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1.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241240920, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections and reproductive tract infections pose significant health risks, particularly among women living in challenging conditions. Unhygienic menstrual practices can exacerbate these risks, impacting physical and psychological well-being. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association between unhygienic menstrual care and self-reported urinary tract infection/reproductive tract infection symptoms among refugee women. In addition, it explored the association between these symptoms and mental health, specifically depressive symptoms. DESIGN: This study adopted a cross-sectional observational design. METHODS: This study was conducted between January and March 2023, involving 387 reproductive-age refugee women. Data collected included sociodemographic information and urinary tract infection/reproductive tract infection symptoms. In addition, we used the Menstrual Practice Needs Scale to evaluate menstrual hygiene practices and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using Python version 3.9.12. RESULTS: Of 387 refugee women, 92.25% reported having urinary or reproductive tract infection symptoms in the previous 3 months. Factors like older age (odds ratio = 1.764, 95% confidence interval = 1.083-2.873, p-value = 0.023), lower family income (odds ratio = 0.327, 95% confidence interval = 0.138-0.775, p-value = 0.011), lower educational level (odds ratio = 0.222, 95% confidence interval = 0.068-0.718, p-value = 0.012), and being married (odds ratio = 0.328, 95% confidence interval = 0.188-0.574, p-value < 0.001) were significantly associated with urinary or reproductive tract infection risk. Difficulties obtaining menstrual products and thus reusing them increased the odds of urinary or reproductive tract infection diagnosis (odds ratio = 2.452, 95% confidence interval = 1.497-4.015, p-value < 0.001). Women with urinary or reproductive tract infection symptoms exhibited higher Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores than those without (12.14 ± 5.87 vs 9.99 ± 5.86, p-value < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study highlights a high prevalence of urinary or reproductive tract infection symptoms among refugee women residing in camps in Jordan, which was associated with poor menstrual hygiene practices and depressive symptoms. To reduce the urinary tract infection/reproductive tract infection burden in marginalized communities, public health initiatives should enhance healthcare accessibility, provide reproductive education, and promote holistic well-being practices for refugee women.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Genital , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Feminino , Menstruação/psicologia , Higiene , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Campos de Refugiados , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
2.
Scand J Immunol ; 99(5): e13359, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605527

