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7.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1347139, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726016

RESUMO

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disease characterized by social disorder. Recently, the population affected by ASD has gradually increased around the world. There are great difficulties in diagnosis and treatment at present. Methods: The ASD datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and the immune-relevant genes were downloaded from a previously published compilation. Subsequently, we used WGCNA to screen the modules related to the ASD and immune. We also choose the best combination and screen out the core genes from Consensus Machine Learning Driven Signatures (CMLS). Subsequently, we evaluated the genetic correlation between immune cells and ASD used GNOVA. And pleiotropic regions identified by PLACO and CPASSOC between ASD and immune cells. FUMA was used to identify pleiotropic regions, and expression trait loci (EQTL) analysis was used to determine their expression in different tissues and cells. Finally, we use qPCR to detect the gene expression level of the core gene. Results: We found a close relationship between neutrophils and ASD, and subsequently, CMLS identified a total of 47 potential candidate genes. Secondly, GNOVA showed a significant genetic correlation between neutrophils and ASD, and PLACO and CPASSOC identified a total of 14 pleiotropic regions. We annotated the 14 regions mentioned above and identified a total of 6 potential candidate genes. Through EQTL, we found that the CFLAR gene has a specific expression pattern in neutrophils, suggesting that it may serve as a potential biomarker for ASD and is closely related to its pathogenesis. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study yields unprecedented insights into the molecular and genetic heterogeneity of ASD through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. These valuable findings hold significant implications for tailoring personalized ASD therapies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Biologia Computacional , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/imunologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Aprendizado de Máquina , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Imunogenética , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(5)2024 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790215

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by massive fibrosis, vascular damage, and immune imbalance. Advances in rheumatology and immunology over the past two decades have led to a redefinition of systemic sclerosis, shifting from its initial perception as primarily a "hyperfibrotic" state towards a recognition of systemic sclerosis as an immune-mediated disease. Consequently, the search for genetic markers has transitioned from focusing on fibrotic mechanisms to exploring immune regulatory pathways. Immunogenetics, an emerging field at the intersection of immunology, molecular biology, and genetics has provided valuable insights into inherited factors that influence immunity. Data from genetic studies conducted thus far indicate that alterations in genetic messages can significantly impact disease risk and progression. While certain genetic variations may confer protective effects, others may exacerbate disease susceptibility. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the most relevant genetic changes that influence both the risk and course of systemic sclerosis. Special emphasis is placed on factors regulating the immune response, recognizing their pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenética , Predisposição Genética para Doença
9.
Cancer Discov ; 14(4): 585-588, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571423

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The success of checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapies has unequivocally confirmed the critical role of T cells in cancer immunity and boosted the development of immunotherapeutic strategies targeting specific antigens on cancer cells. The vast immunogenetic diversity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles across populations is a key factor influencing the advancement of HLA class I-restricted therapies and related research and diagnostic tools.


Assuntos
Imunogenética , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T , Imunoterapia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 174, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570518

