities. It is important to understand the association between hospital system affiliation and access to care in these communities to inform policy on this issue. Objective: To examine the association between affiliation and rural hospital closure. Design Setting and Participants: This cohort study used survival models with a time-dependent variable for affiliation vs independent status to assess risk of closure among a national cohort of US rural hospitals from January 2007 through December 2019. Data analysis was conducted from March to October 2021. Hospital affiliations were identified from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and Irving Levin Associates and closures from the University of North Carolina Sheps Center (Chapel Hill). Additional covariates came from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases and other national sources. Exposures: Affiliation with another hospital or multihospital health system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Closure was the main outcome. The models included hospital, market, and utilization characteristics and were stratified by financial distress in 2007. Results: Among 2237 rural hospitals operating in 2007, 140 (6.3%) had closed by 2019. The proportion of rural hospitals that were independent decreased from 68.9% in 2007 to 47.0% in 2019; the proportion that were affiliated increased from 31.1% to 46.7%. Among financially distressed hospitals in 2007, affiliation was associated with lower risk of closure compared with being independent (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.92). Conversely, among hospitals that were financially stable in 2007, affiliation was associated with higher risk of closure compared with being independent (aHR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.20-4.62). For-profit ownership was also strongly associated with closure for hospitals that were financially stable in 2007 (aHR, 4.08; 95% CI, 1.86-8.97). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study suggest that affiliations may be associated with lower risk of closure for some rural hospitals in financial distress. However, among initially financially stable hospitals, an increased risk of closure for hospitals associated with affiliation and proprietary ownership raises concerns about the association of affiliation with closures in some circumstances. Policy interventions to stabilize inpatient care in rural areas should account for these findings.


Assuntos
Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde , Hospitais Rurais , American Hospital Association , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Propriedade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(3): e220204, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977287

RESUMO

Importance: Rural obstetric unit closures are associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes and are most common among low-birth volume facilities located in remote areas. Declining access to obstetric care is a concern in rural communities in the US. Objective: To assess rural hospital administrators' beliefs about safety, financial viability, and community need for offering obstetric care. Design Setting and Participants: Using the American Hospital Association Annual Survey to identify rural hospitals with obstetric units, we developed and conducted a national survey of a sample of rural hospitals that provided obstetric services in 2021. Obstetric unit managers or administrators at 292 rural hospitals providing obstetric services were surveyed from March to August 2021. Exposures: Local factors, clinical safety, workforce, and financial considerations for obstetric services at participating hospitals. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital-level decisions on maintaining obstetric care. Results: Of the 93 total responding hospitals (32% response rate), 33 (35.5%) were critical access hospitals, 60 (64.5%) were located in micropolitan rural counties; they had a median (IQR) average daily census of 22 (10-53) patients, and 48 (52.2%) had experienced a recent decline in births, with a median (IQR) of 274 (120-446) births in 2019. Respondents reported that the minimum number of annual births needed to safely provide obstetric care was 200 (IQR, 100-350). From a financial perspective, the minimum number of annual births needed was also 200 (IQR, 120-360). When making decisions about maintaining obstetric care, 51 (64.6%) responding hospitals listed their highest priority as meeting local community needs, 13 (16.5%) listed financial considerations, and 10 (12.7%) listed staffing. Overall, 23 (25%) responding hospitals were not sure they would continue providing obstetrics, or they expected to stop offering this service. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey of US rural hospitals that offer obstetric services, many administrators indicated prioritizing local community needs for obstetric care over concerns about financial viability and staffing.


Assuntos
Administradores Hospitalares , Obstetrícia , Feminino , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Gravidez , População Rural , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011579

RESUMO

With the diversification of medical care and work reform, doctor clerks play a major role today and are recruited to mitigate the burden of doctors worldwide. Their recruitment can improve the working conditions of physicians, facilitate task shifting in rural community hospitals, improve patient care, and help address the lack of healthcare resources. This study used a qualitative method to investigate difficulties in the implementation of doctor clerks and ascertain the features of effective implementation by collecting ethnographic data through field notes and semi-structured interviews with workers. We observed and interviewed 4 doctor clerks, 10 physicians, 14 nurses, 2 pharmacists, 1 nutritionist, and 2 therapists for our study. We clarified the doctor clerk process in rural hospitals through four themes: initial challenge, balance between education and expansion, vision for work progression, and drive for quality of care. We further clarified effectiveness, difficulties, and enhancing factors in implementation. Doctor clerk recruitment and bridging of discrepancies among medical professionals can mitigate professional workloads and improve staff motivation, leading to better interprofessional collaboration and patient care.


