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1.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 30(2): 488-497, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article describes the clinical features and treatment of the indomethacin-responsive headache disorders paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: Both paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua are treated with indomethacin at the lowest clinically useful dose. It has recently become clear that some patients with either condition may respond to treatment with noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation, which can be both indomethacin sparing and, in some cases, headache controlling. Given the lifelong nature of both paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua, brain imaging with MRI is recommended when the conditions are identified, specifically including pituitary views. ESSENTIAL POINTS: Paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua are indomethacin-responsive headache disorders that offer a rewarding and unique opportunity to provide marked clinical improvement when recognized and treated appropriately. These disorders share the final common pathway of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex, with head pain and cranial autonomic features, and are differentiated pathophysiologically by the pattern of brain involvement, which can be seen using functional imaging. They have distinct differential diagnoses to which the clinician needs to remain alert.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Hemicrania Paroxística , Humanos , Hemicrania Paroxística/diagnóstico , Hemicrania Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Indometacina/uso terapêutico
2.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(3): 523-532, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of asiaticoside on blood pressure and relaxation of thoracic aorta in rats and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: SD rats treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg asiaticoside by daily gavage for 2 weeks were monitored for systolic blood pressure changes, and histological changes of the thoracic aorta were evaluated using HE staining. In isolated rat endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta rings, the effects of asiaticoside on relaxation of the aortic rings were tested at baseline and following norepinephrine (NE)- and KCl-induced constriction. The vascular relaxation effect of asiaticoside was further observed in NE-stimulated endothelium-intact rat aortic rings pretreated with L-nitroarginine methyl ester, indomethacin, zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, tetraethyl ammonium chloride, glibenclamide, barium chloride, Iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, or TASK-1-IN-1. The aortic rings were treated with KCl and NE followed by increasing concentrations of CaCl2 to investigate the effect of asiaticoside on vasoconstriction induced by external calcium influx and internal calcium release. RESULTS: Asiaticoside at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly lowered systolic blood pressure in rats without affecting the thoracic aorta histomorphology. While not obviously affecting resting aortic rings with intact endothelium, asiaticoside at 100 mg/kg induced significant relaxation of the rings constricted by KCl and NE, but its effects differed between endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rings. In endothelium-intact aortic rings pretreated with indomethacin, ZnPP Ⅸ, barium chloride, glyburide, TASK-1-IN-1 and 4-aminopyridine, asiaticoside did not produce significant effect on NE-induced vasoconstriction, and tetraethylammonium, Iberiotoxin and L-nitroarginine methyl ester all inhibited the relaxation effect of asiaticoside. In KCland NE-treated rings, asiaticoside obviously inhibited CaCl2-induced vascular contraction. CONCLUSION: Asiaticoside induces thoracic aorta relaxation by mediating high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel opening, promoting nitric oxide release from endothelial cells and regulating Ca2+ influx and outflow, thereby reducing systolic blood pressure in rats.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica , Compostos de Bário , Cloretos , Triterpenos , Vasodilatação , Ratos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Células Endoteliais , Cálcio , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Nitroarginina/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , 4-Aminopiridina/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e17062, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435992

RESUMO

Background: Obesity leads to an elevated risk of developing gastrointestinal disease such as gastric ulcers. Callistemon citrinus leaf extract has shown antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and chemoprotective effects against colon cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of C. citrinus leaf extract on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in obese rats. Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced in female obese Wistar rats using a single oral dose of indomethacin (IND). In the first stage, the rats were fed with a high fat sugar diet (HFSD) for 15 weeks to induce obesity and, at the same time, the diet of the other group of animals included daily administration of ethanolic C. citrinus leaf extract (250 mg/kg) in addition to HFSD. In the second stage, gastric ulcers were induced with IND (30 mg/kg). The gastroprotective activity of C. citrinus, the inflammatory enzyme activities, and cytokines in the stomach were determined. Results: C. citrinus produced a reduction of gastric lesions caused by IND. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activities also decreased. Although inflammatory biomarkers such as TNFα, IL-6, AOPP, and leptin were significantly decreased by C. citrinus, adiponectin levels increased. Moreover, C. citrinus decreased weight gain and morphological and biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The use of indomethacin in rats fed with a high fat-sugar diet increased gastric ulcers. Gastroprotective effect of C. citrinus in obese rats is attributed to the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inflammatory enzymes.


