Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.055
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13690, 2024 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871744

RESUMO

Touch plays a crucial role for humans. Despite its centrality in sensory experiences, the field of haptic aesthetics is underexplored. So far, existing research has revealed that preferences in the haptic domain are related to stimulus properties and the Gestalt laws of grouping. Additionally, haptic aesthetics is influenced by top-down processes, e.g., stimulus familiarity, and is likely to be modulated by personality and expertise. To further our understanding of these influences on haptic aesthetic appraisal, the current study investigated the imagined haptic aesthetic appeal of visually presented material surfaces, considering the role of haptic expertise, Need for touch, personality traits. The results revealed a positive influence of familiarity, simplicity, smoothness, warmth, lightness, dryness, slipperiness and a negative influence of complexity on individuals' aesthetic responses. While the study failed to support the predicted influence of Need for touch and haptic expertise on aesthetic responses, results did reveal an influence of openness to experience, conscientiousness and neuroticism. Despite the limitations related to the indirect stimuli presentation (vision only), the findings contribute to the relatively unexplored role of bottom-up and top-down features in haptic aesthetics that might be incorporated into the design of consumers' products to better meet their preferences.


Assuntos
Estética , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estética/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Individualidade , Tato/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Personalidade , Adolescente
2.
J Vis ; 24(6): 4, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842836

RESUMO

The interception (or avoidance) of moving objects is a common component of various daily living tasks; however, it remains unclear whether precise alignment of foveal vision with a target is important for motor performance. Furthermore, there has also been little examination of individual differences in visual tracking strategy and the use of anticipatory gaze adjustments. We examined the importance of in-flight tracking and predictive visual behaviors using a virtual reality environment that required participants (n = 41) to intercept tennis balls projected from one of two possible locations. Here, we explored whether different tracking strategies spontaneously arose during the task, and which were most effective. Although indices of closer in-flight tracking (pursuit gain, tracking coherence, tracking lag, and saccades) were predictive of better interception performance, these relationships were rather weak. Anticipatory gaze shifts toward the correct release location of the ball provided no benefit for subsequent interception. Nonetheless, two interceptive strategies were evident: 1) early anticipation of the ball's onset location followed by attempts to closely track the ball in flight (i.e., predictive strategy); or 2) positioning gaze between possible onset locations and then using peripheral vision to locate the moving ball (i.e., a visual pivot strategy). Despite showing much poorer in-flight foveal tracking of the ball, participants adopting a visual pivot strategy performed slightly better in the task. Overall, these results indicate that precise alignment of the fovea with the target may not be critical for interception tasks, but that observers can adopt quite varied visual guidance approaches.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Percepção de Movimento , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia
3.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 19(1): 30, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878098

RESUMO

Chronic neuropathic pain precipitates a complex range of affective and behavioural disturbances that differ markedly between individuals. While the reasons for differences in pain-related disability are not well understood, supraspinal neuroimmune interactions are implicated. Minocycline has antidepressant effects in humans and attenuates affective disturbances in rodent models of pain, and acts by reducing neuroinflammation in both the spinal cord and brain. Previous studies, however, tend not to investigate how minocycline modulates individual affective responses to nerve injury, or rely on non-naturalistic behavioural paradigms that fail to capture the complexity of rodent behaviour. We investigated the development and resolution of pain-related affective disturbances in nerve-injured male rats by measuring multiple spontaneous ethological endpoints on a longitudinal naturalistic foraging paradigm, and the effect of chronic oral minocycline administration on these changes. Disrupted foraging behaviours appeared in 22% of nerve-injured rats - termed 'affected' rats - and were present at day 14 but partially resolved by day 21 post-injury. Minocycline completely prevented the emergence of an affected subgroup while only partly attenuating mechanical allodynia, dissociating the relationship between pain and affect. This was associated with a lasting downregulation of ΔFosB expression in ventral hippocampal neurons at day 21 post-injury. Markers of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation were not present by day 21, however proinflammatory microglial polarisation was apparent in the medial prefrontal cortex of affected rats and not in CCI minocycline rats. Individual differences in affective disturbances following nerve injury are therefore temporally related to altered microglial morphology and hippocampal neuronal activation, and are abrogated by minocycline.


