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1.
Exp Dermatol ; 33(4): e15069, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568090

RESUMO

Topicals and chemical peels are the standard of care for management of facial hyperpigmentation. However, traditional therapies have come under recent scrutiny, such as topical hydroquinone (HQ) has some regulatory restrictions, and high concentration trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel pose a risk in patients with skin of colour. The objective of our research was to identify, investigate and elucidate the mechanism of action of a novel TCA- and HQ-free professional-use chemical peel to manage common types of facial hyperpigmentation. Using computational modelling and in vitro assays on tyrosinase, we identified proprietary multi-acid synergistic technology (MAST). After a single application on human skin explants, MAST peel was found to be more effective than a commercial HQ peel in inhibiting melanin (histochemical imaging and gene expression). All participants completed the case study (N = 9) without any adverse events. After administration of the MAST peel by a dermatologist, the scoring and VISIA photography reported improvements in hyperpigmentation, texture and erythema, which could be linked to underlying pathophysiological changes in skin after peeling, visualized by non-invasive optical biopsy of face. Using reflectance confocal microscopy (VivaScope®) and multiphoton tomography (MPTflex™), we observed reduction in melanin, increase in metabolic activity of keratinocytes, and no signs of inflammatory cells after peeling. Subsequent swabbing of the cheek skin found no microbiota dysbiosis resulting from the chemical peel. The strong efficacy with minimum downtime and no adverse events could be linked to the synergistic action of the ingredients in the novel HQ- and TCA-free professional peel technology.


Assuntos
Hidroquinonas , Hiperpigmentação , Melaninas , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico , Pele , Biologia Computacional , Biópsia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542385

RESUMO

Vitiligo is a complex skin disorder that involves oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and currently lacks a definitive cure. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is a noninvasive method for targeting the auricular branch of the vagus nerve and has gained widespread attention for potential intervention in the autonomic nervous system. Although previous research has suggested that vagus nerve stimulation can potentially inhibit inflammatory responses, its specific role and mechanisms in vitiligo treatment remain unknown. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effects of taVNS in a mouse model of vitiligo induced by monobenzone. Initially, a quantitative assessment of the treatment effects on vitiligo mice was conducted using a scoring system, revealing that taVNS significantly alleviated symptoms, particularly by reducing the depigmented areas. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed the impact of taVNS treatment on melanocyte granules, mitigating pigment loss in the skin of monobenzone-induced vitiligo mice. Further analysis indicated that taVNS exerted its therapeutic effects through multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of oxidative stress, enhancement of antioxidant capacity, promotion of tyrosine synthesis, and suppression of inflammatory responses. The conclusions of this study not only emphasize the potential value of taVNS in vitiligo therapy, but also lay a foundation for future research into the mechanisms and clinical applications of taVNS.


Assuntos
Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Vitiligo , Animais , Camundongos , Vitiligo/induzido quimicamente , Vitiligo/terapia , Hidroquinonas , Nervo Vago
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 313: 124086, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442618

RESUMO

Synthetic antioxidants serve as essential protectors against oxidation and deterioration of edible oils, however, prudent evaluation is necessary regarding potential health risks associated with excessive intake. The direct adsorption of antioxidants onto conventional surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates is challenging due to the presence of phenolic hydroxyl groups in their molecular structures, resulting in weak Raman scattering signals and rendering direct SERS detection difficult. In this study, a diazo derivatization reaction was employed to enhance SERS signals by converting antioxidant molecules into azo derivatives, enabling the amplification of the weak Raman scattering signals through the strong vibrational modes induced by the N = N double bond. The resulting diazo derivatives were characterized using UV-visible absorption and infrared spectroscopy, confirming the occurrence of diazo derivatization of the antioxidants. The proposed method successfully achieved the rapid detection of three commonly used synthetic antioxidants, namely butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and propyl gallate (PG) on interfacial self-assembled gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, rapid predictions of BHA, PG, and TBHQ within the concentration range of 1 × 10-6 to 2 × 10-3 mol/L were achieved by integrating a convolutional neural network model. The predictive range of this model surpassed the traditional quantitative method of manually selecting characteristic peaks, with linear coefficients (R2) of 0.9992, 0.9997, and 0.9997, respectively. The recovery of antioxidants in real soybean oil samples ranged from 73.0 % to 126.4 %. Based on diazo derivatization, the proposed SERS method eliminates the need for complex substrates and enables the analysis and determination of synthetic antioxidants in edible oils within 20 min, providing a convenient analytical approach for quality control in the food industry.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Hidroquinonas , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antioxidantes/química , Ouro , Hidroxianisol Butilado/análise , Hidroxianisol Butilado/química , Galato de Propila/análise , Óleos
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133962, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452679