Assuntos
Indometacina , Úlcera Gástrica , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Ratos Wistar , Anti-Inflamatórios , Obesidade/complicações , Antígenos CD36 , Açúcares , Citocinas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Cephalalgia ; 44(3): 3331024231226196, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemicrania continua (HC) and paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) belong to a group of primary headache disorders called trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. One of the diagnostic criteria for both HC and PH is the absolute response to the therapeutic dose of indomethacin. However, indomethacin is discontinued in many patients as a result of intolerance to its side effects. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, which shares similar chemical structure to indomethacin, has been reported to have some efficacy for HC in previous case reports and series. To our knowledge, there is no literature regarding the use of melatonin in PH. We aimed to describe the clinical use of melatonin in the preventive management of HC and PH. METHODS: Patient level data were extracted as an audit from routinely collected clinical records in consecutive patients seen in outpatient neurology clinic at King's College Hospital, London, UK, from September 2014 to April 2023. Our cohort of patients were identified through a search using the keywords: hemicrania continua, paroxysmal hemicrania, melatonin and indomethacin. Descriptive statistics including absolute and relative frequencies, mean ± SD, median and interquartile range (IQR) were used. RESULTS: Fifty-six HC patients were included with a mean ± SD age of 52 ± 16 years; 43 of 56 (77%) patients were female. Melatonin was taken by 23 (41%) patients. Of these 23 patients, 19 (83%) stopped indomethacin because of different side effects. The doses of melatonin used ranged from 0.5 mg to 21 mg, with a median dose of 10 mg (IQR = 6-13 mg). Fourteen (61%) patients reported positive relief for headache, whereas the remaining nine (39%) patients reported no headache preventive effect. None of the patients reported that they were completely pain free. Two patients continued indomethacin and melatonin concurrently for better symptom relief. Eight patients continued melatonin as the single preventive treatment. Side effects from melatonin were rare. Twenty-two PH patients were included with mean ± SD age of 50 ± 17 years; 17 of 22 (77%) patients were female. Melatonin was given to six (27%) patients. The median dose of melatonin used was 8 mg (IQR = 6-10 mg). Three (50%) patients responded to melatonin treatment. One of them used melatonin as adjunctive treatment with indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin showed some efficacy in the treatment of HC and PH with a well-tolerated side effect profile. It does not have the same absolute responsiveness as indomethacin, at the doses used, although it does offer a well-tolerated option that can have significant ameliorating effects in a substantial cohort of patients.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Hemicrania Paroxística , Cefalalgias Autonômicas do Trigêmeo , Cefaleias Vasculares , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Hemicrania Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico
5.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 324: 104251, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492830

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extracellular acidification is a major component of tissue inflammation, including airway inflammation in asthmatics. However, its physiological/pathophysiological significance in bronchial function is not fully understood. Currently, the functional role of extracellular acidification on bronchial contraction was explored. METHODS: Left main bronchi were isolated from male BALB/c mice. Epithelium-removed tissues were exposed to acidic pH under submaximal contraction induced by 10-5 M acetylcholine in the presence or absence of a COX inhibitor indomethacin (10-6 M). Effects of AH6809 (10-6 M, an EP2 receptor antagonist), BW A868C (10-7 M, a DP receptor antagonist) and CAY10441 (3×10-6 M, an IP receptor antagonist) on the acidification-induced change in tension were determined. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from epithelium-denuded tissues in response to acidic pH was assessed using an ELISA. RESULTS: In the bronchi stimulated with acetylcholine, change in the extracellular pH from 7.4 to 6.8 caused a transient augmentation of contraction followed by a sustained relaxing response. The latter inhibitory response was abolished by indomethacin and AH6809 but not by BW A868C or CAY10441. Both indomethacin and AH6809 significantly increased potency and efficacy of acetylcholine at pH 6.8. Stimulation with low pH caused an increase in PGE2 release from epithelium-denuded bronchi. Interestingly, the acidic pH-induced bronchial relaxation was significantly reduced in a murine asthma model that had a bronchial hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine. CONCLUSION: Taken together, extracellular acidification could inhibit the bronchial contraction via autocrine activation of EP2 receptors. The diminished acidic pH-mediated inhibition of bronchial tone may contribute to excessive bronchoconstriction in inflamed airways such as asthma.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina , Asma , Compostos de Benzil , Imidazóis , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Brônquios , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Indometacina/farmacologia , Inflamação , Contração Muscular , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
6.
Inflammopharmacology ; 32(2): 909-915, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492182