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the leading cause of bacterial urogenital infection and has been demonstrated to drive inflammation and scarring of the reproductive tract. Recent studies have identified key triggers of proinflammatory adaptive immune responses driven by innate leukocytes and epithelia driving immunopathology. Utilizing chimeric mouse models, we investigated the definitive source and role of IL17 and IL17 signalling receptors during early Chlamydia muridarum infection of the female urogenital tract. Bone marrow transplants from wild-type (WT) and IL17A-/- mice to recipients demonstrated equivocal infection kinetics in the reproductive tract, but interestingly, adoptive transfer of IL17A-/- immune cells to WT recipients resulted in no infertility, suggesting a haematopoietic (as opposed to tissue) source of IL17 driving immunopathology. To further delineate the role of IL17 in immunopathology, we infected WT and IL17 receptor A (IL17RA)-/- female mice and observed a significant reduction in immunopathology in IL17RA-/- mice. WT bone marrow transplants to IL17RA-/- recipient mice prevented hydrosalpinx, suggesting signalling through IL17RA drives immunopathology. Furthermore, early chemical inhibition of IL17 signalling significantly reduced hydrosalpinx, suggesting IL17 acts as an innate driver of disease. Early during the infection, IL17 was produced by γδ T cells in the cervico-vagina, but more importantly, by neutrophils at the site of infertility in the oviducts. Taken together, these data suggest innate production of IL17 by haematopoietic leukocytes drives immunopathology in the epithelia during early C. muridarum infection of the female reproductive tract.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia muridarum , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Interleucina-17 , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/patologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Genitália/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e077727, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in pregnant women. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP) and China Biology Medicine Disc were searched from inception to October 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies published in English or Chinese that reported the risk factors for PROM were eligible for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and American Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality tools. Analyses were performed using RevMan 5.4 software, and heterogeneity was assessed using χ2 tests and I2 statistics. The sensitivity analyses included a methodological transition between fixed-effect and random-effect models and the systematic stepwise exclusion of studies. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies involving 18 174 participants with 18 risk factors were included. The significant risk factors were low Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.61), interpregnancy interval (IPI) <2 years (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.98 to 4.50), previous abortion (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.76 to 3.14), previous preterm birth (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.44 to 9.50), prior PROM (OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.48 to 6.28), history of caesarean section (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.72 to 5.43), gestational hypertension (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.36 to 6.24), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23), abnormal vaginal discharge (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.27), reproductive tract infection (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.70 to 2.75), malpresentation (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.78 to 2.85) and increased abdominal pressure (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.97). The sensitivity analysis showed that the pooled estimates were stable. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that low BMI, IPI <2 years, previous abortion, previous preterm birth, prior PROM, history of caesarean section, gestational hypertension, GDM, abnormal vaginal discharge, reproductive tract infection, malpresentation and increased abdominal pressure might be associated with a greater risk of PROM. Associations between smoking status, short cervical length, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PROM require further investigation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022381485.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Descarga Vaginal , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cesárea , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 315, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the infection and age distribution of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Herpes simplex virus type II (HSV II) among the outpatients of Reproductive Medicine Center in Putian, Fujian Province to provide a clinical basis for the early diagnosis and treatment of various reproductive tract diseases and infertility in this region. METHODS: A total of 1736 samples of secretions and exfoliated cervical cells were collected from the outpatients of the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Affiliated Hospital of Putian University from December 2021 to April 2023. The infections of UU, CT, NG and HSVII were detected by real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the infection statuses of the patients with different genders, ages and diagnoses were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 1736 patients, 611 were male and 1125 were female. The male patients had higher UU infection rate but lower HSV II infection rate than the female patients. No significant difference in CT and NG infection rates was observed between the genders. The CT infection rate gradually decreased with the increase in the age. The difference in UU, NG and HSV II infection rates among the different age groups was not statistically significant. For UU infection, the male infertile patients had the highest rate of 37.72% (172/456). Meanwhile, the differences in CT, NG and HSV II infection rates among the different diagnosis groups were not statistically significant. Among the male and female infertile patients, the CT infection rate was the highest in the 21-25 years of age group at 11.11% (2/18) and 9.47% (9/95), respectively. No statistically significant difference in UU, CT, NG and HSV II infection rates was observed among the different age groups of patients diagnosed in relation to the family planning guidance and between the male and female patients with other diagnoses results. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that UU was the most frequently identified pathogen in infertile men in Putian, Fujian Province. The CT infection rate was the highest in people under 20 years old, and the infection showed a tendency toward young individuals. Therefore, the publicity of sexual health knowledge must be strengthened, and the prevention and treatment of venereal diseases among young and middle-aged people must be improved. Moreover, the pathogen infection is related to infertility to a certain extent, which is conducive to clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Herpes Simples , Infertilidade , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Idade , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
5.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 68, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Genital Tract Infections (GTIs) are common yet serious health concerns. Precise diagnosis is crucial due to the potential severe consequences of misdiagnosis. This study aims to distinguish between UTIs and GTIs, highlighting the importance of accurate differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study encompassed 294 patients, categorized into 4 groups: Group GNI (no infection, N = 57), Group GUI (urinary infection, N = 52), Group GGI (genital infection, N = 139), and Group GGUI (both infections, N = 46). Methods included patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory tests such as urine and vaginal swab cultures. RESULTS: The investigation revealed no significant differences in age, BMI, residency, or nationality across groups. However, socioeconomic status varied, with Group GNI having the lowest proportion of low socioeconomic status. In obstetrical characteristics, non-pregnancy rates were higher in Groups GUI and GGUI, with GGUI showing a notably higher abortion rate. Symptom analysis indicated lower symptom prevalence in Group GNI, with pain, itching, pruritus, and vaginal discharge being less frequent, suggesting a link between infection presence and symptom severity. Treatment patterns showed higher usage of ciprofloxacin, antifungals, and vaginal tablets in Groups GUI and GGUI. Laboratory findings highlighted significant Leucocyte Esterase presence and variations in WBC and RBC counts, particularly in Group GGUI. CONCLUSION: The study emphasizes the need for advanced diagnostic techniques, especially those focusing on individual microbial patterns, to enhance UGTI diagnosis. Variations in symptom presentation and treatment across groups underline the necessity for personalized diagnostic and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Genital , Infecções Urinárias , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Líbano/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Erros de Diagnóstico
6.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 52(4): 252-258, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382839

