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1.
Cell Rep ; 43(4): 114000, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527063

RESUMO

Fear overgeneralization is a maladaptive response to traumatic stress that is associated with the inability to discriminate between threat and safety contexts, a hallmark feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying this deficit remain unclear. Here, we show that traumatic stress exposure impairs contextual discrimination between threat and safety contexts in the learned helplessness (LH) model. Mossy cells (MCs) in the dorsal hippocampus are suppressed in response to traumatic stress. Bidirectional manipulation of MC activity in the LH model reveals that MC inhibition is causally linked to impaired contextual discrimination. Mechanistically, MC inhibition increases the number of active granule cells in a given context, significantly overlapping context-specific ensembles. Our study demonstrates that maladaptive inhibition of MCs after traumatic stress is a substantial mechanism underlying fear overgeneralization with contextual discrimination deficit, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for cognitive symptoms of PTSD.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Medo/fisiologia , Fibras Musgosas Hipocampais/patologia , Desamparo Aprendido
2.
Pain Manag Nurs ; 25(2): e144-e151, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acceptance of pain is one of the most significant topics in the field of chronic pain due to its influence on the adaptation and response of people. Also, chronic pain and pain caused by the progress of cancer have a high prevalence in all stages and types of cancer. AIMS: The present study aimed to predict the acceptance of chronic pain in patients with cancer based on anxiety sensitivity and emotional suppression with the mediating role of learned helplessness. METHODS: The current research method was descriptive-correlation and structural equation modeling. A number of patients with cancer (400), admitted to the oncology department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ardabil City of Iran in the second half of 2022, were selected as the convenience sample and responded to McCracker et al.'s chronic pain acceptance scale, Rees et al.'s anxiety sensitivity scale, Roger and Nasho's emotional control questionnaire, and Quinles and Nielson's learned helplessness questionnaire. RESULTS: Based on the obtained results, the causal relationship between anxiety sensitivity, emotional suppression, learned helplessness, and acceptance of chronic pain in patients with cancer was confirmed based on various fit indices. Anxiety sensitivity, emotional suppression, and learned helplessness had a direct effect on the acceptance of chronic pain in patients with cancer. Moreover, anxiety sensitivity and emotional suppression through learned helplessness had indirect effects on pain acceptance in patients with cancer (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, anxiety sensitivity, emotional suppression, and learned helplessness play an essential role in the level of pain acceptance in patients with cancer, and targeting these three components through psychological treatments can be effective in the level of pain acceptance in these patients.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Dor Crônica , Neoplasias , Humanos , Dor Crônica/complicações , Desamparo Aprendido , Irã (Geográfico) , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Neoplasias/complicações
3.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 234: 173676, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although findings from both animal and clinical research indicate that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders (including depression), the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the levels of the tight-junction proteins claudin-5 and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) in astrocytes of learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression) and non-LH rats (a model of resilience). METHODS: We administered inescapable mild electric shock to rats and then identified the LH and non-LH rats by a post-shock test. The expressions of claudin-5 and AQP-4 in several brain regions of the LH and non-LH rats were then evaluated by a western blot analysis. RESULTS: The levels of both claudin-5 and AQP-4 in the CA-1 and CA-3 hippocampal areas of the LH group were significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas those of the non-LH rats were not significantly different from those of the control and LH rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LH rats but not non-LH rats experienced down-regulations of claudin-5 and AQP-4 in the CA-1 and CA-3. It is possible that a region-specific modulation of claudin-5 and AQP-4 is involved in the mechanisms of vulnerability but not resilience in depression.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4 , Claudina-5 , Depressão , Animais , Humanos , Ratos , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Claudina-5/metabolismo , Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Desamparo Aprendido , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo
4.
Lancet ; 402(10420): 2477-2478, 2024 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142120
5.
Psicol. USP ; 352024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1538041

RESUMO

Este trabalho visa delinear o conceito de desamparo por meio da metapsicologia freudiana e como isso implica outra forma de pensar a política. Desse modo, o desamparo não é concebido unicamente como a vulnerabilidade do bebê ao nascer, mas, também, como a falta de respostas às excitações internas. Tal estado de desamparo é radicalizado a partir da concepção de pulsão de morte construída por Freud. A pulsão de morte gera processos de desabamentos, rupturas, desligamentos e despossessão, essenciais para a própria vida se complexificar. Nesse sentido, propomos o desamparo como afeto político central quando pensamos em transformação. A partir do desabamento de si e da abertura radical ao contato do outro, podemos experimentar outras formas de experiências, outras formas de afetação e, consequentemente, a construção de corpos políticos rumo à transformação política radical