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rat housing conditions-standard conditions, social isolation, environmental enrichment-and the subsequent reversal of these conditions on the vulnerability of the gastric mucosa to ulcerogenic stimuli, somatic pain sensitivity, and treadmill work capacity. Rats, aged 30 days, were placed in standard conditions (SC), social isolation (Is), and environmental enrichment (EE) for 4 weeks. Then half of each group underwent a reversal of housing conditions: SC rats were moved to Is, Is rats were placed in EE, EE rats were moved to Is, for 2 weeks. The other half served as a control with no change in their initial housing. Two weeks after the reversal, vulnerability of the gastric mucosa to ulcerogenic action of indomethacin (IM, 35 mg/kg, sc), somatic pain sensitivity (hot plate test), and work capacity (measured by the running distance on a treadmill) were assessed in control and reversed groups. Social isolation induced a proulcerogenic effect, increasing IM-induced gastric erosions, which was effectively reversed when rats were transferred to an environmental enrichment. Conversely, transferring rats from an environmental enrichment to social isolation exacerbated ulcerogenic action of IM. Somatic pain sensitivity and treadmill work capacity were also influenced by housing conditions, with environmental enrichment showing positive effects. The present findings show that social isolation of rats induces a proulcerogenic effect. Environmental enrichment reverses proulcerogenic action of social isolation on the gastric mucosa and increases resilience to pain stimuli and treadmill work capacity.


Assuntos
Indometacina , Dor Nociceptiva , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Indometacina/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica , Isolamento Social
7.
J Med Chem ; 67(7): 5744-5757, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553427

RESUMO

To develop a next-generation metal agent and dual-agent multitargeted combination therapy, we developed a copper (Cu) compound based on the properties of the human serum albumin (HSA)-indomethacin (IND) complex to remodel the tumor microenvironment (TME). We optimized a series of Cu(II) isopropyl 2-pyridyl ketone thiosemicarbazone compounds to obtain a Cu(II) compound (C4) with significant cytotoxicity and then constructed an HSA-IND-C4 complex (HSA-IND-C4) delivery system. IND and C4 bind to the hydrophobic cavities of the IB and IIA domains of HSA, respectively. In vivo, the HSA-IND-C4 not only showed enhanced antitumor efficacy relative to C4 and C4 + IND but also improved their targeting ability and decreased their side effects. The antitumor mechanism of C4 + IND involved acting on the different components of the TME. IND inhibited tumor-related inflammation, while C4 not only induced apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells but also inhibited tumor angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Pró-Fármacos , Tiossemicarbazonas , Humanos , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Cobre/química , Albumina Sérica/química , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia , Tiossemicarbazonas/uso terapêutico , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e277354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452187

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the diuretic activity of linalyl acetate (LA). LA is an essential oil, it is an integral phyto-constituent of various plants. In this study, acute and chronic diuretic activities were explored by measuring the levels of different electrolytes and pH in the urine of experimental rats. Rats were divided into five groups. The control group was given 10 mg/kg normal saline, the treated group was given 10 mg/kg furosemide, and the remaining 3 groups received different doses of LA including 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg through intraperitoneal route, to determine its diuretic potential. Urine volume for acute diuretic activity was measured for 6 hours however for chronic diuretic activity was measured for 6 days. For a comparative study of LA with a control group and treated group with reference drug, diuretic index was used. Moreover, the underlying mechanism of the diuretic activity was also explored by comparing atropine, L-NAME, and indomethacin. The results of each group with 6 rats in each group were obtained by ± standard error of the mean of every group. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis. Results revealed that the LA 75 mg/kg dose showed comparable results as of furosemide. Moreover, this study revealed the involvement of muscarinic receptors to produce diuresis in comparison with atropine with very little involvement of prostanoids and no effect on NO pathway induced by indomethacin and L-NAME respectively. It is concluded that LA possess anti-diuretic potential. Muscarinic receptors might be involved in producing diuretic effects.