RESUMO

Tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) stand as one of the most widely used antioxidants in food and daily chemical products. Rapid and sensitive monitoring of TBHQ holds considerable importance in safeguarding human health due to its potential risks. In this study, we devised an alcogel-based colorimetric sensor enabling the portable and visual detection of TBHQ. The Ce-UiO-66 nanozyme exhibiting remarkable oxidase-like activity, was synthesized and characterized, facilitating the catalysis of TBHQ oxidation to 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TBBQ). The ensuing chromogenic reaction between TBBQ and ethylenediamine produced a stable and colored product, serving as a reliable indicator for the rapid and specific detection of TBHQ. Building upon this discovery, a portable and low-cost colorimetric sensor was fashioned by integrating the nanozyme into κ-carrageenan alcogel, thereby enabling on-site TBHQ detection via a smartphone-based sensing platform. The colorimetric sensor exhibited a detection limit of 0.8 µg mL-1, demonstrating robust performance across various matrices such as edible oils, cosmetics, and surface water. Recoveries ranged from 84.9 to 95.5%, with the sensor's accuracy further validated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our study presents an effective approach to rapid and convenient monitoring of TBHQ, exhibiting good extensibility and practicability.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Hidroquinonas , Humanos , Hidroquinonas/análise , Antioxidantes
5.
Food Chem ; 444: 138624, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354655

RESUMO

A novel ratiometric fluorescent probe based on non-conjugated polymer dots (NCPDs) and gold nanocluster (AuNCs) was constructed to determine tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). The probe exhibited dual emission peaks at 480 nm and 630 nm under 370 nm excitation. The fluorescence of AuNCs was quenched by TBHQ due to strong electrostatic interactions, whereas the emission of NCPDs increased. The ratio of fluorescence intensity at 480 nm to 630 nm (F480 / F630) was monitored as analytical signal response. The probe have been utilized for the detection of TBHQ with good linear relationship in the range of 0.2 to 60 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.048 µg/mL and 0.159 µg/L, respectively. Three levels of spiked-in TBHQ concentrations were obtained with recovery rates from 80 % to 102 %. The present study provided an effective ratiometric fluorescence method for selective screening of TBHQ in food samples.


Assuntos
Hidroquinonas , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Pontos Quânticos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Polímeros , Ouro , Corantes Fluorescentes
6.
J Phys Chem A ; 128(8): 1491-1500, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354404

RESUMO

Previously, we found that a Zn(II) complex with the redox-active ligand N-(2,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (H2qp1) was able to act as a functional mimic of superoxide dismutase, despite its lack of a redox-active transition metal. As the complex catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide to form O2 and H2O2, the quinol in the ligand is believed to cycle between three oxidation states: quinol, quinoxyl radical, and para-quinone. Although the metal is not the redox partner, it nonetheless is essential to the reactivity since the free ligand by itself is inactive as a catalyst. In the present work, we primarily use calculations to probe the mechanism. The calculations support the inner-sphere decomposition of superoxide, suggest that the quinol/quinoxyl radical couple accounts for most of the catalysis, and elucidate the many roles that proton transfer between the zinc complexes and buffer has in the reactivity. Acid/base reactions involving the nonmetal-coordinating hydroxyl group on the quinol are predicted to be key to lowering the energy of the intermediates. We prepared a Zn(II) complex with N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (Hpp1) that lacks this functional group and found that it could not catalyze the dismutation of superoxide; this confirms the importance of the second, distal hydroxyl group of the quinol.