This paper outlines the concept of helplessness through Freudian metapsychology and by doing so imply a new way of thinking about politics. Helplessness is not conceived simply as the newborn's vulnerability, but also as the lack of response to internal excitements. Such an estate is radicalized by Freud's concept of death drive, which generates processes of collapsing, ruptures, unplugging and dispossession that are essential for turning life complex. In this sense, we propose helplessness as a main political affection when referring to transformation. By the collapse of oneself and the radical opening to contact with others, one may experience other ways of experiencing and of being affected and, consequently, the construction of political bodies leading to the radical transformation of politics


Cet article présente le concept de délaissé à travers la métapsychologie freudienne et, ce faisant, lui imprime une nouvelle façon de penser la politique. Le délaissé n'est pas simplement conçu comme la vulnérabilité du nouveau-né, mais aussi comme une absence de réponse aux excitations internes. Tel état est radicalisé par le concept de pulsion de mort de Freud, qui produit des processus de glissement, de rupture, d'arrêt et de dépossession essentielles à la complexification de la vie. En ce sens, nous proposons le délaissé comme principale affection politique lorsqu'il est question de transformation. Par le glissement de soi-même et l'ouverture radicale au contact avec les autres, nous pouvons expérimenter d'autres façons de vivre et d'être affecté et, par conséquent, la construction de corps politiques vers à la transformation politique radicale


Este artículo pretende esbozar el concepto de desamparo a través de la metapsicología freudiana y cómo esto implica otra forma de pensar sobre política. De esa manera, la impotencia no solo se concibe como la vulnerabilidad del bebé al nacer, sino también debido a la falta de respuestas a las excitaciones internas. Tal estado de desamparo se radicaliza desde la concepción del impulso de muerte construido por Freud. El impulso de la muerte genera procesos de colapsos, rupturas, desconexiones y desposesión esenciales para que la vida misma se vuelva más compleja. En este sentido, proponemos lo desamparo como un afecto político central cuando pensemos en la transformación. Desde el colapso de uno mismo y la apertura radical al contacto con el otro, podemos experimentar otras formas de experiencias y otras formas de afectación y,en consecuencia, la construcción de cuerpos políticos hacia una transformación política radical


Assuntos
Política , Teoria Freudiana , Desamparo Aprendido , Mudança Social , Redes Comunitárias
6.
Brain Res ; 1821: 148567, 2023 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689333

RESUMO

Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), an endogenous NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, has been shown to be associated with the pathophysiology of depression in rodents. However its active mechanism has not been revealed. Herein, we probed both the pathways and brain regions involved in BHB's antidepressant-like effects in a learned helplessness (LH) rat model of depression. A single bilateral infusion of BHB into the cerebral ventricles induced the antidepressant-like effects on the LH rats. The antidepressant-like effects of BHB were blocked by the TrkB inhibitor ANA-12 and the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX, indicating that the antidepressant-like effects of BHB involve BDNF-TrkB signaling and AMPA receptor activation. Further, infusions of BHB into the prelimbic and infralimbic portions of medial prefrontal cortex, the dentate gyrus of hippocampus, and the basolateral region of amygdala produced the antidepressant-like effects on LH rats. However, infusions of BHB into the central region of amygdala, the CA3 region of hippocampus, and the shell and core regions of nucleus accumbens had no effect. Finally, a single bilateral infusion of BHB into the cerebral ventricles of naive rats strengthened learning ability on repeated active avoidance test where saline-infused animals failed to increase avoidance responses.


Assuntos
Desamparo Aprendido , Inflamassomos , Ratos , Animais , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor trkB/metabolismo
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(8): e068601, 2023 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37640465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the multiple mediating roles of the learned helplessness's core system in the relationship between health literacy/social support and self-management. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey design. SETTING: Changsha, China. PARTICIPANTS: 239 Chinese maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. METHODS: Two multiple mediator models were constructed based on the COM-B (Capacity, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) model. A total of 239 Chinese MHD patients participated in a cross-sectional study, which included surveys on the Learned Helplessness Scale for MHD patients, Dialysis Knowledge Questionnaire, Social Support Scale and Self-Management Scale for Haemodialysis. The PROCESS macro in SPSS was used for mediated effects analysis. RESULTS: Helplessness and internality partially mediated the relationship between health literacy/social support and self-management ((ß=-0.212, p<0.01; ß=0.240, p<0.01)/(ß=-0.331, p<0.001; ß=0.376, p<0.001)). The mediation effect size was 0.780 (95% CI (0.373 to 1.218)) in the health literacy model, accounting for 45.29% of the total effect, and 0.286 (95% CI (0.207 to 0.377)) in the social support model, accounting for 57.88% of the total effect. The differences in effect sizes for helplessness and internality in the two models were -0.080 (95% CI (-0.374 to 0.216)) and -0.041 (95% CI (-0.127 to 0.043)), respectively. CONCLUSION: Health literacy/social support directly affects MHD patients' self-management and indirectly affects it by changing learned helplessness, such as increasing internality while reducing helplessness.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Autogestão , Humanos , Desamparo Aprendido , Estudos Transversais , Diálise Renal , China , Apoio Social
8.
Neuron ; 111(17): 2727-2741.e7, 2023 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37352858