RESUMO

Over the 2016-2018 period, maternal mortality due to direct infectious causes accounted for 13% of maternal deaths by direct causes. The increasing trend in genital-tract infections related-deaths noted in the 2013-2015 report continues for the 2016-2018 period, but this 2010-2018 increase remains at the limit of statistical significance given the low number of cases (p 0.08). The 13 deaths from direct infectious causes for the 2016-2018 period were due to 4 cases of puerperal toxic shock syndrome (Streptococcus A beta hemolyticus or Clostridium group bacilli), 6 sepsis caused by intrauterine infection due to E. Coli and 3 cases of septic shock from intrauterine origin and no documented bacteria. In this 2016-2018 triennium, the quality of care concerning women who died of direct infections was considered non-optimal in 85% (11/13). Death was considered possibly or probably avoidable in 9/13 cases (69%), which made it one of the most avoidable causes of maternal mortality. Preventable factors related to the medical management were the most frequent (9/13), with in particular a diagnostic failure or delayed diagnosis leading to a delay in the introduction of medical treatment. The others contributory factors to these deaths were related to the organization of healthcare (delayed transfer, lack of communication between practitioners) as well as factors related to patient social and/or mental vulnerability.


Assuntos
Morte Materna , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Choque Séptico , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/complicações , Escherichia coli , Morte Materna/etiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Choque Séptico/complicações , França/epidemiologia
7.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 56(1): [102806], Ene. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229205

RESUMO

En el presente artículo abordamos tres síndromes clínicos infecciosos con diferentes gérmenes como causantes, pero tienen en común que las manifestaciones que presentan son a nivel genital. Algunos son estrictamente originados por gérmenes de transmisión sexual, pero otros no. Hablaremos en este capítulo de las vulvovaginitis, de la lesión ulcerada genital y del virus del papiloma humano, tres grandes entidades que presentan una tasa no menospreciable de consulta en atención primaria, en aumento en los últimos años, y que como profesionales de salud debemos saber abordar por completo, desde su manejo diagnóstico, pasando por su correcto tratamiento y finalizando con los posteriores controles. En estas entidades es tan importante el correcto abordaje como el saber recomendar la prevención, el estudio de contactos y los cribados de otras infecciones que pueden presentarse concomitantemente.(AU)


In this paper we approach three clinical syndromes with different microbial agents that cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD) with a common condition: the symptomatology is in the genital area. Some of these microbial agents are transmitted strictly sexually, but not all. In this section we will discuss about vulvovaginitis, genital ulcers and human papilloma virus, three syndromes which have increased their incidence in recent years and primary care must know its management: diagnosis, correct treatment, controls, and study of sexual contacts. The optimal approach is as important as knowing how to recommend prevention of STD, contact study and screening for other infections that can be present at the same time although asymptomatically.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , /imunologia , Vulvovaginite , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Sífilis , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(50): e36148, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38115314

