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1.
Molecules ; 29(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542825

RESUMO

Roasting is an important step in the pretreatment of biomass upgrading. Roasting can improve the fuel quality of biomass, reduce the O/C and H/C ratios in the biomass, and provide the biomass with a fuel quality comparable to that of lignite. Therefore, studying the structure and component evolution laws during biomass roasting treatment is important for the rational and efficient utilization of biomass. When the roasting temperature is 200-300 °C, the cellulose and hemicellulose in the biomass undergo a depolymerization reaction, releasing many monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high reactivity. The proportion of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biomass roasting products can be effectively regulated by controlling the reaction temperature, residence time, catalyst, baking atmosphere, and other factors in the biomass roasting process. This paper focuses on the dissociation law of organic components in the pretreatment process of biomass roasting.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Biomassa , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/química , Temperatura , Celulose , Hidrocarbonetos
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(12): 18785-18796, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349495

RESUMO

Recovering renewable chemicals from de-fatted microalgal residue derived from lipid extraction within the algal-derived biofuel sector is crucial, given the rising significance of microalgal-derived biodiesel as a potential substitute for petroleum-based liquid fuels. As a circular economy strategy, effective valorization of de-fatted biomass significantly improves the energetic and economic facets of establishing a sustainable algal-derived biofuel industry. In this scenario, this study investigates flash catalytic pyrolysis as a sustainable pathway for valorizing Scenedesmus sp. post-extraction residue (SPR), potentially yielding a bio-oil enriched with upgraded characteristics, especially renewable aromatic hydrocarbons. In the scope of this study, volatile products from catalytic and non-catalytic flash pyrolysis were characterized using a micro-furnace type temperature programmable pyrolyzer coupled with gas chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection (Py-GC/MS). Flash pyrolysis of SPR resulted in volatile products with elevated oxygen and nitrogen compounds with concentrations of 46.4% and 26.4%, respectively. In contrast, flash pyrolysis of lyophilized microalgal biomass resulted in lower concentrations of these compounds, with 40.9% oxygen and 17.3% nitrogen. Upgrading volatile pyrolysis products from SPR led to volatile products comprised of only hydrocarbons, while completely removing oxygen and nitrogen-containing compounds. This was achieved by utilizing a low-cost HZSM-5 catalyst within a catalytic bed at 500 °C. Catalytic experiments also indicate the potential conversion of SPR into a bio-oil rich in monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily BETX, with toluene comprising over one-third of its composition, thus presenting a sustainable pathway for producing an aromatic hydrocarbon-rich bio-oil derived from SPR. Another significant finding was that 97.8% of the hydrocarbon fraction fell within the gasoline range (C5-C12), and 35.5% fell within the jet fuel range (C8-C16). Thus, flash catalytic pyrolysis of SPR exhibits significant promise for application in drop-in biofuel production, including green gasoline and bio-jet fuel, aligning with the principles of the circular economy, green chemistry, and bio-refinery.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Óleos de Plantas , Polifenóis , Scenedesmus , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Pirólise , Gasolina , Biocombustíveis , Temperatura Alta , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Catálise , Nitrogênio , Oxigênio , Biomassa
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(3): 98, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351169