RESUMO

Persistence in the face of failure helps to overcome challenges. But the ability to adjust behavior or even give up when the task is uncontrollable has advantages. How the mammalian brain switches behavior when facing uncontrollability remains an open question. We generated two mouse models of behavioral transition from action to no-action during exposure to a prolonged experience with an uncontrollable outcome. The transition was not caused by pain desensitization or muscle fatigue and was not a depression-/learned-helplessness-like behavior. Noradrenergic neurons projecting to GABAergic neurons within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are key regulators of this behavior. Fiber photometry, microdialysis, mini-two-photon microscopy, and tetrode/optrode in vivo recording in freely behaving mice revealed that the reduction of norepinephrine and downregulation of alpha 1 receptor in the OFC reduced the number and activity of GABAergic neurons necessary for driving action behavior resulting in behavioral transition. These findings define a circuit governing behavioral switch in response to prolonged uncontrollability.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Desamparo Aprendido , Camundongos , Animais , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Mamíferos
9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 111: 412-423, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37169132

RESUMO

Immune cells and the brain have a privileged interaction. Here, we report changes in the hippocampal immune microenvironment at the single cell level after stress, uncovering the tight orchestration of immune cell infiltration into the hippocampus after stress to maintain homeostasis. We show the distribution of several immune cell types in the hippocampus associated with their susceptibility or resilience to the learned helplessness paradigm in a sex- and microbiota-dependent manner using single-cell RNA sequencing and bioinformatic tools, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. We uncovered the presence of tissue-resident memory T cells that accumulate over time in the hippocampus of learned helpless mice, and the presence of CD74-expressing myeloid cells. These cells were found by a knockdown approach to be critical to induce resilience to learned helplessness. Altogether, these findings provide a novel overview of the neuro-immune repertoire and its impact on the landscape of the hippocampus after learned helplessness.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Animais , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Desamparo Aprendido , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
10.
J Affect Disord ; 331: 369-379, 2023 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36972851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests the role of gut microbiota in resilience versus vulnerability after stress. However, the role of gut microbiota and microbiome-derived metabolites in resilience versus susceptibility in rodents exposed to stress remains unclear. METHODS: Adult male rats were exposed to inescapable electric stress under the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. The composition of gut microbiota and metabolites in the brain and blood from control (no stress) rats, LH resilient rats, and LH susceptible rats were examined. RESULTS: At the genus level, the relative abundances of Asaccharobacter, Eisenbergiella, and Klebsiella in LH susceptible rats were significantly higher than that of LH resilient rats. At the species level, the relative abundances of several microbiome were significantly altered between LH susceptible rats and LH resilient rats. Furthermore, there were several metabolites in the brain and blood altered between LH susceptible rats and LH resilient rats. A network analysis showed correlations between the abundance of several microbiome and metabolites in the brain (or blood). LIMITATIONS: Detailed roles of microbiome and metabolites are unclear. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that abnormal compositions of the gut microbiota and metabolites might contribute to susceptibility versus resilience in rats subjected to inescapable electric foot shock.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Desamparo Aprendido , Suscetibilidade a Doenças
11.
Res Nurs Health ; 46(2): 251-262, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36752308

