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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127017, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464862

RESUMO

Despite increasing environmental concerns on ever-lasting Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), its global production is continuously growing. Effective strategies that can completely remove PET from environment are urgently desired. Here biotransformation processes of PET by one of the most effective enzymes, leaf-branch compost cutinase (LCC), were systematically explored with Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics approaches. We found that four concerted steps are required to complete the whole catalytic cycle. The last concerted step, deacylation, was determined as the rate-determining step with Boltzmann-weighted average barrier of 13.6 kcal/mol and arithmetic average of 16.1 ± 2.9 kcal/mol. Interestingly, unprecedented fluctuations of hydrogen bond length during LCC catalyzed transformation process toward PET were found. This fluctuation was also observed in enzyme IsPETase, indicating that it may widely exist in other catalytic triad (Ser-His-Asp) containing enzymes as well. In addition, possible features (bond, angle, dihedral angle and charge) that influence the catalytic reaction were identified and correlations between activation energies and key features were established. Our results present new insights into catalytic mechanism of hydrolases and shed light on the efficient recycling of the ever-lasting PET.


Assuntos
Hidrolases , Polietilenotereftalatos , Biotransformação , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Teoria Quântica
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(1): 261-271, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910240

RESUMO

Arginine auxotrophy is a metabolic defect that renders tumor cells vulnerable towards arginine-depleting substances, such as arginine deiminase (ADI) from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpyADI). Previously, we confirmed SpyADI susceptibility on patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) models in vitro and in vivo. For application in patients, serum half-life of the enzyme has to be increased and immunogenicity needs to be reduced. For this purpose, we conjugated the S. pyogenes-derived SpyADI with 20 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG20) moieties, achieving a PEGylation of seven to eight of the 26 accessible primary amines of the SpyADI. The PEGylation reduced the overall activity of the enzyme by about 50% without affecting the Michaelis constant for arginine. PEGylation did not increase serum stability of SpyADI in vitro, but led to a longer-lasting reduction of plasma arginine levels in mice. Furthermore, SpyADI-PEG20 showed a higher antitumoral capacity towards GBM cells in vitro than the native enzyme. KEY POINTS: • PEGylation has no effect on the affinity of SpyADI for arginine • PEGylation increases the antitumoral effects of SpyADI on GBM in vitro • PEGylation prolongs plasma arginine depletion by SpyADI in mice.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Streptococcus pyogenes , Animais , Arginina , Humanos , Hidrolases , Camundongos
3.
ChemSusChem ; 15(1): e202102517, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914860

RESUMO

Invited for this month's cover is the BOTTLE Consortium, featuring Gregg Beckham's laboratory from NREL and John McGeehan's laboratory from the University of Portsmouth. The cover image shows the application of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) hydrolase enzymes on post-consumer waste plastic, towards the development of an enzymatic PET recycling strategy. The Full Paper itself is available at 10.1002/cssc.202101932.


Assuntos
Burkholderiales , Hidrolases , Plásticos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Reciclagem
4.
Biochemistry ; 60(51): 3879-3886, 2021 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910871

RESUMO

The reliance of biocatalysis on plant-derived carbon for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals places it in direct competition with food production for resources. A potential solution to this problem is development of a metabolic link between alternative carbon sources and bacterial metabolism. Acetylenecarboxylic acid, which can be synthesized from methane and carbon dioxide, could enable this connection. It was previously shown that the enzyme Cg10062 catalyzes hydration of acetylenecarboxylate to afford malonate semialdehyde. Subsequent hydration-dependent decarboxylation to form acetaldehyde (81%), which was also observed, limits its biocatalytic usefulness. Several Cg10062 variants including E114Q and E114D do not catalyze decarboxylation and provide malonate semialdehyde as the sole product, albeit with substantially reduced catalytic activity. To identify an efficient enzyme capable of catalyzing acetylenecarboxylate hydration without decarboxylation, we undertook a mechanistic investigation of Cg10062 using mutagenesis, kinetic characterization, and X-ray crystallography. Cg10062 is a member of the tautomerase superfamily of enzymes, characterized by their ß-α-ß protein fold and an N-terminal proline residue situated at the center of the enzyme active site. Along with Pro-1, five additional active site residues (His-28, Arg-70, Arg-73, Tyr-103, and Glu-114) are required for Cg10062 activity. Incubation of crystals of four catalytically slow variants of Cg10062 with acetylenecarboxylate resulted in atomic resolution structures of Pro-1 bound to a complete set of intermediates, fully elaborating the detailed mechanism of the enzyme and establishing the process to involve covalent catalysis. Further, the intermediate-bound E114D structure explains the mechanism governing decarboxylation suppression. Together, these studies provide the most detailed picture of the catalytic mechanism of a tautomerase enzyme to date.