RESUMO

The link between bipolar disorder (BP) and immune dysfunction remains controversial. While epidemiological studies have long suggested an association, recent research has found only limited evidence of such a relationship. To clarify this, we performed an exploratory study of the contributions of immune-relevant genetic factors to the response to lithium (Li) treatment and the clinical presentation of BP. First, we assessed the association of a large collection of immune-related genes (4925) with Li response, defined by the Retrospective Assessment of the Lithium Response Phenotype Scale (Alda scale), and clinical characteristics in patients with BP from the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen, N = 2374). Second, we calculated here previously published polygenic scores (PGSs) for immune-related traits and evaluated their associations with Li response and clinical features. Overall, we observed relatively weak associations (p < 1 × 10-4) with BP phenotypes within immune-related genes. Network and functional enrichment analyses of the top findings from the association analyses of Li response variables showed an overrepresentation of pathways participating in cell adhesion and intercellular communication. These appeared to converge on the well-known Li-induced inhibition of GSK-3ß. Association analyses of age-at-onset, number of mood episodes, and presence of psychosis, substance abuse and/or suicidal ideation suggested modest contributions of genes such as RTN4, XKR4, NRXN1, NRG1/3 and GRK5 to disease characteristics. PGS analyses returned weak associations (p < 0.05) between inflammation markers and the studied BP phenotypes. Our results suggest a modest relationship between immunity and clinical features in BP. More research is needed to assess the potential therapeutic relevance.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imunogenética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Fenótipo
11.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 12(1)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The implications of the genetic component in the initiation and development of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders have been the subject of intense research efforts. Some of the most important genes involved in the occurrence and evolution of these pathologies are the HLA genes. The aim of this study is to analyze, for the first time, possible associations between chronic lymphoproliferative diseases and certain HLA alleles in the Romanian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 38 patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders, diagnosed between 2021 and 2022 at Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania, and 50 healthy controls. HLA class I and class II genes (HLA-A/B/C, HLA-DQB1/DPB1/DRB1) were investigated by doing high resolution genotyping using sequence specific primers (SSP). RESULTS: Several HLA alleles were strongly associated with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The most important finding was that the HLA-C*02:02 (p = 0.002, OR = 1.101), and HLA-C*12:02 (p = 0.002, OR = 1.101) have a predisposing role in the development of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Moreover, we identified that HLA-A*11:01 (p = 0.01, OR = 0.16), HLA-B*35:02 (p = 0.037, OR = 0.94), HLA-B*81:01 (p = 0.037, OR = 0.94), HLA-C*07:02 (p = 0.036, OR = 0.34), HLA-DRB1*11:01 (p = 0.021, OR = 0.19), and HLA-DRB1*13:02 (p = 0.037, OR = 0.94), alleles have protective roles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that HLA-C*02:02 and HLA-C*12:02 are positively associated with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders for our Romanian patients while HLA-DRB1*11:01, HLA-DRB1*13:02, and HLA-B*35:02 alleles have a protective role against these diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos Linfoproliferativos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Romênia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antígenos HLA-C , Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Imunogenética , Antígenos HLA-B , Antígenos HLA-A
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(2)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397196

RESUMO

Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a combination of obesity and sarcopenia, with diagnostic criteria defined as impaired skeletal muscle function and altered body composition (e.g., increased fat mass and reduced muscle mass). The mechanism of SO is not yet perfectly understood; however, the pathogenesis includes aging and its complications, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance (IR), and hormonal changes. Genetic background is apparent in the pathogenesis of isolated obesity, which is most often polygenic and is characterized by the additive effect of various genetic factors. The genetic etiology has not been strictly established in SO. Still, many data confirm the existence of pathogenic gene variants, e.g., Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO), beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene, melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and others with obesity. The literature on the role of these genes is scarce, and their role has not yet been thoroughly established. On the other hand, the involvement of systemic inflammation due to increased adipose tissue in SO plays a significant role in its pathophysiology through the synthesis of various cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-1Ra, IL-15, adiponectin or CRP. The lack of anti-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-15) can increase SO risk, but further studies are needed to evaluate the exact mechanisms of implications of various cytokines in SO individuals. This manuscript analyses various immunogenetic and non-genetic factors and summarizes the recent findings on immunogenetics potentially impacting SO development.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Humanos , Sarcopenia/genética , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Imunogenética , Interleucina-15 , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/complicações , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato
13.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 169, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341501

RESUMO

Anthropogenic disturbance may increase the emergence of zoonoses. Especially generalists that cope with disturbance and live in close contact with humans and livestock may become reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. Yet, whether anthropogenic disturbance modifies host-pathogen co-evolutionary relationships in generalists is unknown. We assessed pathogen diversity, neutral genome-wide diversity (SNPs) and adaptive MHC class II diversity in a rodent generalist inhabiting three lowland rainforest landscapes with varying anthropogenic disturbance, and determined which MHC alleles co-occurred more frequently with 13 gastrointestinal nematodes, blood trypanosomes, and four viruses. Pathogen-specific selection pressures varied between landscapes. Genome-wide diversity declined with the degree of disturbance, while MHC diversity was only reduced in the most disturbed landscape. Furthermore, pristine forest landscapes had more functional important MHC-pathogen associations when compared to disturbed forests. We show co-evolutionary links between host and pathogens impoverished in human-disturbed landscapes. This underscores that parasite-mediated selection might change even in generalist species following human disturbance which in turn may facilitate host switching and the emergence of zoonoses.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Roedores , Animais , Ratos , Roedores/genética , Imunogenética , Florestas , Zoonoses
14.
HLA ; 103(1): e15293, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947386