RESUMO

Learned helplessness (LH) is an important concept in nursing. This study aimed to adapt and translate the Arthritis Helplessness Index scale into a Chinese version of an LH scale for maintenance hemodialysis patients in China (LHS-MHD-C), and to validate its psychometric properties. Data collected included LHS-MHD-C, as well as the Hospital Depression Scale (HADS-D), and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) for assessing LHS-MHD-C's criterion validity (predictive and concurrent, respectively). The expert consultation and the pilot study demonstrated semantic and conceptual equivalence and content validity (except for Item 3, the item content validity ranged from 0.82 to 1, and the scale content validity was 0.95). An exploratory factor analysis (n = 146) eliminated three items and accepted 11 items for the two factors, explaining 63.87% of the total variance. A CFA (n = 218) showed that the two-factors structure was consistent with the LH theory. The LHS-MHD-C can distinguish between maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients of different ages, education, working status, monthly income, and MHD duration. The scale had good concurrent validity with the BHS (r = .78, p < 0.01). Using the HADS-D as a criterion, the LHS-MHD-C showed a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 96.8%. A total score of 36.5 may be the best cut-off value for predicting MHD patients' depression. The scale showed good reliabilities (Cronbach's α value of .759, test-retest reliability of 0.772, and split-half reliability of 0.774). This study found that the LHS-MHD-C is a reliable and valid scale for assessing Chinese MHD patients' helplessness.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Desamparo Aprendido , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Diálise Renal , China
12.
J Affect Disord ; 327: 285-291, 2023 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36758873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Learned helplessness may be the underlying cause of poor mental health status among college students during the COVID-19 lockdown, and self-compassion as a positive psychological quality may influence the link between learned helplessness and mental health. METHODS: A sample of 869 Chinese college students (443 male and 426 female), with a mean age of 20.03 (SD = 1.68), completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (LHS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and DASS-21. The moderating effect of self-compassion on the relationship between learned helplessness and anxiety, depression, and stress were calculated. RESULTS: The interaction term between learned helplessness and self-compassion has a significant coefficient on anxiety, depression, and stress, pointing out self-compassion as a moderator of the association between learned helplessness and adverse mental health. LIMITATIONS: In the absence of longitudinal data or experimental manipulations, cross-sectional methods cannot verify causal conclusions among the study variables. The analysing results are based only on self-reported data. DISCUSSION: The present study contributes to a deeper understanding of how learned helplessness and self-compassion during COVID-19 contribute to adverse mental health. The findings suggest that adverse mental health during lockdown is significantly associated with learned helplessness and that self-compassion can buffer this effect, contributing to future psychotherapy and clinical research. Future studies should examine the relationship through a longitudinal design to sort out whether self-compassion is a protective factor against learned helplessness or a moderator of the effects of learned helplessness on mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Saúde Mental , Depressão/psicologia , Desamparo Aprendido , Autocompaixão , Estudos Transversais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
13.
J Affect Disord ; 329: 273-284, 2023 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36842652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helplessness and hopelessness are states closely related to depressive disorders. They ensue following the anticipated absence of valid behavioral options to alleviate an aversive state. One neural structure involved in the detection of such options, is the cingulate cortex (CC), which conveys the evaluation of behavior against the value of its outcome. Accordingly, CC-related EEG measures are thought to correlate to feedback evaluation but also to anxious and conflict-related states, signaling the need for further adaptation to current requirements. Against this background, this study investigated the role of CC functioning in the emergence and prevention of helpless/hopeless states by applying low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (litFUS) neuromodulation prior to a learned helplessness task. METHOD: In a randomized controlled double blind experimental setup with 55 participants, litFUS was used to inhibit the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), a region closely connected to CC modulation. Participants were instructed to play 8 games of chess against a computer that was unbeatable to them, while an EEG was recorded. Theta oscillation in midline electrodes, playing performance and self-rate measures on cognitive, affective and physiological parameters were assessed. RESULTS: The results show a considerable influence of litFUS neuromodulation of the lPFC on midline theta activity (Fz and Pz electrode position) which in turn correlated to several psychological variables including self-report data on emotion, cognition, and arousal as well as behavioral measures (playing performance). LIMITATIONS: Due to the small sample size and sample characteristics, results cannot be generalized to the field of clinical application. A replication of results in larger samples and in context of other sonication parameters is needed to increase the robustness of results and to maximize the efficacy of litFUS application. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the development of learned helplessness/hopelessness could be positively influenced in its course by litFUS neuromodulation of the right lPFC. In line with previous results, especially the posterior midline electrode Pz seems to be an interesting target for further research in this field as theta activity at this electrode is correlated to control perception and motivated behavior. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use neuromodulation to monitor and manipulate the development of helplessness in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Emoções , Desamparo Aprendido , Humanos , Afeto , Cognição , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Método Duplo-Cego
14.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 329: 111598, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680844

RESUMO

Behavioral control, the ability to manage one's exposure to a given stressor, influences the impacts of both the present and future stressors. Behavioral control over a stressor may decrease stress caused by the stressor, and promote resilience towards future stressors. A lack of behavioral control may exacerbate the stress response and lead to learned helplessness, a generalized view that one cannot control other, unrelated stressors in their environment. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may detect the presence of behavioral control over a stressor and communicate this to subcortical regions involved in stress responses, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Building on previous research in animals and humans, we piloted a paradigm to investigate how behavioral control over a physical threat (electric shocks), generalized to responses for a subsequent social stressor (anticipation of public speaking). Our manipulation of behavioral control effected perceived control between groups, increased stress across but not between groups, and no effects generalized to the subsequent social stressor in behavioral, physiological, or neural responses. We discuss refinements to the paradigm to strengthen the manipulation, the potential impacts of statistical power on the present results, and metrics to measure the generalization of behavioral control in addition to vmPFC-subcortical connectivity.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Humanos , Desamparo Aprendido , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens
15.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e249888, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1422426

