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1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 106, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Recently, targeted therapies including PD1 (programmed cell death 1) antibodies have been used in advanced GC patients. However, identifying new biomarker for immunotherapy is still urgently needed. The objective of this study is to unveil the immune evasion mechanism of GC cells and identify new biomarkers for immune checkpoint blockade therapy in patients with GC. METHODS: Coimmunoprecipitation and meRIP were performed to investigate the mechanism of immune evasion of GC cells. Cocuture system was established to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cocultured CD8+ T cells. The clinical significance of HSPA4 upregulation was analyzed by multiplex fluorescent immunohistochemistry staining in GC tumor tissues. RESULTS: Histone acetylation causes HSPA4 upregulation in GC tumor tissues. HSPA4 upregulation increases the protein stability of m6A demethylase ALKBH5. ALKBH5 decreases CD58 in GC cells through m6A methylation regulation. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells are impaired and PD1/PDL1 axis is activated when CD8+ T cells are cocultured with HSPA4 overexpressed GC cells. HSPA4 upregulation is associated with worse 5-year overall survival of GC patients receiving only surgery. It is an independent prognosis factor for worse survival of GC patients. In GC patients receiving the combined chemotherapy with anti-PD1 immunotherapy, HSPA4 upregulation is observed in responders compared with non-responders. CONCLUSION: HSPA4 upregulation causes the decrease of CD58 in GC cells via HSPA4/ALKBH5/CD58 axis, followed by PD1/PDL1 activation and impairment of CD8+ T cell's cytotoxicity, finally induces immune evasion of GC cells. HSPA4 upregulation is associated with worse overall survival of GC patients with only surgery. Meanwhile, HSPA4 upregulation predicts for better response in GC patients receiving the combined immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Quimioterapia Combinada , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP110/metabolismo , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2818, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561369

RESUMO

Interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells is important for the antitumor immune response. However, the tumor microenvironment may turn immune suppressive, and tumor associated macrophages are playing a role in this transition. Here, we show that CD276, expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), play a role in diminishing the immune response against tumors. Using a model of tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine in BLCA male mice we show that genetic ablation of CD276 in TAMs blocks efferocytosis and enhances the expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) of TAMs. This in turn increases CD4 + and cytotoxic CD8 + T cell infiltration of the tumor. Combined single cell RNA sequencing and functional experiments reveal that CD276 activates the lysosomal signaling pathway and the transcription factor JUN to regulate the expression of AXL and MerTK, resulting in enhanced efferocytosis in TAMs. Proving the principle, we show that simultaneous blockade of CD276 and PD-1 restrain tumor growth better than any of the components as a single intervention. Taken together, our study supports a role for CD276 in efferocytosis by TAMs, which is potentially targetable for combination immune therapy.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Associados a Tumor , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , 60574 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297093, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that when vaccines prevent infection, the dynamics of mixing between vaccinated and unvaccinated sub-populations is such that use of imperfect vaccines markedly decreases risk for vaccinated people, and for the population overall. Risks to vaccinated people accrue disproportionately from contact with unvaccinated people. In the context of the emergence of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 and evolving understanding of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology, we updated our analysis to evaluate whether our earlier conclusions remained valid. METHODS: We modified a previously published Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 with two connected sub-populations: vaccinated and unvaccinated, with non-random mixing between groups. Our expanded model incorporates diminished vaccine efficacy for preventing infection with the emergence of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants, waning immunity, the impact of prior immune experience on infectivity, "hybrid" effects of infection in previously vaccinated individuals, and booster vaccination. We evaluated the dynamics of an epidemic within each subgroup and in the overall population over a 10-year time horizon. RESULTS: Even with vaccine efficacy as low as 20%, and in the presence of waning immunity, the incidence of COVID-19 in the vaccinated subpopulation was lower than that among the unvaccinated population across the full 10-year time horizon. The cumulative risk of infection was 3-4 fold higher among unvaccinated people than among vaccinated people, and unvaccinated people contributed to infection risk among vaccinated individuals at twice the rate that would have been expected based on the frequency of contacts. These findings were robust across a range of assumptions around the rate of waning immunity, the impact of "hybrid immunity", frequency of boosting, and the impact of prior infection on infectivity in unvaccinated people. INTERPRETATION: Although the emergence of the Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 has diminished the protective effects of vaccination against infection with SARS-CoV-2, updating our earlier model to incorporate loss of immunity, diminished vaccine efficacy and a longer time horizon, does not qualitatively change our earlier conclusions. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 continues to diminish the risk of infection among vaccinated people and in the population as a whole. By contrast, the risk of infection among vaccinated people accrues disproportionately from contact with unvaccinated people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Vacinas , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Modelos Epidemiológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1381877, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572316