Assuntos
Hospitais Rurais , Médicos , Teoria Fundamentada , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho
6.
Appl Clin Inform ; 13(3): 665-676, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between electronic health record (EHR) use/functionality and hospital operating costs (divided into five subcategories), and to compare the results across rural and urban facilities. METHODS: We match hospital-level data on EHR use/functionality with operating costs and facility characteristics to perform linear regressions with hospital- and time-fixed effects on a panel of 1,596 U.S. hospitals observed annually from 2016 to 2019. Our dependent variables are the logs of the various hospital operating cost categories, and alternative metrics for EHR use/functionality serve as the primary independent variables of interest. Data on EHR use/functionality are retrieved from the American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey of Hospitals Information Technology (IT) Supplement, and hospital operating cost and characteristic data are retrieved from the American Hospital Directory. We include only hospitals classified as "general medical and surgical," removing specialty hospitals. RESULTS: Our results suggest, first, that increasing levels of EHR functionality are associated with hospital operating cost reductions. Second, that these significant cost reductions are exclusively seen in urban hospitals, with the associated coefficient suggesting cost savings of 0.14% for each additional EHR function. Third, that urban EHR-related cost reductions are driven by general/ancillary and outpatient costs. Finally, that a wide variety of EHR functions are associated with cost reductions for urban facilities, while no EHR function is associated with significant cost reductions in rural locations. CONCLUSION: Increasing EHR functionality is associated with significant hospital operating cost reductions in urban locations. These results do not hold across geographies, and policies to promote greater EHR functionality in rural hospitals will likely not lead to short-term cost reductions.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hospitais Rurais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) volume and the number of orthopaedic surgeons in the United States have increased in recent years, but local growth variation has not been studied. This study assesses recent changes in state-level distribution of orthopaedic surgeons in the United States and corresponding local trends in TJA volume. METHODS: Data from the National Inpatient Sample database (2000 to 2014) were reviewed. Urban versus rural setting and teaching versus nonteaching hospitals were identified among TJA procedures for comparison. Data from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2002 to 2016) detailing orthopaedic surgeon practice location were evaluated, and linear regression analysis was used to correlate state population data with orthopaedic surgeon density. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2014, there was a 0.1% to 0.3% (P < 0.01) annual decrease in the proportion of TJA procedures conducted in rural hospitals. No notable change was observed in the proportion of TJA procedures conducted at urban teaching versus nonteaching hospitals. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that decreased state population was associated with higher orthopaedic surgeon density (adjusted R2 = 0.114, P < 0.01). States with a higher percentage of population living in rural areas had a lower density of orthopaedic surgeons in the South region and a higher density of orthopaedic surgeons in the remainder of the county. CONCLUSIONS: Less populated, rural states have a higher density of orthopaedic surgeons than states with increased population and less rural areas. Although TJA volume has increased since 2000, the proportion of TJA procedures conducted at rural hospitals has decreased. No change was found in the proportion of TJA procedures conducted at urban teaching versus nonteaching hospitals. This may indicate that more patients living in rural areas are seeking TJA care in urban centers. Future studies are needed to confirm this and ensure that patients living in rural areas have appropriate access to TJA care.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Artroplastia , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , População Rural , Estados Unidos
8.
Health Serv Res ; 57(5): 1029-1034, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether rural Medicare FFS beneficiaries are more likely to be admitted to an urban hospital in 2018 than in 2010. DATA SOURCES: We combined data from the 2010 to 2018 Hospital Service Area File (HSAF) and the 2010-2017 American Hospital Association (AHA) survey. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a fixed-effects negative-binomial regression to determine whether urban hospital admissions from rural ZIP codes were increasing over time. We also conducted an exploratory geographically weighted regression. DATA COLLECTION: We transformed the HSAF data into a ZIP code-level file with all rural ZIP codes. We defined rural as having a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) code ≥4. A hospital's system affiliation status was incorporated from the AHA survey. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Controlling for distance to the nearest hospitals, an increase of 1 year was associated with a 2.0% increase (p < 0.001) in the number of admissions to urban hospitals from each rural ZIP code. New system affiliation of the nearest rural hospital was associated with an increase of 1.7% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Even when controlling for distance to the nearest rural hospital (which reflects hospital closures), rural patients were increasingly likely to be admitted to an urban hospital.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicare , Idoso , Hospitais Rurais , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , População Rural , Estados Unidos
10.
J Community Health ; 47(5): 828-834, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771384