Assuntos
Alcinos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Biomassa , Ciclo do Carbono , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Corynebacterium glutamicum/enzimologia , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Hidrolases/química , Hidrolases/genética , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida
6.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 152: 109937, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749019

RESUMO

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) degrading enzymes have recently obtained an increasing interest as a means to decompose plastic waste. Here, we have studied the binding of three PET hydrolases on a suspended PET powder under conditions of both enzyme- and substrate excess. A Langmuir isotherm described the binding process reasonably and revealed a prominent affinity for the PET substrate, with dissociation constants consistently below 150 nM. The saturated substrate coverage approximately corresponded to a monolayer on the PET surface for all three enzymes. No distinct contributions from specific ligand binding in the active site could be identified, which points towards adsorption predominantly driven by non-specific interactions in contrast to enzymes naturally evolved for the breakdown of insoluble polymers. However, we observed a correlation between the progression of enzymatic hydrolysis and increased binding capacity, probably due to surface modifications of the PET polymer over time. Our results provide functional insight, suggesting that rational design should target the specific ligand interaction in the active site rather than the already high, general adsorption capacity of these enzymes.


Assuntos
Hidrolases , Polietilenotereftalatos , Adsorção , Domínio Catalítico , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 804, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family plays an important role in cell wall reconstruction and stress resistance in plants. However, the detailed characteristics of XTH family genes and their expression pattern under salt stress have not been reported in poplar. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 43 PtrXTH genes were identified from Populus simonii × Populus nigra, and most of them contain two conserved structures (Glyco_hydro_16 and XET_C domain). The promoters of the PtrXTH genes contain mutiple cis-acting elements related to growth and development and stress responses. Collinearity analysis revealed that the XTH genes from poplar has an evolutionary relationship with other six species, including Eucalyptus robusta, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Arabidopsis, Zea mays and Oryza sativa. Based on RNA-Seq analysis, the PtrXTH genes have different expression patterns in the roots, stems and leaves, and many of them are highly expressed in the roots. In addition, there are11 differentially expressed PtrXTH genes in the roots, 9 in the stems, and 7 in the leaves under salt stress. In addition, the accuracy of RNA-Seq results was verified by RT-qPCR. CONCLUSION: All the results indicated that XTH family genes may play an important role in tissue specificity and salt stress response. This study will lay a theoretical foundation for further study on molecular function of XTH genes in poplar.


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases , Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas , Populus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/enzimologia , Populus/metabolismo , Estresse Salino
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3268-3275, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622634

RESUMO

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a synthetic polymer consisting of ester bond-linked terephthalate and ethylene glycol. Tremendous amounts of PET have been produced and majority of them enters terrestrial and marine environment as wastes, posing serious threats to the global ecosystems. In 2016, a PET hydrolase from a PET-assimilating bacterium Ideonalla sakaiensis was reported and termed as IsPETase. This enzyme outperforms other PET-hydrolyzing enzymes in terms of its PET hydrolytic activity at ambient temperature, thus holds a great promise for PET biodegradation. In order to improve IsPETase activity, we conducted structure-based engineering to modify the putative substrate-binding tunnel. Among the several variants to the N233 residue of IsPETase, we discovered that the substitution of N233 with alanine increases its PET hydrolytic activity, which can be further enhanced when combined with a R280A mutation. We also determined the X-ray crystal structure of the IsPETase N233A variant, which shares nearly identical fold to the WT protein, except for an open end of subsite Ⅱ. We hypothesized that the smaller side chain of N233A variant might lead to an extended subsite Ⅱ for PET binding, which subsequently increases the enzymatic activity. Thus, this study provides new clues for further structure-based engineering of PETase.