RESUMO

A recomendação ética do psicólogo para intervir criticamente sobre a demanda vai de encontro com a tarefa de diagnosticar atos de Alienação Parental e, num sentido amplo, com a judicialização das relações privadas. A genealogia de Foucault consiste num método capaz de lançar luz sobre as práticas de poder na base dos discursos relacionados ao tema da alienação parental. O eufemismo pedagógico empregado para designar as sanções da lei tem como finalidade estratégica o convencimento a respeito de supostos benefícios da tutela sobre as famílias, ao mesmo tempo em que lhes são atribuídas alguma patologia disfuncional. Numa perspectiva crítica, a assimetria de gêneros corresponde às relações de poder presentes no problema da alienação parental. Por fim, a inversão dos critérios de identificação da alienação parental revela o distanciamento entre o ideal normativo e a realidade da ruptura conjugal e familiar, apontando para a importância de práticas de cuidado e assistência em vez de judicativas e punitivas.(AU)


The psychologist's ethical recommendation to critically intervene on the demand goes against the task of diagnosing acts of Parental Alienation (AP) and, in a broad sense, with the judicialization of private relations. Foucault's genealogy consists of a method able to shed on the power practices on the basis of discourses related to the theme of Parental Alienation. The pedagogical euphemism used to designate the sanctions of the law has the strategic purpose of convincing about the supposed benefits of guardianship over families, while attributing some dysfunctional pathology to them. From a critical perspective, gender asymmetry corresponds to the power relations present in the Parental Alienation problem. Finally, the inversion of the Parental Alienation's identification criteria reveals the gap between the normative ideal and the reality of marital and family disruption, pointing to the importance of care and assistance practices instead of judicative and punitive ones.(AU)


La recomendación ética del psicólogo de intervenir críticamente sobre la demanda va en contra de la tarea de diagnosticar actos de Alienación Parental (AP) y, en un sentido amplio, con la judicialización de las relaciones privadas. La genealogía de Foucault consiste en un método capaz de arrojar luz sobre las prácticas del poder a partir de discursos relacionados con el tema de la Alienación Parental. El eufemismo pedagógico que se utiliza para designar las sanciones de la ley tiene el propósito estratégico de convencer sobre los supuestos beneficios de la tutela sobre las familias, atribuyéndoles alguna patología disfuncional. Desde una perspectiva crítica, la asimetría de género corresponde a las relaciones de poder presentes en el problema de la Alienación Parental. Finalmente, la inversión de los criterios de identificación de la Alienación Parental revela la brecha entre el ideal normativo y la realidad de la ruptura conyugal y familiar, señalando la importancia de las prácticas de cuidado y asistencia en lugar de las judicativas y punitivas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Justiça Social , Custódia da Criança , Genealogia e Heráldica , Jurisprudência , Ansiedade , Comportamento Paterno , Privação Paterna , Psicanálise , Psicologia Social , Política Pública , Repressão Psicológica , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Relações entre Irmãos , Ciências Sociais , Seguridade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sociologia , Terapêutica , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Adaptação Psicológica , Divórcio , Casamento , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação Infantil , Proteção da Criança , Saúde Mental , Saúde da Criança , Saúde da Família , Responsabilidade Legal , Poder Familiar , Negociação , Violência Doméstica , Cônjuges , Feminismo , Intervenção em Crise , Família Monoparental , Cultura , Estado , Responsabilidade Civil , Ministério Público , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Dissidências e Disputas , Depressão , Transtornos Dissociativos , Emprego , Conflito Familiar , Relações Familiares , Pai , Resiliência Psicológica , Perdão , Sexismo , Abuso Físico , Violência de Gênero , Opressão Social , Estereotipagem de Gênero , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Separação da Família , Tristeza , Psicoterapia Interpessoal , Traição , Abuso Emocional , Modelos Biopsicossociais , Equidade de Gênero , Papel de Gênero , Apoio Familiar , Estrutura Familiar , Manobra Psicológica , Desamparo Aprendido , Direitos Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Privação Materna , Mães , Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade , Apego ao Objeto
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e245027, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1431133

RESUMO

Este artigo versa sobre o processo de desligamento institucional por maioridade de jovens que residem em serviços de acolhimento. Aposta-se em uma política do sensível para visibilizar os encontros e desencontros que acontecem entre as e os jovens e as políticas públicas brasileiras. Para tanto, realizaram-se encontros com jovens que já haviam passado pelo processo de desligamento e com jovens que logo completariam 18 anos e teriam de sair das instituições de acolhimento. Para tornar visíveis essas existências, investiu-se na escrita de biografemas, inspirados na obra de Roland Barthes. Os conceitos de necropolítica e vidas precárias foram fundamentais para compreender as omissões do Estado no momento do desligamento. Verificou-se que o Estado pode maximizar a precariedade de algumas vidas, especialmente daquelas marcadas por características de raça, gênero e classe culturalmente marginalizados. Contudo, é também o encontro com as políticas públicas que garante melhores condições de vida para alguns, facilitando o acesso à universidade e ao mercado de trabalho. A pesquisa aponta que, diante do abandono, as e os jovens se fazem vagalumes, produzindo luminosidades em meio à escuridão e reivindicando o direito à vida.(AU)