RESUMO

Most of vaccinees and COVID-19 convalescents can build effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity, which helps preventing infection and alleviating symptoms. However, breakthrough viral infections caused by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially Omicron subvariants, still pose a serious threat to global health. By monitoring the viral infections and the sera neutralization ability of a long-tracked cohort, we found out that the immune evasion of emerging Omicron subvariants and the decreasing neutralization led to the mini-wave of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections. Meanwhile, no significant difference had been found in the infectivity of tested SARS-CoV-2 variants, even though the affinity between human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and receptor-binding domain (RBDs) of tested variants showed an increasing trend. Notably, the immune imprinting of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine can be relieved by infections of BA.5.2 and XBB.1.5 variants sequentially. Our data reveal the rising reinfection risk of immune evasion variants like Omicron JN.1 in China, suggesting the importance of booster with updated vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Infecções Irruptivas , Estudos de Coortes , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais
5.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 249: 10126, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510493

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l). In the intermediate host, this disease is characterized by the growth of cysts in viscera such as liver and lungs, inside of which the parasite develops to the next infective stage known as protoscoleces. There are records that the infected viscera affect the development and morphology of E. granulosus s.l. protoscolex in hosts such as buffalo or humans. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive these differences remains unknown. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) using a set of RNAseq data obtained from E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) protoscoleces found in liver and lung cysts reveals 34 modules in protoscoleces of liver origin, of which 12 have differential co-expression from protoscoleces of lung origin. Three of these twelve modules contain hub genes related to immune evasion: tegument antigen, tegumental protein, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L3, COP9 signalosome complex subunit 3, tetraspanin CD9 antigen, and the methyl-CpG-binding protein Mbd2. Also, two of the twelve modules contain only hypothetical proteins with unknown orthology, which means that there are a group of unknown function proteins co-expressed inside the protoscolex of liver CE cyst origin. This is the first evidence of gene expression differences in protoscoleces from CE cysts found in different viscera, with co-expression networks that are exclusive to protoscoleces from liver CE cyst samples. This should be considered in the control strategies of CE, as intermediate hosts can harbor CE cysts in liver, lungs, or both organs simultaneously.


Assuntos
Cistos , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Humanos , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Genótipo , Equinococose/genética , Equinococose/parasitologia
6.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1339660, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464527

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic. The Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was first discovered in November 2021 in specimens collected from Botswana, South Africa. Omicron has become the dominant variant worldwide, and several sublineages or subvariants have been identified recently. Compared to those of other mutants, the Omicron variant has the most highly expressed amino acid mutations, with almost 60 mutations throughout the genome, most of which are in the spike (S) protein, especially in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). These mutations increase the binding affinity of Omicron variants for the ACE2 receptor, and Omicron variants may also lead to immune escape. Despite causing milder symptoms, epidemiological evidence suggests that Omicron variants have exceptionally higher transmissibility, higher rates of reinfection and greater spread than the prototype strain as well as other preceding variants. Additionally, overwhelming amounts of data suggest that the levels of specific neutralization antibodies against Omicron variants decrease in most vaccinated populations, although CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses are maintained. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying Omicron variant evasion are still unclear. In this review, we surveyed the current epidemic status and potential immune escape mechanisms of Omicron variants. Especially, we focused on the potential roles of viral epitope mutations, antigenic drift, hybrid immunity, and "original antigenic sin" in mediating immune evasion. These insights might supply more valuable concise information for us to understand the spreading of Omicron variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Anticorpos , Pandemias
7.
Nat Microbiol ; 9(4): 988-1006, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538832