Assuntos
Minociclina , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Animais , Minociclina/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/prevenção & controle , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/prevenção & controle , Individualidade , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/complicações
4.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 35: 100230, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual differences in commitment to lifelong learning, a process aimed at seizing opportunities for self-development, have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the decision-making mechanisms involved in pursuing learning for self-development. METHOD: We conducted a literature review on the taxing nature of cognitive exertion and its impact on the inclination to engage in cognitively demanding tasks for learning, as well as individual differences in sensitivity to aversive or rewarding outcomes inherent in the learning process. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that the Expected Value of Control (EVC) theory can elucidate the former, while research on approach-avoidance motivation can shed light on the latter. CONCLUSION: We propose and develop an integrated framework that incorporates both lines of research. This framework holds relevance for neuropsychology, experimental psychology, and education psychology, offering theoretical guidance for tailoring learning experiences to enhance engagement and commitment to self-development.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Motivação , Individualidade
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5138, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879619

RESUMO

Human ecological success is often attributed to our capacity for social learning, which facilitates the spread of adaptive behaviours through populations. All humans rely on social learning to acquire culture, but there is substantial variation across societies, between individuals and over developmental time. However, it is unclear why these differences exist. Here, we present an evolutionary model showing that individual variation in social learning can emerge if the benefits of social learning are unpredictable. Unpredictability selects for flexible developmental programmes that allow individuals to update their reliance on social learning based on previous experiences. This developmental flexibility, in turn, causes some individuals in a population to end up consistently relying more heavily on social learning than others. We demonstrate this core evolutionary mechanism across three scenarios of increasing complexity, investigating the impact of different sources of uncertainty about the usefulness of social learning. Our results show how evolution can shape how individuals learn to learn from others, with potentially profound effects on cultural diversity.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Aprendizado Social , Humanos , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Social , Incerteza
6.
eNeuro ; 11(6)2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830756

RESUMO

Clinical studies of major depression (MD) generally focus on group effects, yet interindividual differences in brain function are increasingly recognized as important and may even impact effect sizes related to group effects. Here, we examine the magnitude of individual differences in relation to group differences that are commonly investigated (e.g., related to MD diagnosis and treatment response). Functional MRI data from 107 participants (63 female, 44 male) were collected at baseline, 2, and 8 weeks during which patients received pharmacotherapy (escitalopram, N = 68) and controls (N = 39) received no intervention. The unique contributions of different sources of variation were examined by calculating how much variance in functional connectivity was shared across all participants and sessions, within/across groups (patients vs controls, responders vs nonresponders, female vs male participants), recording sessions, and individuals. Individual differences and common connectivity across groups, sessions, and participants contributed most to the explained variance (>95% across analyses). Group differences related to MD diagnosis, treatment response, and biological sex made significant but small contributions (0.3-1.2%). High individual variation was present in cognitive control and attention areas, while low individual variation characterized primary sensorimotor regions. Group differences were much smaller than individual differences in the context of MD and its treatment. These results could be linked to the variable findings and difficulty translating research on MD to clinical practice. Future research should examine brain features with low and high individual variation in relation to psychiatric symptoms and treatment trajectories to explore the clinical relevance of the individual differences identified here.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Encéfalo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escitalopram/farmacologia , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Conectoma
7.
Conscious Cogn ; 122: 103697, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823316

RESUMO

Previous work has established a link between executive attention ability and mind wandering propensity, these studies typically collapse thought reports into a single category of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). We have shown that these TUTs can be differentiated by the emotional valence of their content. Awareness of TUTs might also be an important to consider, yet little work has been done on this front. The current study conceptually replicated and extended previous work by investigating the relationship between individual differences in executive attention, emotional valence and awareness of TUTs. Latent variable models indicated that Executive Attention was differentially correlated with emotional valence TUTs. However, only Attention Control was related to frequency of mind wandering with awareness. Intra-individual analyses indicated that negatively valenced TUTs and TUTs that occurred without awareness were associated with worse performance. Considering different dimensions of TUTs can provide a more complete picture of individual differences in mind wandering.