RESUMO

Hydrocarbons are considered as one of the most common and harmful environmental pollutants affecting human health and the environment. Bioremediation as an environmentally friendly, highly efficient, and cost-effective method in remediating oil-contaminated environments has been interesting in recent decades. In this study, hydrocarbon degrader bacterial strains were isolated from the highly petroleum-contaminated soils in the Dehloran oil field in the west of Iran. Out of 37 isolates, 15 can grow on M9 agar medium that contains 1.5 g L-1 of crude oil as the sole carbon source. The morphological, biochemical, and 16SrRNA sequencing analyses were performed for the isolates. The choosing of the isolates as the hydrocarbon degrader was examined by evaluating the efficacy of their crude oil removal at a concentration of 10 g L-1 in an aqueous medium. The results showed that five isolates belonging to Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Roseomonas aestuarii, Pantoea agglomerans, and Arthrobacter sp. had a hyper hydrocarbon-degrading activity and they could remove more than 85% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) after 96 h. The highest TPH removal of about 95.75% and biodegradation rate of 0.0997 g L-1 h-1 was observed for P. agglomerans. The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis was performed during the biodegradation process by P. agglomerans to detect the degradation intermediates and final products. The results confirmed the presence of intermediates such as alcohols and fatty acids in the terminal oxidation pathway of alkanes in this biodegradation process. A promising P. agglomerans NB391 strain can remove aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons simultaneously.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Pantoea , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Pantoea/genética , Pantoea/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Irã (Geográfico) , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130472, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387841

RESUMO

As toxic contaminants, aromatic compounds are widespread in most environmental matrices, and bioenzymatic catalysis plays a critical role in the degradation of xenobiotics. Here, a thermophillic aromatic hydrocarbon degrader Aeribacillus pallidus HB-1 was found. Bioinformatic analysis of the HB-1 genome revealed two ring-cleaving extradiol dioxygenases (EDOs), among which, EDO-0418 was assigned to a new subfamily of type I.1 EDOs and exhibited a broad substrate specificity, particularly towards biarylic substrate. Both EDOs exhibited optimal activities at elevated temperatures (55 and 65 °C, respectively) and showed remarkable thermostability, pH stability, metal ion resistance and tolerance to chemical reagents. Most importantly, simulated wastewater bioreactor experiments demonstrated efficient and uniform degradation performance of mixed aromatic substrates under harsh environments by the two enzymes combined for potential industrial applications. The unveiling of two thermostable dioxygenases with broad substrate specificities and stress tolerance provides a novel approach for highly efficient environmental bioremediation using composite enzyme systems.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae , Dioxigenases , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/química , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Metais
5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 189, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305872

RESUMO

Bacterial strains of the genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Dietzia, Kocuria, and Micrococcus were isolated from oil-contaminated soils of the Balgimbaev, Dossor, and Zaburunye oil fields in Kazakhstan. They were selected from 1376 isolated strains based on their unique ability to use crude oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as sole source of carbon and energy in growth experiments. The isolated strains degraded a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic components from crude oil to generate a total of 170 acid metabolites. Eight metabolites were detected during the degradation of anthracene and of phenanthrene, two of which led to the description of a new degradation pathway. The selected bacterial strains Arthrobacter bussei/agilis SBUG 2290, Bacillus atrophaeus SBUG 2291, Bacillus subtilis SBUG 2285, Dietzia kunjamensis SBUG 2289, Kocuria rosea SBUG 2287, Kocuria polaris SBUG 2288, and Micrococcus luteus SBUG 2286 promoted the growth of barley shoots and roots in oil-contaminated soil, demonstrating the enormous potential of isolatable and cultivable soil bacteria in soil remediation. KEY POINTS: • Special powerful bacterial strains as potential crude oil and PAH degraders. • Growth on crude oil or PAHs as sole source of carbon and energy. • Bacterial support of barley growth as resource for soil remediation.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Petróleo/microbiologia , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Hordeum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiologia do Solo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180316

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative strain, designated as D2M1T was isolated from xylene-degrading enrichment culture and characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain D2M1T belongs to the genus Acidovorax, with the highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Acidovorax delafieldii DSM 64T (99.93 %), followed by Acidovorax radicis DSM 23535T (98.77 %) and Acidovorax kalamii MTCC 12652T (98.76 %). The draft genome sequence of strain D2M1T is 5.49 Mb long, and the G+C content of the genome is 64.2 mol%. Orthologous average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values between strain D2M1T and its closest relatives were below the threshold values for species demarcation confirming that strain D2M1T is distinctly separated from its closest relatives. The whole genome analysis of the strain revealed a phenol degradation gene cluster, encoding a multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (mPH) together with a complete meta-cleavage pathway including an I.2.C-type catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) gene. The strain was able to degrade benzene and ethylbenzene as sole sources of carbon and energy under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Cells were facultatively aerobic rods and motile with a single polar flagellum. The predominant fatty acids (>10 % of the total) of strain D2M1T were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c/C18 : 1 ω6c). The major ubiquinone of strain D2M1T was Q8, while the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on polyphasic data, it is concluded that strain D2M1T represents a novel species of the genus Acidovorax, for which the name of Acidovorax benzenivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is strain D2M1T (=DSM 115238T=NCAIM B.02679T).