RESUMO

The human facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex is a chromatin remodeller composed of human suppressor of Ty 16 homologue (hSpt16) and structure-specific recognition protein-1 subunits that regulates cellular gene expression. Whether FACT regulates host responses to infection remained unclear. We identify a FACT-mediated, interferon-independent, antiviral pathway that restricts poxvirus replication. Cell culture and bioinformatics approaches suggest that early viral gene expression triggers nuclear accumulation of SUMOylated hSpt16 subunits required for the expression of E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (ETS-1)-a transcription factor that activates virus restriction programs. However, biochemical studies show that poxvirus-encoded A51R proteins block ETS-1 expression by outcompeting structure-specific recognition protein-1 binding to SUMOylated hSpt16 and by tethering SUMOylated hSpt16 to microtubules. Furthermore, A51R antagonism of FACT enhances poxvirus replication in human cells and virulence in mice. Finally, we show that FACT also restricts rhabdoviruses, flaviviruses and orthomyxoviruses, suggesting broad roles for FACT in antiviral immunity. Our study reveals the FACT-ETS-1 antiviral response (FEAR) pathway to be critical for eukaryotic antiviral immunity and describes a unique mechanism of viral immune evasion.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferons , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Cromatina
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(14): e2321611121, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547058

RESUMO

Malignant glioma exhibits immune evasion characterized by highly expressing the immune checkpoint CD47. RNA 5-methylcytosine(m5C) modification plays a pivotal role in tumor pathogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying m5C-modified RNA metabolism remains unclear, as does the contribution of m5C-modified RNA to the glioma immune microenvironment. In this study, we demonstrate that the canonical 28SrRNA methyltransferase NSUN5 down-regulates ß-catenin by promoting the degradation of its mRNA, leading to enhanced phagocytosis of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Specifically, the NSUN5-induced suppression of ß-catenin relies on its methyltransferase activity mediated by cysteine 359 (C359) and is not influenced by its localization in the nucleolus. Intriguingly, NSUN5 directly interacts with and deposits m5C on CTNNB1 caRNA (chromatin-associated RNA). NSUN5-induced recruitment of TET2 to chromatin is independent of its methyltransferase activity. The m5C modification on caRNA is subsequently oxidized into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by TET2, which is dependent on its binding affinity for Fe2+ and α-KG. Furthermore, NSUN5 enhances the chromatin recruitment of RBFOX2 which acts as a 5hmC-specific reader to recognize and facilitate the degradation of 5hmC caRNA. Notably, hmeRIP-seq analysis reveals numerous mRNA substrates of NSUN5 that potentially undergo this mode of metabolism. In addition, NSUN5 is epigenetically suppressed by DNA methylation and is negatively correlated with IDH1-R132H mutation in glioma patients. Importantly, pharmacological blockage of DNA methylation or IDH1-R132H mutant and CD47/SIRPα signaling synergistically enhances TAM-based phagocytosis and glioma elimination in vivo. Our findings unveil a general mechanism by which NSUN5/TET2/RBFOX2 signaling regulates RNA metabolism and highlight NSUN5 targeting as a potential strategy for glioma immune therapy.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina , 5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Dioxigenases , Glioma , Proteínas Musculares , Humanos , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Cromatina , Antígeno CD47/genética , RNA , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Glioma/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno , Microambiente Tumoral , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1356651, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469300

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis, cause over 100,000 deaths worldwide every year, yet no cryptococcal vaccine has progressed to clinical trials. In preclinical studies, mice vaccinated with an attenuated strain of C. neoformans deleted of three cryptococcal chitin deacetylases (Cn-cda1Δ2Δ3Δ) were protected against a lethal challenge with C. neoformans strain KN99. While Cn-cda1Δ2Δ3Δ extended the survival of mice infected with C. gattii strain R265 compared to unvaccinated groups, we were unable to demonstrate fungal clearance as robust as that seen following KN99 challenge. In stark contrast to vaccinated mice challenged with KN99, we also found that R265-challenged mice failed to induce the production of protection-associated cytokines and chemokines in the lungs. To investigate deficiencies in the vaccine response to R265 infection, we developed a KN99-R265 coinfection model. In unvaccinated mice, the strains behaved in a manner which mirrored single infections, wherein only KN99 disseminated to the brain and spleen. We expanded the coinfection model to Cn-cda1Δ2Δ3Δ-vaccinated mice. Fungal burden, cytokine production, and immune cell infiltration in the lungs of vaccinated, coinfected mice were indicative of immune evasion by C. gattii R265 as the presence of R265 neither compromised the immunophenotype established in response to KN99 nor inhibited clearance of KN99. Collectively, these data indicate that R265 does not dampen a protective vaccine response, but rather suggest that R265 remains largely undetected by the immune system.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Criptococose , Cryptococcus gattii , Cryptococcus neoformans , Vacinas , Camundongos , Animais , Evasão da Resposta Imune
10.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1355153, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426094