Assuntos
Atenção , Conscientização , Emoções , Função Executiva , Individualidade , Pensamento , Humanos , Conscientização/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Adolescente
8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 245: 105965, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823358

RESUMO

Children's performance on the number line estimation task, often measured by the percentage of absolute error, predicts their later mathematics achievement. This task may also reveal (a) children's ordinal understanding of the target numbers in relation to each other and the benchmarks (e.g., endpoints, midpoint) and (b) the ordinal skills that are a necessary precursor to children's ability to understand the interval nature of a number line as measured by percentage of absolute error. Using data from 104 U.S. kindergartners, we measured whether children's estimates were correctly sequenced across trials and correctly positioned relative to given benchmarks within trials at two time points. For both time points, we found that each ordinal error measure revealed a distinct pattern of data distribution, providing opportunities to tap into different aspects of children's ordinal understanding. Furthermore, children who made fewer ordinal errors scored higher on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability and showed greater improvement on their interval understanding of numbers as reflected by a larger reduction of percentage of absolute error from Time 1 to Time 2. The findings suggest that our number line measures reveal individual differences in children's ordinal understanding of numbers, and that such understanding may be a precursor to their interval understanding and later mathematics performance.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Matemática , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Individualidade
9.
J Exp Biol ; 227(12)2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842023

RESUMO

One of the most prevalent axes of behavioral variation in both humans and animals is risk taking, where individuals that are more willing to take risk are characterized as bold while those that are more reserved are regarded as shy. Brain monoamines (i.e. serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline) have been found to play a role in a variety of behaviors related to risk taking. Using zebrafish, we investigated whether there was a relationship between monoamine function and boldness behavior during exploration of a novel tank. We found a correlation between serotonin metabolism (5-HIAA:5-HT ratio) and boldness during the initial exposure to the tank in female animals. The DOPAC:DA ratio correlated with boldness behavior on the third day in male fish. There was no relationship between boldness and noradrenaline. To probe differences in serotonergic function in bold and shy fish, we administered a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram, and assessed exploratory behavior. We found that escitalopram had opposing effects on thigmotaxis in bold and shy female animals: the drug caused bold fish to spend more time near the center of the tank and shy fish spent more time near the periphery. Taken together, our findings indicate that variation in serotonergic function has sex-specific contributions to individual differences in risk-taking behavior.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Serotonina , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Feminino , Serotonina/metabolismo , Masculino , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Citalopram/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Assunção de Riscos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/metabolismo
10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(8): e26753, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864353

RESUMO

Predicting individual behavior from brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns can contribute to our understanding of human brain functioning. This may apply in particular if predictions are based on features derived from circumscribed, a priori defined functional networks, which improves interpretability. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that task-based FC data may yield more successful predictions of behavior than resting-state FC data. Here, we comprehensively examined to what extent the correspondence of functional network priors and task states with behavioral target domains influences the predictability of individual performance in cognitive, social, and affective tasks. To this end, we used data from the Human Connectome Project for large-scale out-of-sample predictions of individual abilities in working memory (WM), theory-of-mind cognition (SOCIAL), and emotion processing (EMO) from FC of corresponding and non-corresponding states (WM/SOCIAL/EMO/resting-state) and networks (WM/SOCIAL/EMO/whole-brain connectome). Using root mean squared error and coefficient of determination to evaluate model fit revealed that predictive performance was rather poor overall. Predictions from whole-brain FC were slightly better than those from FC in task-specific networks, and a slight benefit of predictions based on FC from task versus resting state was observed for performance in the WM domain. Beyond that, we did not find any significant effects of a correspondence of network, task state, and performance domains. Together, these results suggest that multivariate FC patterns during both task and resting states contain rather little information on individual performance levels, calling for a reconsideration of how the brain mediates individual differences in mental abilities.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Emoções , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Rede Nervosa , Humanos , Adulto , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Feminino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297917, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857268