RESUMO

To explore the mechanism of necrotic effect of nourishing cells in the context of genital tract infection in premature rupture of membranes (PROM). One hundred eight patients with PROM treated at our hospital from June 2020 to June 2022 were selected as the PROM group. Simultaneously, 108 cases of normal full-term pregnant women were chosen as the control group. Western blot analysis was performed to measure the relative expression levels of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (Caspase-1), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 (Caspase-3), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), and interleukin (IL)-1ß proteins, which are associated with necrosis of placental nourishing cells, in the placenta of both groups. TUNEL staining was used to detect the number of apoptotic placental nourishing cells. The differences in necrotic factors of placental nourishing cells were analyzed between full-term and preterm cases in the PROM group, as well as among patients with different genital tract infections. The apoptotic count of placental nourishing cells in the PROM group was 58.46 ±â€…11.26 cells/field, which was markedly higher than that of the control group (P < .05). The relative expression levels of the necrotic factors Caspase-1, Caspase-3, NLRP3, and IL-1ß proteins in placental nourishing cells of the PROM group were 1.32 ±â€…0.26, 1.19 ±â€…0.30, 1.29 ±â€…0.28, and 1.23 ±â€…0.24, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < .05). The relative expression levels of the necrotic factors Caspase-1, Caspase-3, NLRP3, and IL-1ß proteins in placental nourishing cells were compared between full-term and preterm patients in the PROM group (P > .05). The relative expression levels of the necrotic factors Caspase-1, Caspase-3, NLRP3, and IL-1ß proteins in placental nourishing cells were higher in patients with multiple genital tract infections compared to those with single infections or no infections in the PROM group (P < .05). PROM is associated with a significant upregulation of placental nourishing cell apoptosis and necrotic factors, including Caspase-1, Caspase-3, NLRP3, and IL-1ß proteins. This upregulation is correlated with the presence of genital tract infections.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Caspase 3 , Placenta/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico , Necrose , Caspase 1/metabolismo
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(12): e081562, 2023 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth complications are the most common cause of death in children under 5 years. The presence of multiple microorganisms and genital tract inflammation could be the common mechanism driving early onset of labour. South Africa has high levels of preterm birth, genital tract infections and HIV infection among pregnant women. We plan to investigate associations between the presence of multiple lower genital tract microorganisms in pregnancy and gestational age at birth. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This cohort study enrols around 600 pregnant women at one public healthcare facility in East London, South Africa. Eligible women are ≥18 years and at <27 weeks of gestation, confirmed by ultrasound. At enrolment and 30-34 weeks of pregnancy, participants receive on-site tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with treatment if test results are positive. At these visits, additional vaginal specimens are taken for: PCR detection and quantification of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp., Mycoplasma genitalium, M. hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum; microscopy and Nugent scoring; and for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and quantification. Pregnancy outcomes are collected from a postnatal visit and birth registers. The primary outcome is gestational age at birth. Statistical analyses will explore associations between specific microorganisms and gestational age at birth. To explore the association with the quantity of microorganisms, we will construct an index of microorganism load and use mixed-effects regression models and classification and regression tree analysis to examine which combinations of microorganisms contribute to earlier gestational age at birth. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has approvals from the University of Cape Town Research Ethics Committee and the Canton of Bern Ethics Committee. Results from this study will be uploaded to preprint servers, submitted to open access peer-reviewed journals and presented at regional and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT06131749; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Idade Gestacional , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Chlamydia trachomatis
10.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 50(4): [100892], Oct-Dic, 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-226525

RESUMO

Antecedentes: Cada vez son más frecuentes los informes microbiológicos con agentes emergentes en episodios clínicos del aparato genital de sujetos con sospecha de infección, como son las especies de Haemophilus no ducreyi (HND). El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la importancia clínica del aislamiento de estas especies en el tracto genital del sexo femenino. Pacientes y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y retrospectivo en un hospital universitario del sudeste español, donde se evalúan los aislamientos de HND en muestras de exudados genitales femeninos procedentes de atención sanitaria especializada entre 2016 y 2019. Se analizaron variables clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de los episodios infecciosos de mujeres adultas y niñas. Resultados: Se encontraron 45 (25 mujeres y 20 niñas) aislamientos de HND, correspondiendo al 1% del total, siendo la especie más frecuente Haemophilus influenzae (64,4%). En mujeres predominaron la leucorrea y el dolor abdominal, y en el 72% hubo aislamiento polimicrobiano. En niñas se aisló frecuentemente de forma aislada, con presencia de eritema vulvovaginal, flujo patológico y prurito local. Destacó la alta tasa de resistencia de Haemophilus parainfluenzae a azitromicina (72,7%) y cotrimoxazol (18,2%) en mujeres adultas, y la resistencia a azitromicina en niñas (25%). Conclusiones: H. influenzae y H.parainfluenzae deben tenerse en cuenta como posible agente etiológico en casos de vaginitis y cervicitis en mujeres adultas, así como en sospecha de enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria. En niñas, H.influenzae representa uno de los agentes microbiológicos de las infecciones vulvovaginales. La tasa de resistencia a azitromicina de H.parainfluenzae y a cotrimoxazol de ambas especies se debe tener presente.(AU)