Assuntos
Etilenodiaminas , Superóxido Dismutase , Zinco , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas , Superóxidos , Ligantes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 242: 116021, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354540

RESUMO

Multicomponent drugs are medications that combine two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients in a single dosage form. These dosage forms improve the patient compliance, reduce the risk of drug interactions, and simplify dosing regimens. However, quality control of these multicomponent dosage forms can be challenging, especially if the final product contains four or more ingredients that are active (comprise stabilizers, preservatives, excipients, and other components). This problem can be more pronounced if the excipients can interfere with the analysis. In this work, a stability indicating assay method was developed and validated (according to the ICH International Guidelines) for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ), tretinoin (TRT), hydrocortisone (HCA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), methyl paraben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP) in commercially available pharmaceutical creams. The proposed method is based on gradient elution using X-Bridge C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The linear ranges (µg/mL) were 240-560 for HQ, 24-56 for MP, 132-308 for HCA, 6-14 for PP, 12-28 for BHT, 6.6-15 for TRT. During the validation process, the intra- and interday precision and trueness (evaluated as recovery) were found to be below 2.0% and between 100-102%, respectively. System suitability tests (SST) allow validating the herein proposed procedure specifically for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. SST test shows that the reported procedure fulfill with the Guidelines, allowing excellent separation of the analytes with very sensitive, accurate (precise and true) and reproducible quantitation of each analytes. The method was successfully applied in forced degradation studies of the six analytes. Specifically, acid degradation slightly affected HCA and BHT (91% recovery), while alkaline degradation drastically reduced HCA recovery (5.5%) and moderately affected BHT (85%). Photodegradation primarily influenced TRT quantity, and oxidative degradation intensified the BHT peak (130%).


Assuntos
Parabenos , Tretinoína , Humanos , Parabenos/análise , Tretinoína/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Excipientes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hidroquinonas/análise
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 141: 330-342, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408832

RESUMO

We have found recently that two-step intrinsic hydroxyl radical (·OH)-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) could be produced by carcinogenic tetrahaloquinone and H2O2. However, the first-step CL was too fast to clearly detect the stepwise generation of ·OH and CL, and to distinguish the exact dividing point between the first-step and second-step CL. Here we found that, extremely clear two-step intrinsic CL could be produced by the relative slow reaction of tetrabromohydroquinone (TBHQ) with H2O2, which was directly dependent on the two-step ·OH generation. Interestingly, the second-step, but not the first-step CL production of TBHQ/H2O2 (CRET donor) was markedly enhanced by fluorescein (a typical xanthene dye, CRET acceptor) through a unique chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) process. The novel CRET system of TBHQ/H2O2/fluorescein was successfully applied for the sensitive detection of TBHQ with the detection limit as low as 2.5 µmol/L. These findings will help to develop more sensitive and highly efficient CL or CRET systems and specific CL sensor to detect the carcinogenic haloquinones, which may have broad environmental applications.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos , Hidroquinonas , Luminescência , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Fluoresceínas
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 468: 133795, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382342

RESUMO

Due to the potential environment and health risks of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), rapid, portable, selective and sensitive quantification of TBHQ in food and the environment are strictly essential. With this in mind, a selective, sensitive and rapid colorimetric TBHQ biosensor was developed using rationally designed copper-crosslinked carbon dot hydrogel nanozyme (BC-CDs@Cu). The BC-CDs@Cu had a high peroxidase-like activity toward the chromogenic reaction of hydrogen peroxide with dopamine via the generation of hydroxyl radicals and electron transfer process. The Michaelis-Menten constants of BC-CDs@Cu for dopamine and hydrogen peroxide were determined to be 0.86 and 0.91 mM. The added TBHQ markedly inhibited the BC-CDs@Cu-catalyzed dopamine oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, ascribing to the highly effective and rapid scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and the suppression of electron transfer. The inhibitory extent was applied for well quantifying TBHQ in the range of 0.5 - 20.0 µM with a detection limit of 70 nM. The proposed biosensor had a negligible response to various interfering substances. Moreover, a smartphone-assisted visual ratiometric biosensor was fabricated, and used to accomplish portable quantification of TBHQ in edible oils and water samples. This work reveals the enormous potential of hydrogel nanozyme, which will open a new situation for the detection of hazardous substances.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cobre , Hidroquinonas , Cobre/farmacologia , Carbono , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hidrogéis , Colorimetria , Dopamina , Smartphone , Antioxidantes
10.
Bioorg Chem ; 144: 107111, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218068