Assuntos
Diuréticos , Furosemida , Monoterpenos , Ratos , Animais , Furosemida/farmacologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Atropina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Muscarínicos
9.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 484: 116880, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447874

RESUMO

Gastric ulcer (GU) is a serious upper gastrointestinal tract disorder that affects people worldwide. The drugs now available for GU treatment have a high rate of relapses and drug interactions, as well as mild to severe side effects. As a result, new natural therapeutic medications for treating GU with fewer negative side effects are desperately needed. Because of quercetin's (QCT) diverse pharmacological effects and unique structural features, we decided to semi-synthesize new QCT derivatives and test them for antiulcer activity. Docking assays were performed on the synthesized compounds to determine their affinity for TLR-4/MD-2, MyD88/TIR, and NF-κB domains, an important inflammatory pathway involved in GU development and progression. Mice were given oral famotidine (40 mg/kg/day), QCT, QCT pentamethyl (QPM), or QCT pentaacetyl (QPA) (50 mg/kg/day) for 5 days before GU induction by a single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (INDO; 18 mg/kg). QPM and QPA have a stronger binding affinity for TLR-4/MD-2, MyD88/TIR and NF-κB domains than QCT. In comparison, they demonstrated the greatest reduction in ulcer score and index, gastric MDA and nitric oxide (NO) contents, MyD88 and NF-κB expressions, and gastric TLR-4 immunostaining. They also enhanced the levels of GSH, CAT, COX-1, and COX-2 in the gastric mucosa, as well as HO-1 and Nrf2 expression, with histological regression in gastric mucosal lesions, with QPA-treated mice demonstrating the best GU healing. QPA is safe against all of the target organs and adverse pathways studied, with good ADME properties. However, further in vitro experiments are necessary to demonstrate the inhibitory effects of QPM and QPA on the protein targets of interest. In addition, preclinical research on its bioavailability and safety is essential before clinical management can be undertaken. Overall, the new QPA derivative could one day serve as the basis for a new class of potential antiulcer drugs.


Assuntos
Indometacina , Úlcera Gástrica , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Indometacina/toxicidade , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Úlcera/metabolismo , Úlcera/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia
10.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 103(3): e14514, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531606

RESUMO

Series of 7-(Trifluoromethyl) substituted indolizine 4a-g was synthesized using the one-pot method. Spectroscopic techniques such as IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and HRMS were used for the structure confirmation of newly synthesized compounds. These 4a-g compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we identified novel indolizine derivative compounds 4a-g selectively targeting COX-2 enzyme, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and, interleukin-6 (IL-6). The in silico docking studies of 4a-g showed that these compounds have a higher affinity for COX-2 enzyme, TNF- α, and IL-6. In silico ADME profile analysis predicts that these compounds have good gastrointestinal tract and blood-brain barrier absorption. In vitro studies showed that compound 4d significantly reduces the level of COX-2 enzymes as compared to indomethacin. Compounds 4e, 4f, and 4a were also found to significantly reduce the level of TNF-α, while compounds 4f, 4g, and 4d, showed a reduction in the level of IL-6 when compared to indomethacin. Compounds 4a, 4d, and 4f also reduces nitric oxide (NO) level, compared to indomethacin. Overall, the current study illustrates significant anti-inflammatory activities of these novel 7-(Trifluoromethyl) substituted indolizine derivatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Indolizinas , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucina-6 , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Indometacina , Indolizinas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
11.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474567

RESUMO

Berberine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid with low toxicity, which exists in a wide variety of medicinal plants. Berberine has been demonstrated to exhibit potent prevention of indomethacin-induced gastric injury (GI) but the related mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics was applied for the first time to investigate the alteration of serum metabolites in the protection of berberine against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats. Subsequently, bioinformatics was utilized to analyze the potential metabolic pathway of the anti-GI effect of berberine. The pharmacodynamic data indicated that berberine could ameliorate gastric pathological damage, inhibit the level of proinflammatory factors in serum, and increase the level of antioxidant factors in serum. The LC-MS-based metabolomics analysis conducted in this study demonstrated the presence of 57 differential metabolites in the serum of rats with induced GI caused by indomethacin, which was associated with 29 metabolic pathways. Moreover, the study revealed that berberine showed a significant impact on the differential metabolites, with 45 differential metabolites being reported between the model group and the group treated with berberine. The differential metabolites were associated with 24 metabolic pathways, and berberine administration regulated 14 of the 57 differential metabolites, affecting 14 of the 29 metabolic pathways. The primary metabolic pathways affected were glutathione metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. Based on the results, it can be concluded that berberine has a gastroprotective effect on the GI. This study is particularly significant since it is the first to elucidate the mechanism of berberine's action on GI. The results suggest that berberine's action may be related to energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation regulation. These findings may pave the way for the development of new therapeutic interventions for the prevention and management of NSAID-induced GI disorders.