RESUMO

The number of U.S. births has been declining. There is also concern about rural obstetric units closing. To better understand the relationship between births and obstetric beds during 2000-2019, we examined changes over time in births, birth hospital distributions (i.e., hospital birth volume, ownership, and urban-rural designation), and the ratio of births to obstetric beds. We analyzed American Hospital Association Annual Survey data from 2000 to 2019. We included U.S. hospitals with at least 25 reported births during the year and at least 1 reported obstetric bed. We categorized birth volume to identify and describe hospitals with maternity services using seven categories. We calculated ratios of number of births to number of obstetric beds overall, by annual birth volume category, by three categories of hospital ownership, and by six urban-rural categories. The ratio of births to obstetric beds, which may represent need for maternity services, has stayed relatively consistent at 65 over the past two decades, despite the decline in births and changes in birth hospital distributions. The ratios were smallest in hospitals with < 250 annual births and largest in hospitals with ≥ 7000 annual births. The largest ratios of births to obstetric beds were in large metro areas and the smallest ratios were in noncore areas. At a societal level, the reduction in obstetric beds corresponds with the drop in the U.S. birth rate. However, consistency in the overall ratio can mask important differences that we could not discern, such as the impact of closures on distances to closest maternity care.


Assuntos
Hospitais Rurais , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , População Rural
11.
Acad Med ; 97(9): 1272-1276, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731585

RESUMO

Health disparities between rural and urban areas are widening at a time when urban health care systems are increasingly buying rural hospitals to gain market share. New payment models, shifting from fee-for-service to value-based care, are gaining traction, creating incentives for health care systems to manage the social risk factors that increase health care utilization and costs. Health system consolidation and value-based care are increasingly linking the success of urban health care systems to rural communities. Yet, despite the natural ecosystem rural communities provide for interprofessional learning and collaborative practice, many academic health centers (AHCs) have not invested in building team-based models of practice in rural areas. With responsibility for training the future health workforce and major investments in research infrastructure and educational capacity, AHCs are uniquely positioned to develop interprofessional practice and training opportunities in rural areas and evaluate the cost savings and quality outcomes associated with team-based care models. To accomplish this work, AHCs will need to develop academic-community partnerships that include networks of providers and practices, non-AHC educational organizations, and community-based agencies. In this commentary, the authors highlight 3 examples of academic-community partnerships that developed and implemented interprofessional practice and education models and were designed around specific patient populations with measurable outcomes: North Carolina's Asheville Project, the Boise Interprofessional Academic Patient Aligned Care model, and the Interprofessional Care Access Network framework. These innovative models demonstrate the importance of academic-community partnerships to build teams that address social needs, improve health outcomes, and lower costs. They also highlight the need for more rigorous reporting on the components of the academic-community partnerships involved, the different types of health workers deployed, and the design of the interprofessional training and practice models implemented.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Rural , População Rural , Atenção à Saúde , Ecossistema , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(19): 1663-1673, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A systematic review was performed to determine if remote stewardship (telestewardship) provides clinical and fiscal benefit and is a feasible alternative to local stewardship programs. SUMMARY: Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important national and global threat. US regulators have made antimicrobial stewardship programs a condition of participation in federally funded healthcare programs, and stewardship programs are surveyed during accreditation visits. Small and rural hospitals are at risk for stewardship noncompliance because lack of resources limits comprehensive stewardship program implementation. Remote stewardship programs are established to remedy this area of partial compliance. To characterize the impact of remote stewardship on selected clinical and fiscal outcomes, PubMed was searched for studies involving telestewardship that reported data on antimicrobial utilization, patient length of stay, mortality, bacterial susceptibility, hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI), and/or antimicrobial costs. A systematic approach was used to screen study titles, abstracts, and content and data extracted. Study quality was analyzed using Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tools. Fourteen studies were included in the final review. Collectively, the antimicrobial utilization data was positive, with utilization of targeted antimicrobials decreasing after telestewardship implementation. Mixed (both positive and neutral) results were found for patient length of stay, mortality, and HA-CDI rates. Fiscal outcomes were consistently positive. CONCLUSION: Based on the reviewed evidence, remote antimicrobial stewardship programs may aid in the more judicious use of antimicrobials by decreasing utilization rates. More studies are needed to clarify patient-oriented outcomes. Telestewardship has positive effects in terms of cost savings, although savings may be offset by the structure of the program.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções por Clostridium , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos
13.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(2): 7090, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scotland's healthcare system includes six rural general hospitals (RGHs) which provide a full surgical service to the most remote and rural populations. Constraints of geography and finance, and population need, mean that local delivery of surgical services will be required for the foreseeable future. These RGHs face difficulties in recruiting suitably trained general surgeons. This study aimed to describe Scottish surgical trainees' attitudes towards training and working in remote and rural surgery, perceived barriers to recruitment and potential solutions. METHODS: A survey was distributed in paper and electronic forms to all Scottish trainees in core surgery (early-stage trainees) and general surgery (later-stage trainees). The survey collected data describing demographics, life and career experiences, and attitudes towards training in remote and rural environments. Univariate and multivariate analyses of influences on interest in rural training and recruitment were carried out, and thematic analysis of free-text responses. RESULTS: There were 152 respondents (response rate 59%). Most (81%) felt that surgical training should be offered in rural environments and 43% were personally interested in some rural training. On multivariate analysis, interest in rural training was associated with being a core trainee (odds ratio (OR) 7.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.79-22.76), and rural work experience following graduation (OR 5.12, 95%CI 1.85-15.39). Respondents stating that they were likely to work in a rural environment (9.2%), were more likely on multivariate analysis to be core trainees (OR 5.70, 95%CI 1.37-28.99) and to have previously lived in a rural location (OR 5.49, 95%CI 1.33-25.93). When trainees were asked for their views on how RGH jobs could be made more attractive, themes identified were as follows: increasing and improving training opportunities in RGHs, increasing the breadth of surgical training, optimising links with referral centres, and improving pay and conditions. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in a UK setting to describe the views of surgical trainees towards training and working in rural environments. There is substantial support and interest for rural surgical training among Scottish surgical trainees. A minority are interested in a rural surgical career, with interest more likely in core trainees and in those who have lived rurally. Increasing surgical training opportunities in rural environments and maximising medical school intake from rural areas may be important in addressing recruitment concerns.