RESUMO

What is the role of working memory over the course of non-native speech category learning? Prior work has predominantly focused on how working memory might influence learning assessed at a single timepoint. Here, we substantially extend this prior work by examining the role of working memory on speech learning performance over time (i.e., over several months) and leverage a multifaceted approach that provides key insights into how working memory influences learning accuracy, maintenance of knowledge over time, generalization ability, and decision processes. We found that the role of working memory in non-native speech learning depends on the timepoint of learning and whether individuals learned the categories at all. Among learners, across all stages of learning, working memory was associated with higher accuracy as well as faster and slightly more cautious decision making. Further, while learners and non-learners did not have substantially different working memory performance, learners had faster evidence accumulation and more cautious decision thresholds throughout all sessions. Working memory may enhance learning by facilitating rapid category acquisition in initial stages and enabling faster and slightly more careful decision-making strategies that may reduce the overall effort needed to learn. Our results have important implications for developing interventions to improve learning in naturalistic language contexts.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Aprendizagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fala , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Idioma
12.
Evol Psychol ; 22(2): 14747049241254727, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780356

RESUMO

Environmental sensitivity is a meta-concept that describes individual differences in susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences and has been repeatedly reported to correlate with other established personality traits, including the Big Five. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the general factor of environmental sensitivity (GFS) and the general factor of personality (GFP). A total of 1,046 adult participants (52% female; Mage = 45.15, SDage = 12.70) completed a self-report psychological questionnaire on an online form. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that GFS had a strong negative correlation with GFP (r = -.41, 95% CI [-.52, -.30], p < .001). Focusing on the relationship with the Big Five, individuals with higher environmental sensitivity were emotionally unstable and introverted. The trait of environmental sensitivity may be described not only in relation to the Big Five but also in relation to GFP, which is assumed to be an indicator of social effectiveness.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Humanos , Feminino , Personalidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Individualidade , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11397, 2024 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762655

RESUMO

Social decision-making is known to be influenced by predictive emotions or the perceived reciprocity of partners. However, the connection between emotion, decision-making, and contextual reciprocity remains less understood. Moreover, arguments suggest that emotional experiences within a social context can be better conceptualised as prosocial rather than basic emotions, necessitating the inclusion of two social dimensions: focus, the degree of an emotion's relevance to oneself or others, and dominance, the degree to which one feels in control of an emotion. For better representation, these dimensions should be considered alongside the interoceptive dimensions of valence and arousal. In an ultimatum game involving fair, moderate, and unfair offers, this online study measured the emotions of 476 participants using a multidimensional affective rating scale. Using unsupervised classification algorithms, we identified individual differences in decisions and emotional experiences. Certain individuals exhibited consistent levels of acceptance behaviours and emotions, while reciprocal individuals' acceptance behaviours and emotions followed external reward value structures. Furthermore, individuals with distinct emotional responses to partners exhibited unique economic responses to their emotions, with only the reciprocal group exhibiting sensitivity to dominance prediction errors. The study illustrates a context-specific model capable of subtyping populations engaged in social interaction and exhibiting heterogeneous mental states.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Individualidade , Jogos Experimentais , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Relações Interpessoais
14.
Behav Brain Res ; 469: 115021, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692358