Assuntos
Berberina , Gastropatias , Ratos , Animais , Indometacina , Berberina/farmacologia , 60705 , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Metabolômica/métodos , Gastropatias/tratamento farmacológico
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(2)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350705

RESUMO

Bartter syndrome (BS) is a rare genetic tubulopathy affecting the loop of Henle leading to salt wasting. It is commonly seen in utero or in the early neonatal period. Rare cases of acquired BS are reported in association with infections like tuberculosis, granulomatous conditions like sarcoidosis, autoimmune diseases and drugs. The mainstay of management includes potassium, calcium and magnesium supplementation. We report the case of a woman in her 50s with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus for the last 10 years, who presented with diabetic foot ulcers and generalised weakness with ECG changes suggestive of hypokalaemia. She had severe hypokalaemia with high urine potassium excretion and hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis. She poorly responded to intravenously administered potassium supplements and had persistent hypokalaemia. On further evaluation of the persistent hypokalaemia, a diagnosis of idiopathic Bartter-like phenotype was made. She responded well to tablet indomethacin and is presently asymptomatic and is being maintained on tablet indomethacin after 6 months of follow-up.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bartter , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipopotassemia , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Bartter/complicações , Síndrome de Bartter/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Bartter/tratamento farmacológico , Hipopotassemia/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fenótipo , Potássio/metabolismo , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Comprimidos
13.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 88, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric ulcers represent a worldwide health problem, characterized by erosions that affect the mucous membrane of the stomach and may even reach the muscular layer, leading to serious complications. Numerous natural products have been assessed as anti-ulcerogenic agents, and have been considered as new approaches for treatment or prevention of gastric ulcers. The present research investigated the preventive benefits of Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae), known as celery, seed extract towards indomethacin-induced ulceration of the stomach in rats. METHODS: Metabolomic profiling, employing liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-HR-ESI-MS), was implemented with the aim of investigating the chemical profile of the seeds. Histopathological analysis of gastric tissues, as well as assessment of numerous inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress indicators, confirmed the in vivo evaluation. RESULTS: The prior treatment with A. graveolens seed extract resulted in a substantial reduction in the ulcer index when compared to the indomethacin group, indicating an improvement in stomach mucosal injury. Moreover, the gastroprotective effect was demonstrated through examination of the oxidative stress biomarkers which was significantly attenuated upon pre-treatment with A. graveolens seed extract. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a fundamental angiogenic factor that stimulates angiogenesis, was markedly inhibited by indomethacin. A. graveolens seed extract restored this diminished level of VEGF. The dramatic reductions in NF-κB protein levels indicate a considerable attenuation of the indomethacin-induced IKκB/NF-κB p65 signaling cascade. These activities were also correlated to the tentatively featured secondary metabolites including, phenolic acids, coumarins and flavonoids, previously evidenced to exert potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. According to our network pharmacology study, the identified metabolites annotated 379 unique genes, among which only 17 genes were related to gastric ulcer. The PTGS2, MMP2 and PTGS1 were the top annotated genes related to gastric ulcer. The top biological pathway was the VEGF signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: A. graveolens seed extract possesses significant anti-ulcer activity, similar to famotidine, against gastric lesions induced by indomethacin in rats. It is worth highlighting that the extract overcomes the negative effects of conventional chemical anti-secretory drugs because it does not lower stomach acidity.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos , Apium , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Apium/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Antiulcerosos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337674

RESUMO

Gastritis, one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, damages the stomach lining as it causes a disproportion between the protective and ruinous factors of the gastric system. Cabbage (CB) is widely used to treat gastric lesions but requires the addition of natural sweeteners to counteract its distinct bitter taste. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether the combination of chestnut honey (CH)-which is known for its dark brown color and high kynurenic acid (KA) content-or KA-increased CH (KACH) with CB (CH + CB or KACH + CB) exerts synergistic effects for improving both taste and efficacy. Before confirming the gastroprotective effects in indomethacin (INDO)-induced rats, the anti-inflammatory activities of CH + CB and KACH + CB were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As a result, treatment with either CH + CB or KACH + CB downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by regulating the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, both CH + CB and KACH + CB not only enhanced the levels of antioxidant enzymes but also triggered the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2. Based on these effects, CH + CB or KACH + CB effectively protected the gastric mucosa in INDO-induced rats. Therefore, this study suggests that CH + CB and KACH + CB exert stronger gastroprotective effects when used together.