Assuntos
População Rural , Meio Social , Geografia , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Escócia
14.
Transfusion ; 62 Suppl 1: S22-S29, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Civilian and military guidelines recommend early balanced transfusion to patients with life-threatening bleeding to improve survival. To provide the best care to patients with hemorrhagic shock in regions with reduced access to evacuation, blood preparedness must be ensured also on a municipal health care level. The primary aim of the Norwegian Blood Preparedness project is to enable rural hospitals, prehospital ambulance services, and municipal health care services to start early balanced blood transfusions for patients with life-threatening bleeding regardless of etiology. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The project is designed based on three principles: (1) Early balanced transfusion should be provided for patients with life-threatening bleeding, (2) Management of an emergency requires a planned and rehearsed day-to-day system for blood preparedness, and (3) A decentralized system is needed to ensure local self-sufficiency in an emergency. We developed a system for education and training in blood-based resuscitation with a focus on the municipal health care service. RESULTS: In this publication, we describe the implementation of emergency whole blood collections from a preplanned civilian walking blood bank in the municipal health care service. This includes donor selection, whole blood collection, emergency transfusion and quality assessment of practice. CONCLUSION: We conclude that implementation of a Whole Blood based emergency transfusion program is feasible on all health care levels and that a preplanned civilian walking blood bank should be considered in locations were prolonged transport-times may reduce access to blood transfusion for patients with life threatening bleeding.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ambulâncias , Atenção à Saúde , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Noruega
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 717, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of community-based health insurance in (CBHI) in Rwanda has reduced out of pocket (OOP) spending for the > 79% of citizens who enroll in it but the effect for surgical patients is not well described. For all but the poorest citizens who are completely subsidized, the OOP (out of pocket) payment at time of service is 10%. However, 55.5% of the population is below the international poverty line meaning that even this copay can have a significant impact on a family's financial health. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of OOP payments for cesarean sections in the context of CBHI and determine if having it reduces catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). METHODS: This study is nested in a larger randomized controlled trial of women undergoing cesarean section at a district hospital in Rwanda. Eligible patients were surveyed at discharge to quantify household income and routine monthly expenditures and direct and indirect spending related to the hospitalization. This was used in conjunction with hospital billing records to calculate the rate of catastrophic expenditure by insurance group. RESULTS: About 94% of the 340 women met the World Bank definition of extreme poverty. Of the 330 (97.1%) with any type of health insurance, the majority (n = 310, 91.2%) have CBHI. The average OOP expenditure for a cesarean section and hospitalization was $9.36. The average cost adding transportation to the hospital was $19.29. 164 (48.2%) had to borrow money and 43 (12.7%) had to sell possessions. The hospital bill alone was a CHE for 5.3% of patients. However, when including transportation costs, 15.4% incurred a CHE and including lost wages, 22.6%. CONCLUSION: To ensure universal health coverage (UHC), essential surgical care must be affordable. Despite enrollment in universal health insurance, cesarean section still impoverishes households in rural Rwanda, the majority of whom already lie below the poverty line. Although CBHI protects against CHE from the cost of healthcare, when adding in the cost of transportation, lost wages and caregivers, cesarean section is still often a catastrophic financial event. Further innovation in financial risk protection is needed to provide equitable UHC.