Assuntos
Burkholderiales , Hidrolases , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Burkholderiales/enzimologia , Hidrolases/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 761, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTH) can disrupt and reconnect the xyloglucan chains, modify the cellulose-xyloglucan complex structure in the cell wall to reconstruct the cell wall. Previous studies have reported that XTH plays a key role in the aluminum (Al) tolerance of tea plants (Camellia sinensis), which is a typical plant that accumulates Al and fluoride (F), but its role in F resistance has not been reported. RESULTS: Here, 14 CsXTH genes were identified from C. sinensis and named as CsXTH1-14. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsXTH members were divided into 3 subclasses, and conserved motif analysis showed that all these members included catalytic active region. Furthermore, the expressions of all CsXTH genes showed tissue-specific and were regulated by Al3+ and F- treatments. CsXTH1, CsXTH4, CsXTH6-8 and CsXTH11-14 were up-regulated under Al3+ treatments; CsXTH1-10 and CsXTH12-14 responded to different concentrations of F- treatments. The content of xyloglucan oligosaccharide determined by immunofluorescence labeling increased to the highest level at low concentrations of Al3+ or F- treatments (0.4 mM Al3+ or 8 mg/L F-), accompanying by the activity of XET (Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase) peaked. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CsXTH activities were regulated by Al or F via controlling the expressions of CsXTH genes and the content of xyloglucan oligosaccharide in C. sinensis roots was affected by Al or F, which might finally influence the elongation of roots and the growth of plants.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Camellia sinensis , Fluoretos , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Hidrolases , Filogenia
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(39): 22451-22465, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585687

RESUMO

Modulating the distribution of various states in protein ensembles through distal sites may be promising in the evolution of enzymes in desired directions. However, the prediction of distal mutation hotspots that stabilize the favoured states from a computational perspective remains challenging. Here, we presented a strategy based on molecular dynamics (MD) and Markov state models (MSM) to predict distal mutation sites. Extensive MD combined with MSM was applied to determine the principally distributed metastable states interconverting at a slow timescale. Then, molecular docking was used to classify these states into active states and inactive ones. Distal mutation hotspots were targeted based on comparing the conformational features between active and inactive states, where mutations destabilize the inactive states and show little influence on the active state. The proposed strategy was used to explore the highly dynamic MHETase, which shows a potential application in the biodegradation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Seven principally populated interrelated metastable states were identified, and the atomistic picture of their conformational changes was unveiled. Several residues at distal positions were found to adopt more H-bond occupancies in inactive states than active states, making them potential mutation hotspots for stabilizing the favoured conformations. In addition, the detailed mechanism revealed the significance of calcium ions at a distance from the catalytic centre in reshaping the free energy landscape. This study deepens the understanding of the conformational dynamics of α/ß hydrolases containing a lid domain and advances the study of enzymatic plastic degradation.


Assuntos
Hidrolases/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Burkholderiales/enzimologia , Hidrolases/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548397