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most critical infectious complication in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the period between a therapeutic hematoablative treatment and the hematopoietic reconstitution of the immune system. Clinical investigation as well as the mouse model of experimental HCT have consistently shown that timely reconstitution of antiviral CD8 T cells is critical for preventing CMV disease in HCT recipients. Reconstitution of cells of the T-cell lineage generates naïve CD8 T cells with random specificities among which CMV-specific cells need to be primed by presentation of viral antigen for antigen-specific clonal expansion and generation of protective antiviral effector CD8 T cells. For CD8 T-cell priming two pathways are discussed: "direct antigen presentation" by infected professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPCs) and "antigen cross-presentation" by uninfected pAPCs that take up antigenic material derived from infected tissue cells. Current view in CMV immunology favors the cross-priming hypothesis with the argument that viral immune evasion proteins, known to interfere with the MHC class-I pathway of direct antigen presentation by infected cells, would inhibit the CD8 T-cell response. While the mode of antigen presentation in the mouse model of CMV infection has been studied in the immunocompetent host under genetic or experimental conditions excluding either pathway of antigen presentation, we are not aware of any study addressing the medically relevant question of how newly generated naïve CD8 T cells become primed in the phase of lympho-hematopoietic reconstitution after HCT. Here we used the well-established mouse model of experimental HCT and infection with murine CMV (mCMV) and pursued the recently described approach of up- or down-modulating direct antigen presentation by using recombinant viruses lacking or overexpressing the central immune evasion protein m152 of mCMV, respectively. Our data reveal that the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response directly reflects the level of direct antigen presentation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Reconstituição Imune , Camundongos , Animais , Citomegalovirus , Apresentação de Antígeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos
11.
Nat Mater ; 23(3): 312-313, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438619
12.
Gastric Cancer ; 27(3): 519-538, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis (PM-GC), recognized as one of the deadliest cancers. However, whether and how the tumor cell-extrinsic tumor microenvironment (TME) is involved in the therapeutic failure remains unknown. Thus, this study systematically assessed the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in ascites from patients with PM-GC, and its contribution to dissemination and immune evasion of ascites-disseminated tumor cells (aDTCs). METHODS: Sixty-three ascites and 43 peripheral blood (PB) samples from 51 patients with PM-GC were included in this study. aDTCs in ascites and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in paired PB were immunophenotypically profiled. Using single-cell RNA transcriptional sequencing (scRNA-seq), crosstalk between aDTCs and the TME features of ascites was inspected. Further studies on the mechanism underlying aDTCs-immune cells crosstalk were performed on in vitro cultured aDTCs. RESULTS: Immune cells in ascites interact with aDTCs, prompting their immune evasion. Specifically, we found that the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in ascites underwent a continuum lineage transition from cathepsinhigh (CTShigh) to complement 1qhigh (C1Qhigh) TAM. CTShigh TAM initially attracted the metastatic tumor cells to ascites, thereafter, transitioning terminally to C1Qhigh TAM to trigger overproliferation and immune escape of aDTCs. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that C1Qhigh TAMs significantly enhanced the expression of PD-L1 and NECTIN2 on aDTCs, which was driven by the activation of the C1q-mediated complement pathway. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we identified an immunosuppressive macrophage transition from CTShigh to C1Qhigh TAM in ascites from patients with PM-GC. This may contribute to developing potential TAM-targeted immunotherapies for PM-GC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Peritoneais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia , Ascite , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Complemento C1q , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2163, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461299