Assuntos
Seguro de Saúde Baseado na Comunidade , Cesárea , Feminino , Financiamento Pessoal , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruanda
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681965

RESUMO

China recently launched healthcare reforms to reduce disparities in healthcare resources between urban and rural areas. However, few studies have determined how admission to rural hospitals has affected patient care and outcomes. This study aims to determine whether admission to a rural hospital is associated with changes in treatment and outcomes. Using a province-wide, administrative database of 62,380 patients (51,355 urban patients vs. 11,025 rural patients) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Shanxi from 2015 to 2017, we identified the differential distance from the patient's residential address to the nearest hospital and the nearest percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-capable hospital as instrumental variables. We estimated the risk-adjusted differences in outcomes and treatments for patients admitted to rural hospitals versus urban hospitals using a two-stage least squares instrumental variable analysis method. Based on instrumental variable analysis, admission to a rural hospital was associated with a 5.3% (95% CI, 0.012 to 0.093; p = 0.011) increase in mortality. There was a 59.8% (95% CI, -0.733 to -0.463; p-values < 0.0001) decrease in receiving PCI, an 18.8% (95% CI, -0.231 to -0.146; p-values < 0.0001) decrease in receiving fibrinolysis, and a 71.8% (95% CI, 0.586 to 0.849; p-values < 0.0001) increase in receiving medication-only treatment for patients admitted to rural hospitals. Rural hospitals in China thus offer relatively poor care for myocardial infarction. Hospital facilities and reperfusion therapies must be improved.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , China/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742507

RESUMO

In the early 2000s, the Province of New Brunswick, Canada, undertook health system restructuring, including closing some rural hospitals. We examined whether changes in geographic access to hospitals and primary care were associated with changes in patterns of hospital use. We described three measures of hospital use for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among adults 75 years and younger annually during the period 2004-2013 overall, and at the community scale. We described spatial and temporal patterns in: age-standardized hospitalization rates, age-standardized incidence of hospital admissions, and rates of admissions via ambulance. Overall, rates and incidence of hospitalizations for ACSCs declined while admissions via ambulance remained largely unchanged. We observed considerable regional variation in rates between communities in 2004. This regional variation decreased over time, with rural areas demonstrating the sharpest declines. Changes in hospital service provision within individual communities had little impact on rates of ACSC admissions. Results were consistent across urban and rural communities and were robust to analyses that included older patients and those admitted for reasons other than ACSCs. Our results suggest that the restructuring and hospital closures did not result in substantial changes to regional patterns or rates of service use.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Hospitais Rurais , Adulto , Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Novo Brunswick/epidemiologia , População Rural
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 196, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685099