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Xilenos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Composição de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bactérias
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1715: 464600, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176352

RESUMO

An automated implementation for a subfractionation of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) into a mono-/di-aromatic fraction (MDAF) and a tri-/poly-aromatic fraction (TPAF) is presented, which is highly demanded by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) respecting the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of MOAH. For this, donor-acceptor-complex chromatography (DACC) was used as a selective stationary phase to extend the conventional instrumental setup for the analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons via on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (LC-GC-FID). A set of six new internal standards was introduced for the verification of the MOAH fractionation and a quantification of MDAF and TPAF, respectively. The automated DACC approach was applied to representative petrochemical references as well as to food samples, such as rice and infant formula, generally showing well conformity with results obtained by state-of-the-art analysis using two-dimensional GC (GCxGC). Relative deviations of DACC/LC-GC-FID compared to GCxGC-FID methods regarding the ≥ 3 ring MOAH content ranged between -50 and +6 % (median: -2 %, all samples, only values above limit of quantification). However, crucial deviations mainly result from "border-crossing" substances, e.g., dibenzothiophenes or partially hydrogenated MOAH. These substances can cause overestimations of ≥ 3 ring MOAH fraction during GCxGC analysis due to co-elution, which is mostly avoided using the DACC approach. Furthermore, the DACC approach can help to minimize underestimations of toxicologically relevant ≥ 3 ring MOAH caused by an unavoidable loss of MOAH during epoxidation, since natural olefins, such as terpenes, predominantly elute in MDAF, which was exemplarily shown for an olive oil and a terpene reference. The presented approach can be implemented easily in existing LC-GC-FID setup for an automated and advanced screening of MOAH to lower the need for elaborate GCxGC analysis also in routine environments.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Óleo Mineral , Humanos , Óleo Mineral/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Terpenos/análise
9.
J Environ Manage ; 351: 119630, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043308

RESUMO

In order to obtain extended storage life of food-grade materials and better barrier properties against environmental factors, a multilayer plastic packaging (MLP) is often used. The multilayer packaging plastics are labelled as "other" (SPI#7) category, and are manufactured with a combination of barrier plastics, rigid plastics and printing surface. Owing to their complex composition and difficulty in separating the layers of MLP, its mechanical recycling is challenging. In this study, MLP wastes (MLPWs) were collected from zero-waste garbage collection center of IIT Madras, India, and thoroughly characterized to determine their composition and plastic types. MLPWs were characterized using various physico-chemical methods such as thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, bomb calorimetry, and proximate and ultimate analyses. The MLPWs were mainly made up of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Further, the non-catalytic and zeolite-catalyzed fast pyrolysis of these MLPWs were studied using analytical pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis of MLPWs primarily produced a mixture of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, while zeolite catalyzed fast pyrolysis resulted in the formation of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs). The activity of HZSM-5, zeolite Y (HY) and zeolite beta (Hß) catalysts were evaluated, and the salient products were quantified. The yields of MAHs like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene using the zeolites followed the trend: HZSM-5 (14.9 wt%) > HY (8.1 wt%) > Hß (7.8 wt%), at 650 °C. The use of HZSM-5 resulted in highest yield of MAHs, viz. 16.1 wt%, at the optimum temperature of 550 °C and MLPW-to-catalyst ratio of 1:15 (w/w). The superior activity of HZSM-5 is due to its nominal acidity and larger pore size of 4.24 nm, as compared to HY and Hß. The MAHs yield from three other types of MLPWs varied in the range of 9-16 wt%. The present study demonstrates a promising pathway for the catalytic upcycling of highly heterogeneous MLPWs in the context of circular economy.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Zeolitas , Zeolitas/química , Índia , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/análise , Catálise , Tolueno , Temperatura Alta
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1713: 464525, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000198