RESUMO

The SNP-HLA Reference Consortium (SHLARC), a component of the 18th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop, is aimed at collecting diverse and extensive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data to create custom reference panels and enhance HLA imputation techniques. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have significantly contributed to identifying genetic associations with various diseases. The HLA genomic region has emerged as the top locus in GWAS, particularly in immune-related disorders. However, the limited information provided by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the hallmark of GWAS, poses challenges, especially in the HLA region, where strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) spans several megabases. HLA imputation techniques have been developed using statistical inference in response to these challenges. These techniques enable the prediction of HLA alleles from genotyped GWAS SNPs. Here we present the SHLARC activities, a collaborative effort to create extensive, and multi-ethnic reference panels to enhance HLA imputation accuracy.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Imunogenética , Alelos , Antígenos HLA/genética , Genótipo
15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 76(4): 631-637, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Novel autoantibody specificities including anti-CCAR1 were recently discovered in adult patients with anti-transcriptional intermediary factor (TIF1)-positive dermatomyositis (DM) and were associated with attenuated cancer emergence. The aims of the present study were to examine whether these autoantibodies occur in patients with juvenile-onset DM (JDM) and to determine their associated features. METHODS: Sera from 150 patients with anti-TIF1γ autoantibody-positive JDM in a cross-sectional cohort and 90 juvenile healthy controls were assayed for anti-CCAR1, anti-C1Z1, anti-IMMT, anti-TBL1XR1, and anti-Sp4 autoantibodies. Demographics, myositis autoantibodies, clinical features, medications, outcomes, and HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 alleles were compared between those with and without these autoantibodies. RESULTS: Any one of the anti-TIF1γ-associated autoantibodies was present in 44 patients (29%) overall, including 25 (17%) with anti-Sp4, 22 (15%) with anti-TBL1XR1, 14 (9%) with anti-CCAR1, 2 (1%) with anti-C1Z1, and 2 (1%) with anti-IMMT autoantibodies. These anti-TIF1γ-associated autoantibodies frequently co-occurred. Patients with any of the anti-TIF1γ-associated autoantibodies had less frequent falling (34% [15] vs. 53% [56], P = 0.032) and lower peak muscle enzymes. None of the patients had cancer. Among White patients, HLA-DRB1*03 was protective against an anti-TIF1γ-associated autoantibody (odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.52). CONCLUSION: Autoantibodies associated with anti-TIF1γ were found in isolation and in combination among a subset of patients with JDM. Patients with these autoantibodies had less severe muscle disease and were not enriched for HLA-DRB1*03. Additional autoantibodies among patients with positive anti-TIF1γ with JDM likely contribute to the heterogeneity of the anti-TIF1γ serologic subgroup.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , Análise de Mediação , Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Autoanticorpos , Estudos Transversais , Imunogenética , Fatores de Risco
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21528, 2023 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057480

RESUMO

Several viruses including human herpes viruses (HHVs), human polyomavirus JCV, and human papilloma virus (HPV) have been implicated in brain cancer, albeit inconsistently. Since human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is centrally involved in the human immune response to viruses and has been implicated in brain cancer, we evaluated in silico the immunogenicity between 69 Class I HLA alleles with epitopes of proteins of 9 HHVs, JCV, and HPV with respect to a population-based HLA-brain cancer profile. We found that immunogenicity varied widely across HLA alleles with HLA-C alleles exhibiting the highest immunogenicity, and that immunogenicity scores were negatively associated with the population-based HLA-brain cancer profile, particularly for JCV, HHV6A, HHV5, HHV3, HHV8, and HHV7. Consistent with the role of HLA in foreign antigen elimination, the findings suggest that viruses with proteins of high HLA immunogenicity are eliminated more effectively and, consequently, less likely to cause brain cancer; conversely, the absence of highly immunogenic HLA may allow the viral antigens to persist, contributing to cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Vírus JC , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Imunogenética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II , Vírus JC/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Alelos
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18654, 2023 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37907711