RESUMO

To mine fascinating molecules from the rhizomes of Atractylodes chinensis, the known molecular formula of atrachinenin A was used as a bait to search LC-HRMS data in different subfractions. Sixteen new meroterpenoids, atrachinenins D-S (1-16) including three unprecedented carbon skeletons (1-5) and eleven new oxygen-bridged hybrids (6-16) were obtained by the targeted isolation. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by the spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity of NO production and compounds 1, 4, 8, and 13 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity. The proposed biosynthetic pathways of 1-5 were also discussed.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Atractylodes/química , Hidroquinonas , Anti-Inflamatórios , Dicroísmo Circular , Estrutura Molecular
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38255794

RESUMO

Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) is an oxidative component produced by roasting coffee beans and has been reported to generate relatively large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we used senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice to determine whether HHQ consumption increases oxidative-stress-induced injury, because in SAMP8 mice, the activity of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, which repairs oxidative modifications in DNA, is decreased. The results showed that two out of twelve (16.7%) HHQ-treated mice presented polyuria and glucosuria around 2 months after the start of treatment, indicating that HHQ may act as a mutagen against SAMP8 mice, which is sensitive to oxidative damage. No abnormalities were observed in the chlorogenic acid (coffee polyphenol, CPP)-treated group. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the serum of SAMP8 mice was significantly higher than that in SAMR1 (senescence-resistant) control mice, and the concentration was further increased in the HHQ-treated group. CPP, when coexisting with HHQ at the rate contained in roasted coffee, decreased the amount of hydrogen peroxide in the serum of SAMP8 mice. Although CPP can act both oxidatively and antioxidatively as a polyphenol, CPP acts more antioxidatively when coexisting with HHQ. Thus, the oxidative effect of HHQ was shown to be counteracted by CPP.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico , Hidroquinonas , Polifenóis , Animais , Camundongos , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , DNA
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 128: 111529, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) plays a crucial role in DNA base excision repair, cell apoptosis, cell signaling, and the regulation of transcription factors through redox modulation and the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the connection between APE1 and acute liver injury (ALI) remains enigmatic. This study aims to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying ALI and shed light on the role of APE1 in this context. METHOD: We induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) and intervened with the APE1 inhibitor E3330. We examined the expression of APE1 in ALI mice and ALI patient tissues after E3330 intervention, Additionally, we measured hepatic oxidative stress, ferroptosis, and autophagy marker proteins and genes. In establishing an AML-12 liver cell injury model, we utilized the Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) as an intervention and examined APE1, Nrf2, ferroptosis-related proteins, and autophagy marker proteins and mRNA. RESULTS: Both ALI patients and ALI mice exhibited reduced APE1 expression levels. After E3330 intervention, there was a significant exacerbation of liver injury, oxidative stress, and a reduction in the expression of proteins, including GPX4, X-CT, ATG3, ATG5, and LC3 (LC3I/II). Consistent results were also observed in AML-12 cells. With TBHQ intervention, Nrf2 expression increased, along with the expression of proteins associated with iron death and autophagy. Mechanistically, APE1 activation regulates Nrf2 to inhibit ferroptosis and promote autophagy in hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that APE1 is a pivotal player in ALI, closely linked to its regulation of Nrf2. Strategies involving APE1 activation to modulate Nrf2, thereby inhibiting hepatocyte ferroptosis and promoting autophagy, may represent innovative therapeutic approaches for ALI. Additionally, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) holds significant promise in the treatment of acute liver injury.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas , Ferroptose , Hidroquinonas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Propionatos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Autofagia/genética , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
13.
Talanta ; 269: 125400, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972507

RESUMO

A bio-nanocomposite "Co-doped-g-C3N4@ biomolecule assisted electrochemically reduced graphene nanosheets (Co-g-C3N4@GNbme)" was prepared by electrochemical exfoliation of GO from graphite anode in the presence of amino acid 'l-cysteine' followed by its association with Co-g-C3N4. The preparation of material has been confirmed by characterizations with FTIR, XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology was investigated with TEM and SEM. Further, Co-g-C3N4@GNbme modified GC electrode was utilized for detecting and quantifying the 'Quinol' (a skin lightning agent) in cosmetic samples electrochemically. Quinol is a fundamental constituent utilized in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, oil refineries, textiles, and dyes. In the realm of cosmetics, it is utilized as a skin-lightning agent to inhibit the production of melanin in the skin. However, prolonged use of this component often results in allergic reactions among individuals. Furthermore, the effluents discharged from its manufacturing units pose a significant threat to the environment and human health due to its slow degradation. The detection limit was calculated to be 2.4 nM (S/N = 3).