RESUMO

Enzymes possessing the nickel-pincer nucleotide (NPN) cofactor catalyze C2 racemization or epimerization reactions of α-hydroxyacid substrates. LarB initiates synthesis of the NPN cofactor from nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD) by performing dual reactions: pyridinium ring C5 carboxylation and phosphoanhydride hydrolysis. Here, we show that LarB uses carbon dioxide, not bicarbonate, as the substrate for carboxylation and activates water for hydrolytic attack on the AMP-associated phosphate of C5-carboxylated-NaAD. Structural investigations show that LarB has an N-terminal domain of unique fold and a C-terminal domain homologous to aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylase/mutase (PurE). Like PurE, LarB is octameric with four active sites located at subunit interfaces. The complex of LarB with NAD+, an analog of NaAD, reveals the formation of a covalent adduct between the active site Cys221 and C4 of NAD+, resulting in a boat-shaped dearomatized pyridine ring. The formation of such an intermediate with NaAD would enhance the reactivity of C5 to facilitate carboxylation. Glu180 is well positioned to abstract the C5 proton, restoring aromaticity as Cys221 is expelled. The structure of as-isolated LarB and its complexes with NAD+ and the product AMP identify additional residues potentially important for substrate binding and catalysis. In combination with these findings, the results from structure-guided mutagenesis studies lead us to propose enzymatic mechanisms for both the carboxylation and hydrolysis reactions of LarB that are distinct from that of PurE.


Assuntos
Cisteína/química , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/enzimologia , Níquel/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/biossíntese , Piridinas/química , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Carboxiliases , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Hidrolases/química , Hidrólise , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Racemases e Epimerases/química , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(38): 10682-10691, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524819

RESUMO

Hydrolases are a critical component for modern chemical, pharmaceutical, and environmental sciences. Identifying mutations that enhance catalytic efficiency presents a roadblock to design and to discover new hydrolases for broad academic and industrial uses. Here, we report the statistical profiling for rate-perturbing mutant hydrolases with a single amino acid substitution. We constructed an integrated structure-kinetics database for hydrolases, IntEnzyDB, which contains 3907 kcats, 4175 KMs, and 2715 Protein Data Bank IDs. IntEnzyDB adopts a relational architecture with a flattened data structure, enabling facile and efficient access to clean and tabulated data for machine learning uses. We conducted statistical analyses on how single amino acids mutations influence the turnover number (i.e., kcat) and efficiency (i.e., kcat/KM), with a particular emphasis on profiling the features for rate-enhancing mutations. The results show that mutation to bulky nonpolar residues with a hydrocarbon chain involves a higher likelihood for rate acceleration than to other types of residues. Linear regression models reveal geometric descriptors of substrate and mutation residues that mediate rate-perturbing outcomes for hydrolases with bulky nonpolar mutations. On the basis of the analyses of the structure-kinetics relationship, we observe that the propensity for rate enhancement is independent of protein sizes. In addition, we observe that distal mutations (i.e., >10 Å from the active site) in hydrolases are significantly more prone to induce efficiency neutrality and avoid efficiency deletion but involve similar propensity for rate enhancement. The studies reveal the statistical features for identifying rate-enhancing mutations in hydrolases, which will potentially guide hydrolase discovery in biocatalysis.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Hidrolases , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Hidrolases/genética , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Cinética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 88: 103748, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534692

RESUMO

In the current study, Triclosan (TCS, a commonly used antimicrobial agent) induced alterations in biochemical parameters and gene expression were recorded in the larvae of Labeo rohita after 96 h exposure and 10 days recovery period to find out health status biomarkers. 96 h exposure to 0.06, 0.067 and 0.097 mg/L TCS significantly declined the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea and uric acid and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). There was a non-significant decline in the levels of cholesterol and total protein but albumin and total bilirubin showed no change. After 10 days of recovery period, trend was opposite for glucose, urea and ALP only. Decline in the expression of trypsin and pancreatic amylase and elevation in creatine kinase during exposure to TCS showed a reverse trend after recovery period. However, concentration dependent elevation of chymotrypsin persisted till the end of recovery period. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed association of total protein, ALP, GOT, creatine kinase and pancreatic amylase with PC1 after exposure as well as recovery period. Therefore, these can be considered as important biomolecules for identification of health status of TCS stressed fish.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrolases/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Transferases/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502074