This article discusses the process of institutional removal of young people that reside in foster care institutions for reaching adulthood. It relies on a politics of the sensitive to make visible the encounters and mismatches that take place between young people and Brazilian public policies. To do so, meetings were held with young people who had already experienced the removal process and with young people who would soon turn 18 and would have to leave the host institutions. To make these existences visible, this study invested in the writing of biographems, inspired by the works of Roland Barthes. The concepts of necropolitics and precarious lives were fundamental to understand the omissions of the State at the time of removal. It was also found that the State can maximize the precariousness of some lives, especially those marked by culturally marginalized race, gender, and class characteristics. However, it is also the encounter with public policies that ensures better living conditions for some, facilitating access to the university and the labor market. This research points out that, in the face of abandonment, young people become fireflies, producing luminosity amid the darkness and claiming the right to life.(AU)


Este artículo aborda el proceso de desconexión institucional justificado por la edad adulta de los jóvenes que residen en los servicios de acogida. Utilizamos una política sensible para hacer visibles las reuniones y los desajustes que tienen lugar entre los jóvenes y las políticas públicas brasileñas. Con este fin, se celebraron reuniones con los jóvenes que ya habían pasado por el proceso de desconexión institucional y también con los jóvenes que pronto cumplirían los 18 años y tendrían que abandonar las instituciones de acogida. Para hacer visibles estas existencias, se redactaron biografemas, inspirados en el trabajo de Roland Barthes. Los conceptos de necropolítica y vida precaria fueron fundamentales para comprender las omisiones del Estado en el momento de la desconexión. Se encontró que el Estado puede maximizar la precariedad de algunas vidas, principalmente de aquellas marcadas por características de raza, género y clase culturalmente marginadas. Sin embargo, el encuentro con las políticas también puede garantizar mejores condiciones de vida para algunos, facilitándoles el acceso a la universidad y al mercado laboral. Esta investigación señala que, ante el abandono, los jóvenes se convierten en luciérnagas, produciendo luminosidad en medio de la oscuridad y reclamando el derecho a la vida.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Política Pública , Adolescente , Desinstitucionalização , Institucionalização , Orientação , Satisfação Pessoal , Gravidez na Adolescência , Preconceito , Psicologia , Segurança , Autoimagem , Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos do Comportamento Social , Mudança Social , Controle Social Formal , Problemas Sociais , Responsabilidade Social , Apoio Social , Seguridade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sociologia , Desemprego , Violência , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais , Trabalho Infantil , Biografias como Assunto , Luto , Custódia da Criança , Adaptação Psicológica , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Instituições de Caridade , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Criança Institucionalizada , Proteção da Criança , Organizações , Saúde , Saúde Mental , Coleta de Dados , Expectativa de Vida , Mortalidade , Adolescente Institucionalizado , Coerção , Jovens em Situação de Rua , Crime , Direito Penal , Abrigo , Conflitos Armados , Cultura , Assistência de Custódia , Autonomia Pessoal , Obrigações Morais , Poder Público , Morte , Aplicação da Lei , Menores de Idade , Populações Vulneráveis , Violação de Direitos Humanos , Dependência Psicológica , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Educação , Empatia , Disciplina no Trabalho , Emprego , Projetos de Investimento Social , Resiliência Psicológica , Bullying , Racismo , Integração Comunitária , Tráfico de Drogas , Ajustamento Emocional , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Comportamento Criminoso , Segregação Social , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Fragilidade , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Sobrevivência , Reincidência , Liberdade , Autonegligência , Abuso Emocional , Interação Social , Cidadania , Apoio Familiar , Desamparo Aprendido , Homicídio , Direitos Humanos , Renda , Delinquência Juvenil , Imperícia
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253741, 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1448940

RESUMO

Apesar das crescentes investigações sobre uso de telas na infância, essa é uma temática complexa e ainda recente, que traz diversos desafios para pesquisadores e cuidadores. Comunidades virtuais em redes sociais são utilizadas por mães e pais para esclarecer dúvidas e receber conselhos acerca da parentalidade e saúde infantil, podendo, simultaneamente, assumir uma função prescritiva e normativa quanto ao seu modo de agir. Sendo assim, este artigo pretende compreender como o uso de telas na infância vem sendo abordado por especialistas em grupos de mães e pais no Facebook. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo envolvendo 49 postagens de especialistas, sobretudo psicólogos e educadores, extraídas de cinco grupos públicos de mães e pais nessa rede social. Os textos das publicações foram verificados por meio de análise temática e discutidos com base no referencial teórico psicanalítico. Os resultados mostraram que os especialistas destacam os possíveis prejuízos do uso de telas na infância, além de fornecer orientações aos pais sobre como lidar com sua presença no cotidiano das crianças e de suas famílias. Concluiu-se que apesar dos grupos de cuidadores no Facebook serem uma ferramenta de divulgação de informações acerca do uso de telas na infância, cabe não naturalizar a presença de especialistas nesses espaços virtuais criados por pais e mães, interpondo-se nos saberes e nas trocas horizontalizadas entre os cuidadores.(AU)