RESUMO

Recent development of new immune checkpoint inhibitors has been particularly successfully in cancer treatment, but still the majority patients fail to benefit. Converting resistant tumors to immunotherapy sensitive will provide a significant improvement in patient outcome. Here we identify Mi-2ß as a key melanoma-intrinsic effector regulating the adaptive anti-tumor immune response. Studies in genetically engineered mouse melanoma models indicate that loss of Mi-2ß rescues the immune response to immunotherapy in vivo. Mechanistically, ATAC-seq analysis shows that Mi-2ß controls the accessibility of IFN-γ-stimulated genes (ISGs). Mi-2ß binds to EZH2 and promotes K510 methylation of EZH2, subsequently activating the trimethylation of H3K27 to inhibit the transcription of ISGs. Finally, we develop an Mi-2ß-targeted inhibitor, Z36-MP5, which reduces Mi-2ß ATPase activity and reactivates ISG transcription. Consequently, Z36-MP5 induces a response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in otherwise resistant melanoma models. Our work provides a potential therapeutic strategy to convert immunotherapy resistant melanomas to sensitive ones.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Melanoma , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Metilação , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1302587, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533507

RESUMO

The breast cancer tumor microenvironment (TME) is dynamic, with various immune and non-immune cells interacting to regulate tumor progression and anti-tumor immunity. It is now evident that the cells within the TME significantly contribute to breast cancer progression and resistance to various conventional and newly developed anti-tumor therapies. Both immune and non-immune cells in the TME play critical roles in tumor onset, uncontrolled proliferation, metastasis, immune evasion, and resistance to anti-tumor therapies. Consequently, molecular and cellular components of breast TME have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for developing novel treatments. The breast TME primarily comprises cancer cells, stromal cells, vasculature, and infiltrating immune cells. Currently, numerous clinical trials targeting specific TME components of breast cancer are underway. However, the complexity of the TME and its impact on the evasion of anti-tumor immunity necessitate further research to develop novel and improved breast cancer therapies. The multifaceted nature of breast TME cells arises from their phenotypic and functional plasticity, which endows them with both pro and anti-tumor roles during tumor progression. In this review, we discuss current understanding and recent advances in the pro and anti-tumoral functions of TME cells and their implications for developing safe and effective therapies to control breast cancer progress.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Comunicação Celular , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Células Estromais
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(3)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535967

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that altered microbiota abundance of a range of specific anaerobic bacteria are associated with cancer, including Peptoniphilus spp., Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Fenollaria spp., Prevotella spp., Sneathia spp., Veillonella spp. and Anaerococcus spp. linked to multiple cancer types. In this review we explore these pathogenic associations. The mechanisms by which bacteria are known or predicted to interact with human cells are reviewed and we present an overview of the interlinked mechanisms and hypotheses of how multiple intracellular anaerobic bacterial pathogens may act together to cause host cell and tissue microenvironment changes associated with carcinogenesis and cancer cell invasion. These include combined effects on changes in cell signalling, DNA damage, cellular metabolism and immune evasion. Strategies for early detection and eradication of anaerobic cancer-associated bacterial pathogens that may prevent cancer progression are proposed.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias , Carcinogênese , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Porphyromonas , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
J Med Chem ; 67(6): 4483-4495, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452116

RESUMO

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-encoded accessory protein Nef enhances pathogenicity by reducing major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) cell surface expression, protecting HIV-infected cells from immune recognition. Nef-dependent downmodulation of MHC-I can be reversed by subnanomolar concentrations of concanamycin A (1), a well-known inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase, at concentrations below those that interfere with lysosomal acidification or degradation. We conducted a structure-activity relationship study that assessed 76 compounds for Nef inhibition, 24 and 72 h viability, and lysosomal neutralization in Nef-expressing primary T cells. This analysis demonstrated that the most potent compounds were natural concanamycins and their derivatives. Comparison against a set of new, semisynthetic concanamycins revealed that substituents at C-8 and acylation of C-9 significantly affected Nef potency, target cell viability, and lysosomal neutralization. These findings provide important progress toward understanding the mechanism of action of these compounds and the identification of an advanced lead anti-HIV Nef inhibitory compound.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras , Humanos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542078