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the brain networks engaged in the comprehension of indirect language, as well as the individual difference in this capacity. Specially, we aim to determine whether the difference is solely influenced by the difference in individuals' default network (DN)/language network or whether it also relies on the networks associated with processing of complex cognitive tasks, particularly the multiple demand network (MDN). Conversational indirectness scale (CIS) scores in the interpretation dimension were used as a behavioral indicator of the indirect comprehension tendency. Reading time difference between indirect replies and direct replies collected through a self-paced reading experiment was deemed as a behavioral indicator of comprehension speed of indirect replies comprehension. The two behavioral indicators were combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The behaviour-rfMRI analysis showed that ALFF value of right SPL and the functional connectivity (FC) between the right SPL and right IPL/SMA/ITG/Precuneus/bilateral IFG were positively correlated with the interpretation dimension of CIS scores. In addition, the ALFF value of right fusiform gyrus, the FC between the right fusiform gyrus and right precuneus, and the FCs between right SPL and right IPL/Precuneus/IFG were negatively correlated with indirect replies comprehension speed. Overlapping of these regions with large-scale brain network revealed that the right SPL was mainly located in the MDN, and the right fusiform gyrus was mainly located in the language network. Additionally, the areas showing functional connectivity with these regions were primarily located in the MDN, with a smaller subset located in the DN. Our findings suggest that the ability of individuals to actively and rapidly acquire indirect meaning relies not only on the support of the DN and the language network, but also requires collective support from the MDN.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa , Leitura , Humanos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Idioma , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede de Modo Padrão/fisiologia , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma
15.
Neuroimage ; 295: 120636, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777219

RESUMO

Diversity in brain health is influenced by individual differences in demographics and cognition. However, most studies on brain health and diseases have typically controlled for these factors rather than explored their potential to predict brain signals. Here, we assessed the role of individual differences in demographics (age, sex, and education; n = 1298) and cognition (n = 725) as predictors of different metrics usually used in case-control studies. These included power spectrum and aperiodic (1/f slope, knee, offset) metrics, as well as complexity (fractal dimension estimation, permutation entropy, Wiener entropy, spectral structure variability) and connectivity (graph-theoretic mutual information, conditional mutual information, organizational information) from the source space resting-state EEG activity in a diverse sample from the global south and north populations. Brain-phenotype models were computed using EEG metrics reflecting local activity (power spectrum and aperiodic components) and brain dynamics and interactions (complexity and graph-theoretic measures). Electrophysiological brain dynamics were modulated by individual differences despite the varied methods of data acquisition and assessments across multiple centers, indicating that results were unlikely to be accounted for by methodological discrepancies. Variations in brain signals were mainly influenced by age and cognition, while education and sex exhibited less importance. Power spectrum activity and graph-theoretic measures were the most sensitive in capturing individual differences. Older age, poorer cognition, and being male were associated with reduced alpha power, whereas older age and less education were associated with reduced network integration and segregation. Findings suggest that basic individual differences impact core metrics of brain function that are used in standard case-control studies. Considering individual variability and diversity in global settings would contribute to a more tailored understanding of brain function.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Individualidade , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/fisiologia
16.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 40(5): 461-462, 2024 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819283
17.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 50(7): 752-768, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722581

RESUMO

Individuals' reaction time (RT) slopes in tasks of mental rotation have been found to be related to other measures of visual-spatial abilities, and thus are often viewed as a psychometric measure of visual-spatial abilities. The common interpretation of individual RT slopes is as a measure of the speed at which the rotation is carried out. However, electroencephalography studies have found that the process of mental rotation continues after response selection has been carried out, casting doubt on the interpretation of RT slopes as measures of the speed of mental rotation. This study made use of electroencephalography techniques to directly capture individual differences in the speed of mental rotation and assess their association with visual-spatial abilities. We found that individual differences in mental rotation speed are not related to individual differences in RT slopes. Moreover, a computation model supports an alternative explanation by which RT slopes reflect individual differences in differential tolerances for stimulus identification within mental rotation tasks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Imaginação , Individualidade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Espacial , Humanos , Adulto , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Feminino , Imaginação/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Rotação , Adolescente , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
18.
Cortex ; 175: 1-11, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691922