Background: The isolation of new pathogens in clinical samples from the genital tract of subjects with suspected infection, such as Haemophilus no ducreyi (HND) species, is becoming more frequent. The objective of this work is to analyze the pathogenic role and the clinical importance of the isolation of these species in female genital tract. Patients and methods: We carried out an observational, descriptive, and retrospective study from a Hospital in Granada (Spain). HND isolates in female genital samples between 2016 and 2019 from specialized care were studied. Clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological variables of clinical episodes of adult women and girls were analyzed. Results: Forty-five (25 women and 20 girls) isolates of HND were found, corresponding to 1%; the most frequent specie was Haemophilus influenzae (64.4%). In women, leukorrhea and abdominal pain was frequent and in 72% there was a polymicrobial isolate. In girls, it was frequently in isolation, with the presence of vulvovaginal erythema, pathological discharge, and local itching. We highlight the high rate of resistance of Haemophilus parainfluenzae to azithromycin (72.7%) and cotrimoxazole (18.2%) in adult women, in contrast to resistance to azithromycin in girls (25%). Conclusions: H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae should be considered as a possible etiological agent in cases of vaginitis and cervicitis in adult women, as well as in suspected pelvic inflammatory disease. In girls, H.influenzae represents one of the microbiological agents within the etiologies of vulvovaginal infections. We highlight the rate of resistance to azithromycin in H.parainfluenzae and to cotrimoxazole in both species.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Haemophilus ducreyi/virologia , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Infecções por Haemophilus , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Ginecologia
11.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 498, 2023 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sample self-collection for reproductive tract infection diagnosis has been found to offer greater convenience, privacy, autonomy, and expanded access to testing in non-pregnant adults. This review aimed to determine whether sample self-collection is as accurate as provider-collection for detection of group B streptococcus colonisation in pregnancy and whether a strategy of self-collection compared to provider-collection might improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. METHODS: We searched CINAHL Plus, Medline, EMBASE, Maternity and Infant Care Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in June 2022. Eligible studies compared self-collected and provider-collected samples taken from the same participants or participants randomised to either self-collection or provider-collection for reproductive tract infection testing using the same test and testing method in pregnant individuals. We included trials and observational studies. Reviewers assessed risk of bias using the QUADAS-2 checklist and independently extracted data. Sensitivity and specificity for group B streptococcus colonisation of self-collected compared to provider-collected samples were pooled using a bivariate, random-effects, meta-analytic model. This review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42023396573). RESULTS: The search identified 5909 references, of which eleven diagnostic accuracy group B streptococcus studies were included (n = 3269 participants). No studies assessed the effects of self-collection in pregnancy on health outcomes. All studies had high or unclear risk of bias. Pooled sensitivities of self-collected samples for group B streptococcus detection were 82% (95% CI: 66-91%; I2 = 68.85%) in four trials (n = 1226) and 91% (95% CI: 83-96%; I2 = 37.38%) in seven non-randomised studies (n = 2043). Pooled specificities were 99% (95% CI: 98-99%; I2 = 12.08%) and 97% (95% CI: 94-99%; I2 = 72.50%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Self-collected samples for group B streptococcus detection in pregnancy had high specificity compared to provider-collection, but lower sensitivity, particularly for included trials. Studies investigating the effect of self-collection on health outcomes, and further higher quality trials comparing accuracy of self-collection to provider-collection, are required.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Genital , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Streptococcus
12.
Rev. int. androl. (Internet) ; 21(4): 1-9, oct.-dic. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-225997