RESUMO

We report a case of a left atrial mass in a 62-year-old patient with no relevant past history. He presented with dyspnea of 1 year duration. Clinical examination revealed a blood pressure of 130/82mmHg, a heart rate of 80 beats per minute. The heart sounds S1 and S2 were normal with no added sounds. Electrocardiogram showed a normal sinus rhythm at 78 beats per minute with premature ventricular contractions. Two dimensional echocardiography revealed a large mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum occupying the most of the left atrium and prolapsing into the left ventricle during diastole. There was dilatation of the right atrium and right ventricle with elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (85mmHg). The mean transmitral pressure gradient was 5.5mmHg. The mass was compatible with a myxoma. The patient was sent for surgical resection of the mass but this could not be performed due to financial constraints.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cardíacas , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Mixoma , Camarões , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/complicações , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mixoma/complicações , Mixoma/diagnóstico , Mixoma/cirurgia
19.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(7-8): 1681-1691, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-third of Australia's population reside in rural and remote areas. This audit aims to describe all-causes of mortality in rural general surgical patients, and identify areas of improvement. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-centre study involving four South Australian hospitals (Mt Gambier, Whyalla, Port Augusta, and Port Lincoln). All general surgical inpatients admitted from June 2014 to September 2019 were analysed to identify all-cause of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 80 mortalities were recorded out of 26 996 admissions. The overall mortality rate of 0.3% was the same as the 2020 Victorian state-wide Audit of Surgical Mortality. No mortality was secondary to trauma. Mean age was 79 ± 11 years and ASA was 3.9 ± 1. Malignancy was associated in over a third of cases (41.2%), mostly colorectal and pancreatic. Most cases were related to general surgical subspecialties: colorectal (51.3%), upper gastrointestinal (21.3%), hepatopancreaticobiliary (13.8%); however, there were also vascular (6.3%) and urology (3.8%) cases. The most common causes of mortality were large bowel obstruction (13.4%), ischemic bowel (10.4%), and small bowel obstruction (7.5%). Majority of mortality were beyond the surgeon's control (73.8%). Of the 21 potentially preventable mortalities, 42.9% were attributed to aspiration pneumonia and decompensated heart failure. Only one (1.3%) mortality case was due to pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION: Rural general surgical mortalities occur in older, comorbid patients. Rural surgeons should be equipped to manage basic subspeciality conditions. To further reduce mortalities, clear protocols to prevent aspiration pneumonia and resuscitation associated fluid overload are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Pneumonia Aspirativa , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , População Rural , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 175: 164-169, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577603

RESUMO

Substantial gaps in clinical outcomes exist in rural and urban hospitals in the United States. We used the National Inpatient Sample to examine trends in hospitalizations, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and inflation-adjusted cost of adults admitted for heart failure (HF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rural and urban hospitals between 2004 and 2018. From 2004 to 2013 and 2014, there was an initial decrease in age-adjusted HF hospitalizations in both urban (annual percent change [APC] -3.9 [95% confidence interval [CI] -4.3 to -3.5] p <0.001) and rural hospitals (APC -5.9 [95% CI -6.4 to -5.3] p <0.001), after which hospitalizations for HF increased in urban areas (APC 4.2 [95% CI 3.2 to 5.3] p <0.001) and remained stable in rural areas (APC 0.2 [95% CI -2.1 to 2.6] p = 0.863). Urban AMI hospitalizations decreased between 2004 and 2010 (APC -4.4 [95% CI -5.3 to -3.3] p <0.001) and subsequently remained stable (APC 0.2 [95% CI -0.5 to 0.9] p = 0.552), whereas rural AMI hospitalizations had a consistent decrease throughout the study period (APC -4.2 [95% CI -5.0 to -3.4] p <0.001). Overall, urban hospitals had lower in-hospital mortality for HF and AMI than rural hospitals (3.1% vs 3.5%, p <0.001% and 5.4% vs 6.5%, p <0.001), respectively. Initially, in-hospital mortality was higher in rural hospitals; however, the rural-urban hospital mortality gap decreased during the study period for both HF and AMI. Rural hospitals had a shorter mean length of stay for HF and AMI (4.4 vs 5.5 days, p <0.001 and 3.9 vs 4.7 days, p <0.001) and lower inflation-adjusted costs for both HF and AMI ($8,897.1 vs $13,420.8, p <0.001 and $15,301.6 vs $22,943.7, p <0.001) when compared with urban hospitals. In conclusion, a consistent decrease in the in-hospital mortality gap in rural and urban hospitals for HF and AMI suggests improvement in inpatient rural cardiovascular care during the study period. Continued healthcare policy reforms are warranted to alleviate the disparities in rural-urban cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Adulto , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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