Assuntos
Brassica , Mel , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Mucosa Gástrica , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e16591, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304184

RESUMO

Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to explore the potential impact of the route of administration on the efficacy of therapies and occurrence of adverse events when administering medications to premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Method: The protocol for this review has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD 42022324598). We searched relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and the Web of Science databases from March 26, 1996, to January 31, 2022. Results: A total of six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five observational studies were included for analysis, involving 630 premature neonates in total. Among these infants, 480 were in the ibuprofen group (oral vs. intravenous routes), 78 in the paracetamol group (oral vs. intravenous routes), and 72 in the ibuprofen group (rectal vs. oral routes). Our meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in the rate of PDA closure between the the initial course of oral ibuprofen and intravenous ibuprofen groups (relative risk (RR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.13-1.44]; P < 0.0001, I2 = 0%). In contrast, the meta-analysis of paracetamol administration via oral versus intravenous routes showed no significant difference in PDA closure rates (RR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.38-1.91]; P = 0.71, I2 = 76%). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the risk of adverse events or the need for surgical intervention among various drug administration methods after the complete course of drug therapy. Conclusion: This meta-analysis evaluated the safety and effectiveness of different medication routes for treating PDA in premature infants. Our analysis results revealed that compared with intravenous administration, oral ibuprofen may offer certain advantages in closing PDA without increasing the risk of adverse events. Conversely, the use of paracetamol demonstrated no significant difference in PDA closure and the risk of adverse events between oral and intravenous administration.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/tratamento farmacológico , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Indometacina , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
16.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(2): e22089, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409869

RESUMO

Insecticide mode of action studies provide insights into how new insecticidal actives function and contribute to assessing safety to humans and nontarget organisms. Insect cell lines that express potential target sites can serve as valuable tools in this effort. In this paper, we report on the influence of two signaling molecules on protein expression in a nervous system cell line established from Spodoptera frugiperda (Bayer/BCIRL-SfNS2-0714-TR). We selected this line because we established it in our laboratory and we are experienced in using it. Cells were exposed to the insect developmental hormone (1 µg/mL 20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) and/or a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor (25 µM indomethacin, INDO; inhibits prostaglandin [PG] biosynthesis) for 24 h (Day 2), 72 h (Day 4), or 120 h (Day 6). We selected a PG biosynthesis inhibitor because PGs act in many aspects of insect biology, such as embryonic development, immunity, and protein phosphorylation. We selected the developmental hormone, 20E, because it also acts in fundamental aspects of insect biology. We identified specific proteins via in silico analysis. Changes in protein expression levels were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) + MS-MS. The largest number of changes in protein expression occurred on Day 2. The combination of 20E plus INDO led to 222 differentially expressed proteins, which documents the deep significance of PGs and 20E in insect biology. 20E and, separately, INDO led to changes in 30 proteins each (p value < 0.01; >2X or <0.5X-fold changes). We recorded changes in the expression of 9 or 12 proteins (20E), 10 or 6 proteins (INDO), and 21 or 20 proteins (20E + INDO) on D4 and D6, respectively. While the cell line was established from neuronal tissue, the differentially expressed proteins act in a variety of fundamental cell processes. In this paper, we moved beyond a list of proteins by providing detailed, Gene Ontology term analyses and enrichment, which offers an in-depth understanding of the influence of these treatments on the SfNS2 cells. Because proteins are active components of cell physiology in their roles as enzymes, receptors, elements of signaling transduction pathways, and cellular structures, changes in their expression levels under the influence of signaling molecules provide insights into their function in insect cell physiology.


Assuntos
Ecdisterona , Indometacina , Humanos , Animais , Ecdisterona/farmacologia , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Insetos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Hormônios , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo
17.
Int J Pharm ; 654: 123933, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403090

RESUMO

Hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) is a drug encapsulation technology that uses electrostatic interactions between a drug and an additive. However, although polymeric micelles can encapsulate hydrophobic drugs in the core, the encapsulated drug often leaks. Therefore, we designed polymeric micelles with HIP functionalized in a hydrophobic inner core using three diblock copolymers comprising polypeptides with different ratios of polar and hydrophobic amino acids and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to encapsulate indomethacin (IND). The three IND-encapsulated HIP micelles showed different area under the curve (AUC) values as an index of blood retention after intravenous injection in mice. Despite having the same PEG shell, IND-PEG-poly(H/F)n showed a 1.56-fold higher AUC than IND-PEG-poly(D/F)n. PEG interface morphologies were evaluated to determine the differences in pharmacokinetic parameters caused by changes in inner core HIP patterns. The micellarized diblock copolymer was desorbed from IND-PEG-poly(D/F)n due to electrostatic repulsion between IND and the diblock copolymer comprising aspartic acid. Our results suggest that changes in the HIP patterns of the micelle inner core affected the PEG interface morphologies, such as PEG density and diblock copolymer desorption from micelles. These phenomena might lead to changes in the interaction of plasma proteins and drug dispositions.