RESUMO

Introducción: Con el avance de los métodos microbiológicos, cada vez es más frecuente el aislamiento de patógenos menos típicos en cuadros de infección uretral y rectal, además de los agentes etiológicos clásicos. Uno de ellos está formado por especies de Haemophilus no ducreyi (HND). El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la frecuencia, la sensibilidad antibiótica y las características clínicas de las uretritis y proctitis por HND en varones. Pacientes y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y retrospectivo, a partir de los resultados emitidos por el Laboratorio de Microbiología del Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada, de los aislamientos, entre 2016 y 2019, de HND en episodios infecciosos genitales y rectales de varones adultos. Resultados: Se aisló HND en 135 (7%) episodios. La especie más frecuente fue H. parainfluenzae (34/45; 75,6%). Los síntomas más frecuentes de las proctitis fueron: tenesmo rectal (31,6%) y adenopatías (10,5%); en aquellos con uretritis, fueron disuria (71,6%), supuración uretral (46,7%) y lesiones en el glande (27%), siendo manifestaciones similares a las infecciones provocadas por los genitopatógenos habituales. Un 43% de los pacientes eran VIH positivos. Las tasas de resistencia a antibióticos de H. parainfluenzae fueron elevadas a levofloxacino, ampicilina, tetraciclina y azitromicina. Conclusión: Las especies de HND deberían tenerse en cuenta como posibles agentes etiológicos en episodios de infección uretral y rectal en varones, sobre todo en los casos con pruebas de detección negativas para agentes productores habituales de infecciones de transmisión sexual. Su detección microbiológica es fundamental para la instauración de un tratamiento efectivo dirigido. (AU)


Introduction: With the advancement of microbiological methods, the isolation of less typical pathogens in cases of urethral and rectal infection is more frequent, apart from the classic etiological agents. One of them is formed by species of Haemophilus no ducreyi (HND). The objective of this work is to describe frequency, susceptibility to antibiotics, and clinical features of HDN urethritis and proctitis in adult males. Patients and methods: This is an observational retrospective descriptive study of the results obtained by the Microbiology laboratory of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital on the isolates of HND in genital and rectal samples from males between 2016 and 2019. Results: HND was isolated in 135 (7%) of the genital infection episodes diagnosed in men. H. parainfluenzae was the most commonly isolated (34/45; 75.6%). The most frequent symptoms in men with proctitis were rectal tenesmus (31.6%) and lymphadenopathy (10.5%); in those with urethritis, dysuria (71.6%), urethral suppuration (46.7%) and gland lesions (27%), so differentiating it from infections caused by other genitopathogens is difficult. 43% of patients were HIV positive. Antibiotic resistance rates for H. parainfluenzae were high to quinolons, ampicillin, tetracycline and macrolides. Conclusion: HND species should be considered as possible etiologic agents in episodes of urethral and rectal infection in men, especially in cases with negative screening tests for agents that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Its microbiological identification is essential for the establishment of an effective targeted treatment. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Haemophilus , Uretrite , Proctite , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
13.
PeerJ ; 11: e16430, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38025698

RESUMO

Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) present a substantial health concern for women, especially in developing nations such as India, where inadequate access to proper sanitation and hygiene facilities frequently results in suboptimal menstrual health and hygiene (MHH), exacerbating the risk of RTIs. In this study, we analysed the self-reported prevalence of RTIs among young women in India and evaluated the impact of hygienic menstrual material usage on these RTIs. Methods: The study used information on 27,983 women aged 15-24 years, from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) (2019-21). The prevalence of RTIs was calculated for all the states and UTs of India, and propensity score matching (PSM) technique was used to evaluate the impact of hygienic material use on RTIs among women in India. Results: Every four out of 100 women reported RTIs in India in 2019-21. Notably, RTI prevalence displayed substantial state-level disparities. West Bengal exhibited the highest RTI prevalence at 9.3%, followed by Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh, all surpassing 6%. In contrast, the lowest RTI rates were recorded in Puducherry at 0.9%, succeeded by Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Odisha, and Jammu & Kashmir, all registering rates below 2%. The PSM analysis revealed that women who utilized hygienic materials during menstruation exhibited a reduced prevalence of RTIs (referred to as the "treated group" with an Average Treatment Effect on the Treated (ATT) of 0.0315) compared to those who did not utilize such materials (referred to as the "control group" with an ATT of 0.0416). Conclusions: The study underscores the critical significance of using hygienic materials during menstruation as a preventive measure against RTIs among women in India. The findings suggest the need for targeted interventions focused at promoting hygienic menstrual materials to reduce the prevalence of RTIs among women in India.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Genital , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Menstruação , Autorrelato , Pontuação de Propensão , Higiene , Índia/epidemiologia
14.
Infect Immun ; 91(11): e0034923, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889004