RESUMO

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is involved in both multiple sclerosis (MS) and immune response to viruses. Here we investigated the virus-HLA immunogenicity (V-HLA) of 12 viruses implicated in MS with respect to 17 HLA Class I alleles positively associated to MS prevalence in 14 European countries. Overall, higher V-HLA immunogenicity was associated with smaller MS-HLA effect, with human herpes virus 3 (HHV3), JC human polyoma virus (JCV), HHV1, HHV4, HHV7, HHV5 showing the strongest association, followed by HHV8, HHV6A, and HHV6B (moderate association), and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-W), HHV2, and human papilloma virus (HPV) (weakest association). These findings suggest that viruses with proteins of high HLA immunogenicity are eliminated more effectively and, consequently, less likely to be involved in MS.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Vírus JC , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Imunogenética , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Europa (Continente)
18.
Immunogenetics ; 75(6): 517-530, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37853246

RESUMO

Yersinia pestis is a historically important vector-borne pathogen causing plague in humans and other mammals. Contemporary zoonotic infections with Y. pestis still occur in sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania and Madagascar, but receive relatively little attention. Thus, the role of wildlife reservoirs in maintaining sylvatic plague and spillover risks to humans is largely unknown. The multimammate rodent Mastomys natalensis is the most abundant and widespread rodent in peri-domestic areas in Tanzania, where it plays a major role as a Y. pestis reservoir in endemic foci. Yet, how M. natalensis' immunogenetics contributes to the maintenance of plague has not been investigated to date. Here, we surveyed wild M. natalensis for Y. pestis vectors, i.e., fleas, and tested for the presence of antibodies against Y. pestis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in areas known to be endemic or without previous records of Y. pestis in Tanzania. We characterized the allelic and functional (i.e., supertype) diversity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) of M. natalensis and investigated links to Y. pestis vectors and infections. We detected antibodies against Y. pestis in rodents inhabiting both endemic areas and areas considered non-endemic. Of the 111 nucleotide MHC alleles, only DRB*016 was associated with an increased infestation with the flea Xenopsylla. Surprisingly, we found no link between MHC alleles or supertypes and antibodies of Y. pestis. Our findings hint, however, at local adaptations towards Y. pestis vectors, an observation that more exhaustive sampling could unwind in the future.


Assuntos
Peste , Sifonápteros , Yersinia pestis , Animais , Humanos , Peste/genética , Peste/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Imunogenética , Yersinia pestis/genética , Sifonápteros/genética , Murinae/genética , Anticorpos
20.
Wiad Lek ; 76(8): 1709-1716, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37740960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The objective of the current study was to reveal ultrastructural changes in rats' thymocytes in experimental data in conditions of mild general dehydration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 20 non-linear adult male laboratory rats weighing 150-170 g. Histological and semi-thin slides of the thymus were prepared according to the required guidelines. RESULTS: Results: On average, in the cortical zone of the thymus, there was decreased cellularity by 13.4% (p<0.001), while in the medulla zone this indicator turned out to be unreliable - 5.5% (р=0.19), compared to the indicators in animals of the control group. The study showed that a slight degree of general dehydration of the body causes ultrastructural changes in the thymus and is accompanied by a cell-mediated response of the central link of immunogenesis and results in morphological changes in the thymus, which are atrophic in nature with a typical pattern of remodeling of the organ's microstructure, which corresponds to cellular aging and the associated sign of accelerated involution. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: General dehydration of a mild degree in the experiment is accompanied by a cell-mediated response of the central link of immunogenesis and results in morphological changes in the thymus, which are atrophic in nature with a typical pattern of remodeling of the organ's microstructure, which corresponds to cellular aging and the associated sign of accelerated involution.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Timócitos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Timo , Atrofia , Imunogenética
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