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanocompostos , Humanos , Grafite/química , Hidroquinonas , Nanocompostos/química
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 387: 110809, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38006958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene and known hematotoxic carcinogen. MicroRNA 1246 (miR-1246), an oncogene, regulates target genes in carcinogenesis including leukemia. This study investigates the impact of exosomal derived miR-1246 from HQ-transformed (HQ19) cells on cell-to-cell communication in recipient TK6 cells. METHODS: RNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs in HQ19 cells and its phosphate buffered solution control cells (PBS19), which were then confirmed using qRT-PCR. The impact of exosomal miR-1246 derived from HQ-transformed cells on cell cycle distribution was investigated in recipient TK6 cells. RESULTS: RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 34 exosomal miRNAs were upregulated and 158 miRNAs were downregulated in HQ19 cells compared with PBS19 cells. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses predicted that their targets are enriched in cancer development-related pathways, such as MAPK signaling, microRNAs in cancer, apoptosis, PI3K-Akt signaling, cell cycle, Ras signaling, and Chronic myeloid leukemia. Eleven miRNAs were confirmed to have differential expression through qRT-PCR, with 6 upregulated (miR-140-3p, miR-551b-3p, miR-7-5p, miR-1290, miR-92a-3p, and miR-1246) and 5 downregulated (miR-183-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-205-5p, and miR-99b-3p). Among these, miR-1246 exhibited the highest expression level. HQ exposure resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in miR-1246 levels and decrease Cyclin G2 (CCNG2) levels in TK6 cells. Similarly, exosomes from HQ19 exhibited similar effects as HQ exposure. Dual luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that miR-1246 could band to CCNG2. After HQ exposure, exosomal miR-1246 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase, elevating the expression of genes like pRb, E2F1, and Cyclin D1 associated with S phase checkpoint. However, silencing miR-1246 caused G2/M-phase arrest. CONCLUSION: HQ-transformed cells' exosomal miR-1246 targets CCNG2, regulating TK6 cell cycle arrest, highlighting its potential as a biomarker for HQ-induced malignant transformation.


Assuntos
Ciclina G2 , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Ciclina G2/genética , Ciclina G2/metabolismo , Fase S , Hidroquinonas/toxicidade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica
15.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 13(1): 106-117, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37884051

RESUMO

APX3330 ((2E)-2-[(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)methylene]-undecanoic acid), a selective inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1, has been investigated in treatment of hepatitis, cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. APX3330 is administered orally as a quinone but is rapidly converted to the hydroquinone form. This study describes the pharmacokinetics of APX3330 and explores effect of food on absorption. Total plasma quinone concentrations of APX3330 were obtained following oral administration from studies in healthy Japanese male subjects (single dose-escalation; multiple-dose; food-effect) and patients with cancer patients. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling was performed using Monolix to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters and assess covariate effects. To further evaluate the effect of food on absorption, a semi-physiologic pharmacokinetic model was developed in Gastroplus to delineate effects of food on dissolution and absorption. A two-compartment, first order absorption model with lag time best described plasma concentration-time profiles from 49 healthy Japanese males. Weight was positively correlated with apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume. Administration with food led to an 80% higher lag time. CL/F was 41% higher in the cancer population. The semi-physiologic model indicates a switch from dissolution-rate control of absorption in the fasted-state to gastric emptying rate determining absorption rate in the fed-state. Oral clearance of APX3330 is higher in patients with cancer than healthy Japanese males, possibly due to reduced serum albumin in patients with cancer. Delayed APX3330 absorption with food may be related to higher conversion to the more soluble but less permeable hydroquinone form in the gastrointestinal tract. Future work should address pharmacokinetic differences between APX3330 quinone and hydroquinone forms.