Although investigations on the use of screens in childhood are increasing, this is a complex and recent topic, which poses several challenges for researchers and caregivers. Virtual communities in social networks are used by mothers and fathers to clarify doubts and receive advice regarding parenting and child health, at times, simultaneously, assuming a prescriptive and normative role on their way of acting. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how the use of screens in childhood has been approached by experts in groups of mothers and fathers on Facebook. A qualitative study was carried out involving 49 posts from specialists, mainly psychologists and educators, extracted from five public groups of mothers and fathers in this social network. The publications' texts were verified via thematic analysis and discussed based on the psychoanalytical theoretical framework. The results showed that experts highlight the possible damage of the use of screens in childhood, in addition to providing guidance to parents on how to deal with the presence of digital technology in the daily lives of children and families. It was concluded that, although caregivers' groups on Facebook are a tool for disseminating information about the use of screens in childhood, it is important not to naturalize the presence of specialists in these virtual spaces created by fathers and mothers, interposing in the horizontally interchanges that occur between the caregivers.(AU)


A pesar de las crecientes investigaciones sobre el uso de pantallas en la infancia, este es un tema complejo y aún reciente, que plantea varios desafíos para investigadores y cuidadores. Las comunidades virtuales en las redes sociales son utilizadas por madres y padres para aclarar dudas y recibir consejos sobre educación y salud infantil, pudiendo, al mismo tiempo, asumir un rol prescriptivo y normativo sobre su forma de actuar. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender cómo el uso de las pantallas en la infancia ha sido abordado por especialistas en grupos de madres y padres en Facebook. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo a partir de 49 publicaciones de especialistas, principalmente de psicólogos y educadores, extraídas de cinco grupos públicos de madres y padres en esta red social. Se realizó en los textos de las publicaciones un análisis temático y se utilizó el marco teórico psicoanalítico. Los resultados mostraron que los expertos destacan posibles daños que provoca el uso de pantallas en la infancia, además de orientar a los padres sobre cómo afrontar esta presencia de la tecnología digital en el día a día de los niños y sus familias. Se concluyó que, a pesar de que los grupos de cuidadores en Facebook son una herramienta de difusión de información sobre el uso de pantallas en la infancia, es importante no naturalizar la presencia de especialistas en estos espacios virtuales creados por padres y madres que se interpone entre los saberes e intercambios horizontales de los cuidadores.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicanálise , Criança , Rede Social , Ansiedade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pediatria , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Jogos e Brinquedos , Psicologia , Psicologia Educacional , Aspirações Psicológicas , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtorno Autístico , Sono , Logro , Mudança Social , Isolamento Social , Socialização , Esportes , Estresse Fisiológico , Tecnologia , Televisão , Pensamento , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais , Terapia Comportamental , Livros Ilustrados , Neurociências , Luto , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Infantil , Cuidado da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Orientação Infantil , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Educação Infantil , Proteção da Criança , Saúde Mental , Saúde da Criança , Poder Familiar , Negociação , Cuidadores , Pessoal de Saúde , Cognição , Comunicação , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Jogos de Vídeo , Internet , Criatividade , Afeto , Níveis Máximos Permitidos , Características Culturais , Cibernética , Síndrome Metabólica , Desenvolvimento Moral , Telefone Celular , Depressão , Diabetes Mellitus , Escolaridade , Emoções , Acolhimento , Estudos Populacionais em Saúde Pública , Sobrepeso , Nutrição da Criança , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Fantasia , Banho de Sol , Inteligência Emocional , Comportamento Sedentário , Mídia Audiovisual , Obesidade Infantil , Aplicativos Móveis , Habilidades Sociais , Coragem , Fatores Sociológicos , Ajustamento Emocional , Alfabetização , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Transtorno da Fluência com Início na Infância , Jogos Recreativos , Uso do Telefone Celular , Frustração , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Interação Social , COVID-19 , Dependência de Tecnologia , Felicidade , Desamparo Aprendido , Passatempos , Maternidades , Hipertensão , Imaginação , Individualidade , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Atividades de Lazer , Estilo de Vida , Relações Mãe-Filho , Atividade Motora , Comunicação não Verbal
18.
Psicol. USP ; 34: e200188, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1422358

RESUMO

Resumo Este estudo contribui com a tessitura de uma análise das relações sociais e das formas políticas à luz da psicanálise, e propõe reflexões sobre o desamparo e modalidades de subjetivação de adolescentes em risco de envolvimento com a criminalidade. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir de escuta clínica de adolescentes em cumprimento de medida socioeducativa e teve como objetivo investigar a inserção no laço social pela via do ato infracional. Para isso, foram resgatadas expressões produzidas pelos adolescentes e analisadas a partir de três dimensões: desamparo, pacto com o grupo e violência. Concluiu-se que modalidades de sujeição e exclusão social, nos contextos culturais colonizados, produzem efeitos significativos na subjetividade dos adolescentes, sendo o ato infracional uma possível via de solução para o desamparo, uma inserção no laço social e uma modalidade de identificação.