RESUMO

Tumors intricately shape a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment, hampering effective antitumor immune responses through diverse mechanisms. Consequently, achieving optimal efficacy in cancer immunotherapy necessitates the reorganization of the tumor microenvironment and restoration of immune responses. Bladder cancer, ranking as the second most prevalent malignant tumor of the urinary tract, presents a formidable challenge. Immunotherapeutic interventions including intravesical BCG and immune checkpoint inhibitors such as atezolizumab, avelumab, and pembrolizumab have been implemented. However, a substantial unmet need persists as a majority of bladder cancer patients across all stages do not respond adequately to immunotherapy. Bladder cancer establishes a microenvironment that can actively hinder an efficient anti-tumor immune response. A deeper understanding of immune evasion mechanisms in bladder cancer will aid in suppressing recurrence and identifying viable therapeutic targets. This review seeks to elucidate mechanisms of immune evasion specific to bladder cancer and explore novel pathways and molecular targets that might circumvent resistance to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Imunoterapia , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1342913, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469348

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the predominant pathogen causing chronic gastric mucosal infections globally. During the period from 2011 to 2022, the global prevalence of H. pylori infection was estimated at 43.1%, while in China, it was slightly higher at approximately 44.2%. Persistent colonization by H. pylori can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and malignancies such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas and gastric adenocarcinomas. Despite eliciting robust immune responses from the host, H. pylori thrives in the gastric mucosa by modulating host immunity, particularly by altering the functions of innate and adaptive immune cells, and dampening inflammatory responses adverse to its survival, posing challenges to clinical management. The interaction between H. pylori and host immune defenses is intricate, involving evasion of host recognition by modifying surface molecules, manipulating macrophage functionality, and modulating T cell responses to evade immune surveillance. This review analyzes the immunopathogenic and immune evasion mechanisms of H. pylori, underscoring the importance of identifying new therapeutic targets and developing effective treatment strategies, and discusses how the development of vaccines against H. pylori offers new hope for eradicating such infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Linfócitos T , Imunidade Inata
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474071

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the smallest self-replicating organisms. It causes chronic respiratory disease, leading to significant economic losses in poultry industry. Following M. gallisepticum invasion, the pathogen can persist in the host owing to its immune evasion, resulting in long-term chronic infection. The strategies of immune evasion by mycoplasmas are very complex and recent research has unraveled these sophisticated mechanisms. The antigens of M. gallisepticum exhibit high-frequency changes in size and expression cycle, allowing them to evade the activation of the host humoral immune response. M. gallisepticum can invade non-phagocytic chicken cells and also regulate microRNAs to modulate cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis in tracheal epithelial cells during the disease process. M. gallisepticum has been shown to transiently activate the inflammatory response and then inhibit it by suppressing key inflammatory mediators, avoiding being cleared. The regulation and activation of immune cells are important for host response against mycoplasma infection. However, M. gallisepticum has been shown to interfere with the functions of macrophages and lymphocytes, compromising their defense capabilities. In addition, the pathogen can cause immunological damage to organs by inducing an inflammatory response, cell apoptosis, and oxidative stress, leading to immunosuppression in the host. This review comprehensively summarizes these evasion tactics employed by M. gallisepticum, providing valuable insights into better prevention and control of mycoplasma infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Galinhas , Aves Domésticas
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474124

RESUMO

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce a capsule of polysaccharides identical to those composing the O-antigen polysaccharide of its LPS (lipopolysaccharide) molecules. In light of this, the impact of O26 polysaccharides on the immune evasion mechanisms of capsulated O26 EPEC compared to non-capsulated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was investigated. Our findings reveal that there was no significant difference between the levels in EPEC and EHEC of rhamnose (2.8:2.5), a molecule considered to be a PAMP (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns). However, the levels of glucose (10:1.69), heptose (3.6:0.89) and N-acetylglucosamine (4.5:2.10), were significantly higher in EPEC than EHEC, respectively. It was also observed that the presence of a capsule in EPEC inhibited the deposition of C3b on the bacterial surface and protected the pathogen against lysis by the complement system. In addition, the presence of a capsule also protected EPEC against phagocytosis by macrophages. However, the immune evasion provided by the capsule was overcome in the presence of anti-O26 polysaccharide antibodies, and additionally, these antibodies were able to inhibit O26 EPEC adhesion to human epithelial cells. Finally, the results indicate that O26 polysaccharides can generate an effective humoral immune response, making them promising antigens for the development of a vaccine against capsulated O26 E. coli.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Vacinas
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