Assuntos
Indometacina , Micelas , Camundongos , Animais , Indometacina/química , Polímeros/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Peptídeos , Portadores de Fármacos/química
18.
In Vivo ; 38(2): 647-651, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most widely used pharmaceuticals, induce various adverse effects, including gastrointestinal injuries, such as ulcers and bleeding. Animal models of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury (NSI) have been extensively employed for the development of preventive and therapeutic agents. However, some experimental variations related to feeding times have been observed following NSI induction. This study aimed to investigate the impact of feeding time on an NSI mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were divided into eight groups: normal, sham, and model groups (with feeding times of 2 h, 6 h, 10 h, 14 h, 18 h, and 22 h; n=10 in each group). The mice were fasted for 18 h before the injection of indomethacin (15 mg/kg, subcutaneously), except for the normal group. Food supply was halted at specific time points (2 h, 6 h, 10 h, 14 h, 18 h, and 22 h); however, the normal and sham groups were continuously fed throughout the experiment. The length of the small intestine was measured, and histological analysis was performed 24 h after induction. RESULTS: Up to 14 h after induction, NSI, indicated by small intestine shortening, remained consistent, with a reduction in length of approximately 10-20%. However, feeding for more than 14 h significantly exacerbated NSI, both anatomically and histologically. CONCLUSION: The ulcerative changes observed in the small intestine 14 h after indomethacin injection may be closely associated with the influence of food on NSI.


Assuntos
Enteropatias , Camundongos , Animais , Enteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Enteropatias/patologia , Enteropatias/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Úlcera/patologia
19.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 195: 106719, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309442

RESUMO

Molecularly functional drug delivery systems possessed huge potentials to realize novel drug administration. To explore small molecules modified drug delivery, a series of small molecules modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (L-Mal-MSNs, D-Mal-MSNs) were established by grafting small molecules. Poorly water-soluble indomethacin (IMC) was chosen to load into these small molecules modified carriers as well as corresponding control carrier, and further to study characteristics and delivery effects of drug loaded carriers. The results indicated that all these small molecules modified carriers formed hydrogen bonds with drugs and can successfully convert drug crystal phase to amorphous state so as to enhance drug dissolution compared to raw drug. In vivo rat intestinal perfusion demonstrated that IMC loaded L-Mal-MSNs performed the fastest drug absorption while analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of IMC loaded D-Mal-MSNs turned out to be the best, giving hints that D-malic acid exhibited best synergic functions for IMC. The herein small molecules modified delivery system is an effective solution strategy for the current application of analgesia and anti-inflammatory drugs with outstanding significance.


Assuntos
Indometacina , Nanopartículas , Ratos , Animais , Indometacina/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Porosidade
20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 84, 2024 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigate the role of COX signaling in activating the PGE2-EP2 pathway. METHODS: Utilized a marine Mycobacterium infection model in zebrafish. Marine mycobacteria were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The COX inhibitor indomethacin, EP2 receptor inhibitor AH6809, EP4 receptor inhibitor AH23848 and clodronate Liposomes were used to investigate the role of COX, EP2, EP4 and macrophage whether participating in combat marine mycobacterial infection. The expression level of the target gene was detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR instrument. RESULTS: The findings revealed that larvae exposed to the COX inhibitor indomethacin or the EP2 receptor inhibitor AH6809 demonstrated a significantly higher mortality rate due to marine mycobacterium infection than those in the control group. Administration of exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) rescued the survival of zebrafish infected with marine mycobacteria and treated with indomethacin. Additionally, a significant reduction in survival rate was noted in macrophage-depleted zebrafish infected with marine mycobacteria. CONCLUSION: The host may combat marine mycobacterium infection via COX signaling, which activates the PGE2-EP2 pathway and mediates macrophage resistance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium marinum , Animais , Dinoprostona , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases , Peixe-Zebra , Indometacina/farmacologia
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