RESUMO

Amyloids are supramolecular assemblies composed of polypeptides stabilized by an intermolecular beta-sheet core. These misfolded conformations have been traditionally associated with pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson´s diseases. However, this classical paradigm has changed in the last decade since the discovery that the amyloid state represents a universal alternative fold accessible to virtually any polypeptide chain. Moreover, recent findings have demonstrated that the amyloid fold can serve as catalytic scaffolds, creating new opportunities for the design of novel active bionanomaterials. Here, we review the latest advances in this area, with particular emphasis on the design and development of catalytic amyloids that exhibit hydrolytic activities. To date, three different types of activities have been demonstrated: esterase, phosphoesterase and di-phosphohydrolase. These artificial hydrolases emerge upon the self-assembly of small peptides into amyloids, giving rise to catalytically active surfaces. The highly stable nature of the amyloid fold can provide an attractive alternative for the design of future synthetic hydrolases with diverse applications in the industry, such as the in situ decontamination of xenobiotics.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Hidrolases/química , Amiloide/síntese química , Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Hidrolases/síntese química , Hidrolases/metabolismo
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126075, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492896

RESUMO

The development of a superb polyethylene terephthalate (PET) hydrolyzing enzyme requires an accurate understanding of the PET decomposition mechanism. However, studies on PET degrading enzymes, including the PET hydrolase from Ideonella sakaiensis (IsPETase), have not provided sufficient knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for the hardly accessible substrate. Here, we report a novel PET hydrolase from Rhizobacter gummiphilus (RgPETase), which has a hydrolyzing activity similar to IsPETase toward microcrystalline PET but distinct behavior toward low crystallinity PET film. Structural analysis of RgPETase reveals that the enzyme shares the key structural features of IsPETase for high PET hydrolysis activity but has distinguished structures at the surface-exposed regions. RgPETase shows a unique conformation of the wobbling tryptophan containing loop (WW-loop) and change of the electrostatic surface charge on the loop dramatically affects the PET-degrading activity. We further show that effect of the electrostatic surface charge to the activity varies depending on locations. This work provides valuable information underlying the uncovered PET decomposition mechanism.


Assuntos
Burkholderiales , Polietilenotereftalatos , Hidrolases
16.
Nanoscale ; 13(31): 13401-13409, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477745

RESUMO

Enzymes are the most efficient catalysts in nature that possess an impressive range of catalytic activities, albeit limited by stability in adverse conditions. Functional peptides have emerged as alternative robust biocatalysts to mimic complex enzymes. Here, a rational design of minimalistic amyloid-inspired peptides 1-2 is demonstrated, which leads to pathway-driven self-assembly triggered by heat, light and chemical cues to render 1D and 2D nanostructures by the interplay of hydrogen bonding, host-guest interaction and reversible photodimerization. Such in situ transformable peptide nanostructures by means of external cues are envisaged as a catalytic amyloid for the first time to mimic the hydrolase enzyme activity. Michaelis Menten's enzyme kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis rate correlate the external cue-mediated structure-function augmentation with the twisted bundles, 1TB being the most efficient biocatalyst among all the dimensionally diverse nanostructures. Unlike the natural enzyme, the peptide nanostructures exhibited the robust nature of the hydrolase activity over a broad range of temperature and pH. Finally, the peptide nanostructures are explored as efficient heterogeneous flow catalysts to improve the turnover number for the hydrolase activity.


Assuntos
Hidrolases , Nanoestruturas , Catálise , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Peptídeos
17.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109868, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489027

RESUMO

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a class of polyester plastic composed of terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). The accumulation of large amount of PET waste has resulted in severe environmental and health problems. Microbial polyester hydrolases with the ability to degrade PET provide an economy- and environment-friendly approach for the treatment of PET waste. In recent years, many PET hydrolases have been discovered and characterized from various microorganisms and engineered for better performance under practical application conditions. Here, recent progress in the discovery, characterization, and enzymatic mechanism elucidation of PET hydrolases is firstly reviewed. Then, structure-guided protein engineering of PET hydrolases with increased enzymatic activities, expanded substrate specificity, as well as improved protein stability is summarized. In addition, strategies for efficient expression of recombinant PET hydrolases, including secretory expression and cell-surface display, are briefly introduced. This review is concluded with future perspectives in biodegradation and subsequent biotransformation of PET wastes to produce value-added compounds.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Etilenos , Hidrolases/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502400