RESUMO

Studies have reported substantial variability in emotion recognition ability (ERA) - an important social skill - but possible neural underpinnings for such individual differences are not well understood. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated neural responses during emotion recognition in young adults (N = 49) who were selected for inclusion based on their performance (high or low) during previous testing of ERA. Participants were asked to judge brief video recordings in a forced-choice emotion recognition task, wherein stimuli were presented in visual, auditory and multimodal (audiovisual) blocks. Emotion recognition rates during brain scanning confirmed that individuals with high (vs low) ERA received higher accuracy for all presentation blocks. fMRI-analyses focused on key regions of interest (ROIs) involved in the processing of multimodal emotion expressions, based on previous meta-analyses. In neural response to emotional stimuli contrasted with neutral stimuli, individuals with high (vs low) ERA showed higher activation in the following ROIs during the multimodal condition: right middle superior temporal gyrus (mSTG), right posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS), and right inferior frontal cortex (IFC). Overall, results suggest that individual variability in ERA may be reflected across several stages of decisional processing, including extraction (mSTG), integration (PSTS) and evaluation (IFC) of emotional information.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Facial , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia
19.
Neuropharmacology ; 254: 109972, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710443

RESUMO

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic condition associated with long-lasting molecular and behavioral changes. Animals with prolonged access to opioids develop behaviors similar to human OUD. Identifying associated molecular changes can provide insight to underpinnings that lead to or maintain OUD. In pilot studies, we identified several miRNA targets that are altered by the administration of oxycodone. We selected mir182 for follow up as it was recently shown to be dysregulated in plasma of men administered oxycodone. In addition, mir182 is increased in reward-related brain regions of male rats following exposure to various addictive substances. The present study utilizes a long-access oxycodone self-administration paradigm to examine changes in mir182 and its mRNA targets associated with neuroplasticity, which may be involved in the maintenance of OUD-like phenotype in rats. Male rats were trained to self-administer oxycodone (0.1 mg/kg/infusion, i. v.) for 6 h daily sessions for 12 days. Each animal had a yoked saline control that received matched saline infusions. Animals were then tested on a progressive ratio schedule to measure motivation to obtain a single infusion of oxycodone. Drug seeking was measured following 28 days of forced abstinence using a 90-min cued/test. RTqPCR was utilized to measure mir182 and mRNA targets related to neuroplasticity (wnt3, plppr4, pou3f3, tle4, cacna2d, and bdnf) from the nucleus accumbens. Data revealed that animals responded on a continuum for oxycodone. When divided into two groups termed high- and low responders, animals diverged during self-administration acquisition and maintained differences in behavior and gene expression throughout the study. mir182 was upregulated in the nucleus accumbens of both high and low responders and negatively correlated with tle4, which showed a strong negative correlation with reinstatement behavior. mRNA target levels were correlated with behaviors associated with increased severity of OUD behavior in male rats.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Plasticidade Neuronal , Oxicodona , Autoadministração , Animais , Masculino , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/farmacologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Individualidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 162: 105727, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759742

RESUMO

This review synthesises individual differences in neural processes related to emotion regulation (ER). It comprises individual differences in self-reported and physiological regulation success, self-reported ER-related traits, and demographic variables, to assess their correlation with brain activation during ER tasks. Considering region-of-interest (ROI) and whole-brain analyses, the review incorporated data from 52 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Results can be summarized as follows: (1) Self-reported regulation success (assessed by emotional state ratings after regulation) and self-reported ER-related traits (assessed by questionnaires) correlated with brain activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex. (2) Amygdala activation correlated with ER-related traits only in ROI analyses, while it was associated with regulation success in whole-brain analyses. (3) For demographic and physiological measures, there was no systematic overlap in effects reported across studies. In showing that individual differences in regulation success and ER-related traits can be traced back to differences in the neural activity of brain regions associated with emotional reactivity (amygdala) and cognitive control (lateral prefrontal cortex), our findings can inform prospective personalised intervention models.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Regulação Emocional , Individualidade , Humanos , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...