Assuntos
Hidroquinonas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Oral , Inibidores da Angiogênese , Quinonas
16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 90(2): 269-279, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melasma is a chronic hypermelanosis of the skin that affects approximately 1% of the global population, predominantly affects women, and is more prevalent in skin of color. Melasma is a common driver for patients with skin of color to seek out a dermatologist for treatment, and ensuring the right approach for these patients is important because some treatments may be associated with adverse side effects. Because of the chronicity of the disease and established psychosocial and emotional impacts, there is a large need to ensure care follows the best available evidence on the treatment of patients with melasma. OBJECTIVE: Here, we summarized current available topical treatments for melasma with considerations dermatologists should have for their patients with skin of color. METHODS: Steering committee consensus on clinical best practices. RESULTS: We describe a flexible and focused treatment algorithm that reflects both treatment and maintenance periods that is a consensus of our extensive clinical experience. LIMITATIONS: Use of real-world evidence and potential for individual practice bias. CONCLUSION: Melasma can be challenging to treat, particularly in patients with skin of color, and our recommendations for best practices for patients in the United States are an important step toward standardizing care.


Assuntos
Melanose , Tretinoína , Humanos , Feminino , Fluocinolona Acetonida/efeitos adversos , Pigmentação da Pele , Hidroquinonas , Melanose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Environ Toxicol ; 39(4): 2092-2101, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38108535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzene and its metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) are widely used in daily life, and long-term exposure to benzene or HQ can induce acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are mostly produced by reverse splicing of gene exon mRNA precursors. The modulation of circRNA expression is connected to leukemia progression; however, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the cells were divided into four groups: PBS control group (PBS-TK6), TK6 malignantly transformed cells induced by 10.0 µmol/L HQ (HQ-TK6), and HQ-TK6 cells treated with 5 µmol/L 5-AzaC (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) for 24 h (HQ + 5-AzaC). HQ-TK6 cells were treated with 200 nmol/L TSA (histone deacetylation inhibitor) for 24 h (HQ + TSA). qRT-PCR was used to identify the differential hsa_circ_401351 expression between the four groups. We further determined the hsa_circ_401351 promoter methylation level with methylation-specific PCR. DNMT1 and DNMT3b were knocked down by CRISPR/Cas9 to elucidate the specific molecular mechanism of hsa_circ_401351 in HQ-TK6 cells. CCK-8 and flow cytometry detected cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively, after hsa_circ_401351 was overexpressed in HQ-TK6 cells. RESULTS: Compared with the PBS-TK6 group, the expression of hsa_circ_401351 was found to be lower in the HQ-TK6 group. Nevertheless, treatment with 5-AzaC or TSA increased hsa_circ_401351 expression, with the upregulation being more pronounced in the TSA group. The expression of hsa_circ_401351 in the DNMT1 knockdown group was dramatically increased by 50% compared to that in the control group, and the DNA methylation level of the hsa_circ_401351 promoter region was decreased. When hsa_circ_401351 was overexpressed, HQ-TK6 cell proliferation was significantly slowed after 48 h compared with the control group. Flow cytometry showed that cells were mainly arrested in G1 phase, and apoptosis was significantly enhanced. Similarly, qRT-PCR and Western blot data showed significant reductions in Caspase-3 mRNA and protein production, and Bcl-2 mRNA levels were also elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our research showed that elevated DNMT1 expression in HQ-TK6 cells increased methylation levels and decreased expression of the hsa_circ_401351 promoter region, limiting its ability to suppress HQ-TK6 cell growth and enhance apoptosis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , MicroRNAs , Hidroquinonas/toxicidade , Benzeno , Proliferação de Células , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Apoptose/genética
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 912: 169555, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157913