RESUMO

Giardiasis represents a latent problem in public health due to the exceptionally pathogenic strategies of the parasite Giardia lamblia for evading the human immune system. Strains resistant to first-line drugs are also a challenge. Therefore, new antigiardial therapies are urgently needed. Here, we tested giardial arginine deiminase (GlADI) as a target against giardiasis. GlADI belongs to an essential pathway in Giardia for the synthesis of ATP, which is absent in humans. In silico docking with six thiol-reactive compounds was performed; four of which are approved drugs for humans. Recombinant GlADI was used in enzyme inhibition assays, and computational in silico predictions and spectroscopic studies were applied to follow the enzyme's structural disturbance and identify possible effective drugs. Inhibition by modification of cysteines was corroborated using Ellman's method. The efficacy of these drugs on parasite viability was assayed on Giardia trophozoites, along with the inhibition of the endogenous GlADI. The most potent drug against GlADI was assayed on Giardia encystment. The tested drugs inhibited the recombinant GlADI by modifying its cysteines and, potentially, by altering its 3D structure. Only rabeprazole and omeprazole decreased trophozoite survival by inhibiting endogenous GlADI, while rabeprazole also decreased the Giardia encystment rate. These findings demonstrate the potential of GlADI as a target against giardiasis.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Cisteína/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Giardia lamblia/patogenicidade , Giardíase/imunologia , Tiomalato Sódico de Ouro/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrolases/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases/ultraestrutura , Omeprazol/farmacologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Rabeprazol , Tiamina/análogos & derivados , Tiamina/farmacologia , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440809

RESUMO

Mitochondria play a key role in metabolic transitions involved in the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To obtain new insight into the mechanisms of cellular reprogramming, we studied the role of FAH domain-containing protein 1 (FAHD1) in the reprogramming of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into iPSCs and their subsequent differentiation into neuronal cells. MEFs from wild type (WT) and Fahd1-knock-out (KO) mice were reprogrammed into iPSCs and characterized for alterations in metabolic parameters and the expression of marker genes indicating mitochondrial biogenesis. Fahd1-KO MEFs showed a higher reprogramming efficiency accompanied by a significant increase in glycolytic activity as compared to WT. We also observed a strong increase of mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of biogenesis marker genes in Fahd1-KO iPSCs relative to WT. Neuronal differentiation of iPSCs was accompanied by increased expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in both WT and Fahd1-KO neurons with higher expression in Fahd1-KO neurons. Together these observations establish a role of FAHD1 as a potential negative regulator of reprogramming and add additional insight into mechanisms by which FAHD1 modulates mitochondrial functions.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Glicólise/fisiologia , Hidrolases/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Hidrolases/deficiência , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444642

RESUMO

Fatty acids play a significant role in maintaining cellular and DNA protection and we previously found an inverse relationship between blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and DNA damage. The aim of this study was to explore differences in proteomic profiles, for 117 pro-inflammatory proteins, in two previously defined groups of individuals with different DNA damage and EPA and DHA levels. Healthy children and adolescents (n = 140) aged 9 to 13 years old in an urban area of Brazil were divided by k-means cluster test into two clusters of DNA damage (tail intensity) using the comet assay (cluster 1 = 5.9% ± 1.2 and cluster 2 = 13.8% ± 3.1) in our previous study. The cluster with higher DNA damage and lower levels of DHA (6.2 ± 1.6 mg/dL; 5.4 ± 1.3 mg/dL, p = 0.003) and EPA (0.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL; 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/dL, p < 0.001) presented increased expression of the proteins CDK8-CCNC, PIK3CA-PIK3R1, KYNU, and PRKCB, which are involved in pro-inflammatory pathways. Our findings support the hypothesis that low levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA may have a less protective role against DNA damage through expression of pro-inflammatory proteins, such as CDK8-CCNC, PIK3CA-PIK3R1, KYNU, and PRKCB.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/sangue , Classe Ia de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Ciclina C/sangue , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrolases/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteína Quinase C beta/sangue , Proteômica
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