RESUMO

Lubricating oils help an internal combustion engine function effectively by reducing friction and wear on the engine's moving parts. They typically consist of petroleum-derived base oil and various additives to achieve the desired characteristics in automotive engine oils. Determination of aromatics and polar additives in the finished and used lubricating oils is not possible with existing methods hence their development is significant from the perspectives of environment and reuse/re-refining of used lubricating oils. This study reports the development of a new HPLC method to determine additives in the finished lubricating oils and/or polars in the used engine oils. The proposed method is simple, fast (runtime of 13 min), does not require sample pre-treatment, and exhibits high precision and superior limits of detection and quantification. The method demonstrated good linear response ranging from 0.1 to 30 mass for total aromatics and 0.1 to 20 % for additives. The method validation was carried out by analyzing brand-new commercial two and four-wheeler lubricants with used automotive lubricants. Based on the proposed method, the aromatics and additives concentration ranges in the studied finished lubricants were estimated between 0.20-1.70 % (mass) and 0.20-3.50 % (mass), respectively. Similarly, for used lubricants, the aromatics and additives were estimated to be 1.00-6.10 % and 0.60-2.40 % (mass), respectively.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Petróleo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Óleos , Petróleo/análise , Lubrificantes/análise , Lubrificantes/química
11.
Environ Res ; 245: 118076, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38160977

RESUMO

Owing to the ever-increasing generation of plastic waste, the need to develop environmentally friendly disposal methods has increased. This study explored the potential of waste plastic straw to generate valuable light olefins and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) via catalytic pyrolysis using high-silica zeolite-based catalysts. HZSM-5 (SiO2/Al2O3:200) exhibited superior performance, yielding more light olefins (49.8 wt%) and a higher MAH content than Hbeta (300). This was attributed to the increased acidity and proper shape selectivity. HZSM-5 displayed better coking resistance (0.7 wt%) than Hbeta (4.4 wt%) by impeding secondary reactions, limiting coke precursor formation. The use of HZSM-5 (80) resulted in higher MAHs and lower light olefins than HZSM-5 (200) because of its higher acidity. Incorporation of Co into HZSM-5 (200) marginally lowered light olefin yield (to 44.0 wt%) while notably enhancing MAH production and boosting propene selectivity within the olefin composition. These observations are attributed to the well-balanced coexistence of Lewis and Brønsted acid sites, which stimulated the carbonium ion mechanism and induced H-transfer, cyclization, Diels-alder, and dehydrogenation reactions. The catalytic pyrolysis of plastic straw over high-silica and metal-loaded HZSM-5 catalysts has been suggested as an efficient and sustainable method for transforming plastic waste materials into valuable light olefins and MAHs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Zeolitas , Dióxido de Silício , Pirólise , Temperatura Alta , Biomassa , Alcenos , Catálise , Hidrocarbonetos
12.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 105: 104344, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103810

RESUMO

Two hundred and twenty subjects were recruited while undergoing cardiac catheterization. AHRR cg05575921 methylation was shown to be significantly decreased in ever smokers compared to never smokers (Mean± SD = 64.2 ± 17.2 vs 80.1 ± 11.1 respectively; P < 0.0001). In addition, higher urinary levels of 2-OHNAP and 2-OHFLU were significantly associated with more AHRR cg05575921 hypomethylation, even after correcting for smoking (ß[95%CI]= -4.161[-7.553, -0.769]; P = 0.016 and -5.190[-9.761, -0.618]; P = 0.026, respectively) but not 1-OHPYR (ß[95%CI]= -3.545 [-10.935, 3.845]; P = 0.345). Additionally, hypomethylation of AHRR ROI was significantly associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) after adjusting for smoking, age, sex, diabetes and dyslipidemia (OR [95%CI] = 1.024[1.000 - 1.048]; P = 0.046). Results of this study necessitate further validation to potentially consider clinical incorporation of AHRR methylation status as an early predictive biomarker for the potential association between ambient air pollution and CAD.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Humanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Biomarcadores , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(4): 5668-5683, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127231