Abstract This study contributes with weaving an analysis of the social relations and the political forms in the light of psychoanalysis and proposes reflections on the helplessness and subjectivity modalities of adolescents at risk of involvement with crime. The study was developed from the clinical listening of adolescents in a socio-educational measure and aimed to investigate the insertion in the social bond via the infraction. To that end, the expressions produced by the adolescents were recovered and analyzed from three dimensions: helplessness, pact with the group, and violence. In conclusion, the modalities of subjection and social exclusion, in the colonized cultural contexts, produce significant effects on the subjectivity of adolescents, with the crime being a possible solution to helplessness, as well as an insertion in the social bond, and an identification modality.


Résumé Cette étude contribue au tissage d'une analyse des relations sociales et des formes politiques à la lumière de la psychanalyse et propose des réflexions sur les modalités d'impuissance et de subjectivité des adolescents à risque d'implication dans la criminalité. L'étude a été développée à partir de l'écoute clinique d'adolescents dans le respect d'une mesure socio-éducative et visait à enquêter sur l'insertion dans le lien social à travers l'infraction. Pour cela, des expressions produites par les adolescents ont été récupérées et analysées à partir de trois dimensions : l'impuissance, le pacte avec le groupe et la violence. Il a été conclu que les modalités d'assujettissement et d'exclusion sociale, dans les contextes culturels colonisés, produisent des effets significatifs sur la subjectivité des adolescents, l'infraction étant un moyen de rechercher une solution à l'impuissance, ainsi qu'une insertion dans le lien social, et une modalité d'identification.


Resumen Este estudio contribuye con un análisis de las relaciones sociales y formas políticas a la luz del psicoanálisis, además de proponer reflexiones sobre el desamparo y las modalidades de subjetividad de los adolescentes en riesgo de involucrarse en la criminalidad. A partir de la escucha clínica de adolescentes en cumplimiento de una medida socioeducativa, este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la inserción en el vínculo social a través de la infracción. Así, se tomaron los relatos de los adolescentes, para analizarlos bajo tres dimensiones: desamparo, pacto con el grupo y violencia. Se concluyó que las modalidades de sometimiento y exclusión social, en los contextos culturales colonizados, producen efectos significativos sobre la subjetividad de los adolescentes, y es la infracción un medio de búsqueda de una posible solución al desamparo, una inserción en el vínculo social y una modalidad de identificación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Menores de Idade , Comportamento Criminoso , Exposição à Violência , Desamparo Aprendido , Identificação Psicológica , Psicanálise , Isolamento Social , Apego ao Objeto
19.
Cogn Emot ; 36(6): 1021-1026, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322508

RESUMO

The present theory section deals with learned helplessness produced by pervasive experiences of failure or negative events, leading to decreased motivation and risk for depression. In their target article, Boddez, van Dessel, and de Houwer apply this concept to different forms of psychological suffering and propose a goal-directed mechanism -generalisation over similar goals. Duda and Joormann define goal similarity by action-outcome contingencies and highlight individual differences in attribution styles. Brandstätter proposes incentive classes as the organising principle for goal similarity and explores outcomes such as deterioration of cognitive ability. Mikulincer and Lifshin focus on differences between goals and introduce the notion of motivated helplessness, serving as an anxiety buffer in uncontrollable life settings. Finally, potential contributions from emotion science are outlined, in particular individual differences and biases in appraising goals and coping potential likely to produce negative emotion dispositions. In conclusion, the need to elaborate a more comprehensive theoretical framework for helplessness that can guide empirical studies using multifactorial and longitudinal designs is emphasised. Given the strong increase in the prevalence of anxiety and depression worldwide, better understanding of predispositions and eliciting factors is needed for early diagnosis and the development of intervention programmes to reduce psychological suffering.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Desamparo Aprendido , Humanos , Sintomas Afetivos , Potenciais de Ação , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cogn Emot ; 36(6): 1037-1041, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054602

RESUMO

This commentary reviews a novel model of learned helplessness proposed by Boddez et al. in this issue of Cognition and Emotion. Combining operant and goal-directed perspectives, Boddez et al. suggest that helplessness stems from a lack of reinforcement when striving toward a goal, with the degree of generalisation dependent on subjective perceptions of goal similarity. We begin by reviewing the theoretical model, describe possible expansions from a cognitive perspective, and discuss several considerations. We finish with a brief discussion of possible directions for future work.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Desamparo Aprendido , Humanos , Reforço Psicológico , Emoções , Cognição
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