RESUMO

Antioxidants are typically seen as agents that mitigate environmental health risks due to their ability to scavenge free radicals. However, our research presents a paradox where these molecules, particularly those within lung fluid, act as prooxidants in the presence of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5), thus enhancing PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP). In our study, we examined a range of antioxidants found in the respiratory system (e.g., vitamin C, glutathione (GSH), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC)), in plasma (vitamin A, vitamin E, and ß-carotene), and in food (tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ)). We aimed to explore antioxidants' prooxidant and antioxidant interactions with PM2.5 and the resulting OP and cytotoxicity. We employed OH generation assays and electron paramagnetic resonance assays to assess the pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative effects of antioxidants. Additionally, we assessed cytotoxicity interaction using a Chinese hamster ovary cell cytotoxicity assay. Our findings revealed that, in the presence of PM2.5, all antioxidants except vitamin E significantly increased the PM2.5 OP by generating more OH radicals (OH generation rate: 0.16-24.67 pmol·min-1·m-3). However, it's noteworthy that these generated OH radicals were at least partially neutralized by the antioxidants themselves. Among the pro-oxidative antioxidants, vitamin A, ß-carotene, and TBHQ showed the least ability to quench these radicals, consistent with their observed impact in enhancing PM2.5 cytotoxicity (PM2.5 LC50 reduced to 91.2 %, 88.8 %, and 75.1 % of PM2.5's original level, respectively). Notably, vitamin A and TBHQ-enhanced PM2.5 OP were strongly associated with the presence of metals and organic compounds, particularly with copper (Cu) contributing significantly (35 %) to TBHQ's pro-oxidative effect. Our study underscores the potential health risks associated with the interaction between antioxidants and ambient pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Antioxidantes , Hidroquinonas , Cricetinae , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , beta Caroteno , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Células CHO , Vitamina A , Cricetulus , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Vitamina E , Glutationa , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(1): 24, 2023 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057640

RESUMO

α-Arbutin, a naturally occurring glycosylated derivative of hydroquinone (HQ), effectively inhibits melanin biosynthesis in epidermal cells. It is widely recognized as a fourth-generation whitening agent within the cosmetic industry. Currently, enzymatic catalysis is universally deemed the safest and most efficient method for α-arbutin synthesis. Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase), one of the most frequently employed glycosyltransferases, has been extensively reported for α-arbutin synthesis. In this study, a previously reported SPase known for its effectiveness in synthesizing α-arbutin, was used as a probe sequence to identify a novel SPase from Paenibacillus elgii (PeSP) in the protein database. The sequence similarity between PeSP and the probe was 39.71%, indicating a degree of novelty. Subsequently, the gene encoding PeSP was coexpressed with the molecular chaperone pG-Tf2 in Escherichia coli, significantly improving PeSP's solubility. Following this, PeSP was characterized and employed for α-arbutin biosynthesis. The specific activity of co-expressed PeSP reached 169.72 U/mg, exhibited optimal activity at 35℃ and pH 7.0, with a half-life of 3.6 h under the condition of 35℃. PeSP demonstrated excellent stability at pH 6.5-8.5 and sensitivity to high concentrations of metal ions. The kinetic parameters Km and kcat/Km were determined to be 14.50 mM and 9.79 min- 1·mM- 1, respectively.The reaction conditions for α-arbutin biosynthesis using recombinant PeSP were optimized, resulting in a maximum α-arbutin concentration of 52.60 g/L and a HQ conversion rate of 60.9%. The optimal conditions were achieved at 30℃ and pH 7.0 with 200 U/mL of PeSP, and by combining sucrose and hydroquinone at a molar ratio of 5:1 for a duration of 25 h.


Assuntos
Arbutina , Hidroquinonas , Hidroquinonas/metabolismo , Arbutina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(23)2023 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069124

RESUMO

Abnormal pigmentation or depigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a precursor to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). In this study, we evaluated the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), the most potent reductant in cigarette smoke, on the melanin production in RPE cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived RPE and adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells were cultured with HQ. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of melanin-related genes decreased due to the addition of HQ for 1 day. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay showed that the concentration of melanin significantly decreased due to the addition of HQ for 24 h. A suspension of RPE cells with HQ for 24 h was prepared, and the absorbance was measured. The absorbance decreased particularly under blue light, suggesting that blue light may reach the choroid and cause choroidal inflammation. Additionally, melanin levels significantly decreased due to the addition of HQ for 1 week. After blue light irradiation on the RPE with HQ for 1 week, the vascular endothelial growth factor in the medium was significantly higher in the HQ group than in the control group. HQ-induced changes in melanin production may be responsible for the uneven pigmentation of the RPE, and these changes may cause nAMD.


Assuntos
Hidroquinonas , Melaninas , Melaninas/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
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