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of soil bacteria capable of utilizing both n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. These microorganisms have not been comprehensively investigated so far. Ten contaminated (4046-43,861 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg-1 of dry weight of soil) and five unpolluted (320-2754 mg TPH kg-1 of dry weight of soil) soil samples from temperate, arid, and Alpine soils were subjected to isolation of degraders with extended preferences and shotgun metagenomic sequencing (selected samples). The applied approach allowed to reveal that (a) these bacteria can be isolated from pristine and polluted soils, and (b) the distribution of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) and aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) encoding genes is not associated with the contamination presence. Some alkB and ARHD genes shared the same taxonomic affiliation; they were most often linked with the Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas, and Mycolicibacterium genera. Moreover, these taxa together with the Paeniglutamicibacter genus constituted the most numerous groups among 132 culturable strains growing in the presence of both n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. All those results indicate (a) the prevalence of the hydrocarbon degraders with extended preferences and (b) the potential of uncontaminated soil as a source of hydrocarbon degraders applied for bioremediation purposes.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Alcanos , Solo , Bactérias/genética , Hidrocarbonetos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(52): 112611-112624, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37837582

RESUMO

The impact of environmental pollutant exposure on periodontitis has raised significant concerns. But the association between exposure to multiple polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and periodontitis still remained unclear. Our study investigated the association of exposure to multiple PAHs with periodontitis. A total of 1880 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were included in this study. Urinary samples of the participants exposed to six PAHs, namely, 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN), 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHN), 3-hydroxyfluorene (3-OHF), 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHF), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPhe), and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr), were investigated. Multiple logistic regression, restricted cubic spline, and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models were employed to identify the association between PAH exposures and periodontitis. The dose-response analysis exhibited a gradual increase in the periodontitis risk with an increase in multiple PAHs. After adjustment for several potential confounders, the odds ratio of the highest quartile (Quartile 4) was 1.648 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.108-2.456, P = 0.014, P-t = 0.017) for 2-OHN, 2.046 (95%CI 1.352-3.104, P < 0.001, P-t = 0.005) for 3-OHF, 1.996 (95% CI 1.310-3.046, P = 0.001, P-t = 0.003) for 2-OHF, 1.789 (95% CI 1.230-2.604, P = 0.002, P-t = 0.003) for 1-OHPhe, and 1.494 (95% CI 1.025-2.181, P = 0.037, P-t = 0.021) for 1-OHPyr compared with that of the lowest quartile (Quartile 1). BKMR illustrated that the overall effect of the PAH mixture was positively related to periodontitis. Mediation analysis identified blood neutrophils as a partial mediator of 3-OHF and 2-OHF. Exposure to multiple PAHs was positively associated with periodontitis in US adults, and blood neutrophils mediate the effects of 3-OHF and 2-OHF therein.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores
15.
Molecules ; 28(20)2023 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37894523

RESUMO

Nanmu (Phoebe zhennan) has a unique fragrance and is a high-quality tree species for forest conservation. The types and contents of volatile compounds in different tissues of nanmu wood are different, and the study of its volatile metabolites can help us to understand the source of its fragrance and functions. In order to explore the metabolites related to the wood fragrance of nanmu and to find out the unique volatile substances in the heartwood, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed to analyze the non-targeted metabolomics in five radial tissues from the sapwood to the heartwood of nanmu. A total of 53 volatile metabolites belonging to 11 classes were detected in all tissues, including terpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, organoheterocyclics, phenols, esters, organic acids, alcohols, alkaloids, alkane, indoles derivatives, and others. And most of the volatile metabolites were identified for the first time in nanmu wood. Among them, terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons were the main volatile components. In addition, 22 differential metabolites were screened from HW and SW, HW, and TZ via metabolomic analysis. Among these DAMs, three volatile metabolites (cadinene, a sesquiterpenoid; p-cymene, a monoterpenoid; 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, an aromatic hydrocarbon) contributed heavily to the characteristic fragrance of the heartwood. Additionally, the expression of transcripts showed that the unigenes in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway were especially up-regulated in the SW. Therefore, we speculated that fragrance-related metabolites were synthesized in SW and then deposited in heartwood during sapwood transformed to heartwood. The expression levels of transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, C2H2, NAC) acted as the major regulatory factors in the synthesis of terpenoid. The results lay the foundations for further studies on the formation mechanism of fragrance components in nanmu wood and also provide a reference for the further development and utilization of nanmu wood.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Madeira , Madeira/química , Odorantes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Terpenos/análise , Metabolômica
16.
J Environ Manage ; 348: 119356, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37883835

RESUMO

Resource utilization of solid waste can aid in gradual substitution of fossil fuels while achieving waste recycling. In this study, residual carbon and ash slag from the coal gasification fine slag were separated by froth flotation, and then was used to prepare Ru/C and ZSM-5 dual catalysts with carbon-rich and ash-rich components as raw materials, respectively. The performance of two catalysts for catalytic upgrading of volatiles from pyrolysis of cow manure (CM) to produce light aromatic hydrocarbons was systematically investigated. The direct pyrolysis products of CM mainly included alcohols, ketones, ethers, and other oxygen-containing compounds. When ZSM-5 was used as the catalyst, the yield of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) increased significantly due to the better catalytic cracking and aromatization abilities of ZSM-5 catalyst. However, the yield of phenols in the pyrolysis products improved when Ru/C was used as the catalyst due to the cleavage effect of Ru/C on the C-O bond. When Ru/C and ZSM-5 were used as dual catalysts in relay catalytic pyrolysis of volatiles, the increase in MAHs yield in the pyrolysis product was higher than the total increase obtained under Ru/C and ZSM-5 single catalysis. The possible pathways for the generation of MAHs from CM under Ru/C and ZSM-5 relay catalytic pyrolysis were revealed by the pyrolysis experiment performed on model compounds.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Esterco , Bovinos , Animais , Pirólise , Carvão Mineral , Catálise , Carbono
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 196: 115610, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804672

RESUMO

Application of oil toxicity modelling for assessing the risk of spills to coral reefs remains uncertain due to a lack of data for key tropical species and environmental conditions. In this study, larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to six aromatic hydrocarbons individually to generate critical target lipid body burdens (CTLBBs). Larval metamorphosis was inhibited by all six aromatic hydrocarbons, while larval survival was only affected at concentrations >2000 µg L-1. The derived metamorphosis CTLBB of 9.7 µmol g-1 octanol indicates larvae are more sensitive than adult corals, and places A. millepora larvae among the most sensitive organisms in the target lipid model (TLM) databases. Larvae were also more sensitive to anthracene and pyrene when co-exposed to ecologically relevant levels of ultraviolet radiation. The results suggest that the application of the phototoxic TLM would be protective of A. millepora larvae, provided adequate chemical and light data are available.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Hidrozoários , Animais , Larva , Raios Ultravioleta , Recifes de Corais , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Lipídeos/farmacologia
18.
J Environ Manage ; 348: 119207, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37832293

RESUMO

The combustion of mobil oil leads to the emission of toxic compounds in the environment. In this study, the aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions present in a waste mobil oil collected from automobile market were comprehensively identified and their toxicity was evaluated using wheat grain. Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain IITR51 isolated and characterized previously could degrade 30-80% of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in liquid culture. Interestingly, the strain IITR51 produced 627 mg/L of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by utilizing 3% (v/v) of waste mobil oil in the presence of 1.5% glycerol as additional carbon source. In a soil microcosm study by employing strain IITR51, 50-86% of 3-6 ring aromatic hydrocarbons and 63-98% of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C8 to C22) were degraded. Addition of 60 µg/mL rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhanced the degradation of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from 76.88% to 61.21%-94.11% and 78.27% respectively. The degradation of mobil oil components improved the soil physico-chemical properties and increased soil fertility to 64% as evident by the phytotoxicity assessments. The findings indicate that strain IITR51 with degradation capability coupled with biosurfactant production could be a candidate for restoring hydrocarbon contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 460: 132370, 2023 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37666173

RESUMO

Heterocyclic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (heterocyclic PAHs) are of increasing concern and their environmental and human health impacts should be assessed due to their widespread presence and potential persistence in the environment. This study investigated the ultimate and primary biodegradability of ten heterocyclic PAHs, nine of which were found to be non-readily biodegradable. To generate a microbial community capable of degrading such compounds, a bacterial inoculum isolated from the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was adapted to a mixture of heterocyclic PAHs for one year. Throughout the adaptation process, bacterial samples were collected at different stages to conduct primary biodegradation, ultimate biodegradation, and inoculum toxicity tests. Interestingly, after one year of adaptation, the community developed the ability to mineralize carbazole, but in the same time showed an increasing sensitivity to the toxic effects of benzo[c]carbazole. In two consecutive primary biodegradation experiments, degradation of four heterocycles was observed, while no biodegradation was detected for five compounds in any of the tests. Furthermore, the findings of this work were compared with predictions from in silico models regarding biodegradation timeframe and sorption, and it was found that the models were partially successful in describing these processes. The results of study provide valuable insights into the persistence of a representative group of heterocyclic PAHs in aquatic environments, which contributes to the hazard assessment of this particular class of substances.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbazóis
20.
Water Res ; 245: 120566, 2023 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37683521

RESUMO

Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) carried by landfilled wastes may enter leachate, and require appropriate treatment before discharge. However, the driving factors of the entry of VOCs and SOVCs into leachate, their removal characteristics during leachate treatment and the dominant factors remain unclear. A global survey of the VOCs and SOVCs in leachate from 103 landfill sites combined with 27 articles on leachate treatment was conducted to clarify the abovementioned question. The results showed that SVOCs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and phenols were the most frequently detected in leachate on a global scale. However, four kinds of VOCs, i.e., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and benzene, were frequently detected at high concentrations in landfill leachate as well. The concentrations of VOCs and SVOCs in leachate ranged from 1 × 10° to 1 × 108 ng/L. Solubility was a key factor driving the entry of VOCs and SOVCs into leachate, and higher solubility enables higher detectable concentrations in leachate (P<0.05). It was easiest to remove monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from leachate, followed by phenols and PAHs, and it was most difficult to remove PAEs. In terms of removing MAHs, the anoxic/oxic (A/O) process and the sequential batch reactor (SBR) process were comparable to the advanced oxidization process and far superior to the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes, and the removal rate increased with an increase in the Henry's constant and/or the hydrophilicity of the contaminants during the A/O and SBR processes (P<0.05). There were no significant differences among biological, advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis processes in the removal of phenolic. In terms of removing PAHs, the A/O process was comparable to the advanced oxidization process and more efficient than the other treatment processes. As to removing PAEs, the membrane bioreactor process was almost the same efficient as the advanced oxidization process and far more efficient than the other biological treatment processes. Future research should focus on the pollution of atmospheric VOCs and SVOCs near aeration units in leachate treatment plants, as well as the health risk assessment of VOCs and SVOCs in the treated leachate effluent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review regarding the occurrence and removal of VOCs and SVOCs from landfill leachates worldwide.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fenóis
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