RESUMO

To search for subunit vaccine candidates, immunogenic chlamydial antigens identified in humans were evaluated for protection against both infection and pathology in a mouse genital tract infection model under three different immunization regimens. The intramuscular immunization regimen was first used to evaluate 106 chlamydial antigens, which revealed that two antigens significantly reduced while 11 increased genital chlamydial burden. The two infection-reducing antigens failed to prevent pathology and 23 additional antigens even exacerbated pathology. Thus, intranasal mucosal immunization was tested next since intranasal inoculation with live Chlamydia muridarum prevented both genital infection and pathology. Two of the 29 chlamydial antigens evaluated were found to prevent genital infection but not pathology and three exacerbate pathology. To further improve protection efficacy, a combinational regimen (intranasal priming + intramuscular boosting + a third intraperitoneal/subcutaneous boost) was tested. This regimen identified four infection-reducing antigens, but only one of them prevented pathology. Unfortunately, this protective antigen was not advanced further due to its amino acid sequence homology with several human molecules. Two pathology-exacerbating antigens were also found. Nevertheless, intranasal mucosal priming with viable C. muridarum in control groups consistently prevented both genital infection and pathology regardless of the subsequent boosters. Thus, screening 140 different chlamydial antigens with 21 repeated multiple times in 17 experiments failed to identify a subunit vaccine candidate but demonstrated the superiority of viable chlamydial organisms in inducing immunity against both genital infection and pathology, laying the foundation for developing a live-attenuated Chlamydia vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia muridarum , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Bactérias , Vacinas de Subunidades , Vacinas Bacterianas
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(41): e34989, 2023 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37832113

RESUMO

The previous research has found that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer, but it is still unclear whether HPV infection, as well as the HPV genotypes, are related to reproductive tract infections in the Chinese population. Patients who underwent HPV screening at Shandong Maternal and Child Health Hospital were selected, and the HPV infection status was analyzed among patients with cervical lesions, bacterial vaginosis, cervical inflammation, fungal vaginitis, and pelvic infections. SPSS 22 statistical analysis was used to analyze the differences in HPV infection types and rates between the control group and the experimental group. The HPV infection rate of bacterial vaginosis (χ2 = 13.4; P < .001) and fungal vaginitis (χ2 = 3.3; P < .045) are both significantly different from the control group. The single HPV infections reveals significant differences from control group in bacterial vaginosis (χ2 = 7.3; P = .004), fungal vaginitis (χ2 = 4.5; P = .023), and cervical lesions (χ2 = 58.8; P < .001). In the bacterial infection group, HPV51 (1.9%; χ2 = 6.0; P = .008) and HPV58 (4.7%; χ2 = 3.3; P = .044) showed significant differences in infection compared to the control group. In the fungal infection group, HPV39 (2.7%; χ2 = 4.7; P = .032) showed a significant difference in infection compared to the control group. Cervical lesions, bacterial vaginosis, fungal vaginitis, and cervical lesions among Chinese population exhibit age-specified distribution. HPV infection rate in bacterial vaginitis, fungal vaginitis and cervical lesions was higher than that in normal group. HPV52 and HPV16 infection are different, and HPV39 is different between bacterial vaginitis and fungal vaginitis.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Feminino , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , População do Leste Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vaginite/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia
16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 36(2): 2259049, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37743349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) remains an important cause of neonatal mortality and has many risk factors, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the perinatal risk factors for EONS. METHODS: We searched CNKI, Wan Fang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to compile studies regarding the incidence of neonatal early-onset sepsis, published up to 1 May 2022. To evaluate the quality of the included studies, we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and the RevMan5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included, with 1987 cases in the case group and 4814 cases in the control group. Meta-analysis showed that perinatal asphyxia or intrauterine distress (OR = 3.00, 95% CI: 2.18-4.13), amniotic fluid meconium contamination (OR = 4.51, 95% CI: 2.31-8.81), group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization in pregnant women (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.48-3.05), chorioamnionitis (OR = 4.58, 95% CI: 2.61-8.05), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 2.09-3.30), lower gestational age (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18-1.44), maternal urinary or reproductive tract infection (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 2.14-6.11), perinatal fever (OR = 3.59, 95% CI: 2.25-5.71), very low birth weight (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.14-6.73), and vaginal examination ≥3 times (OR = 7.95, 95% CI: 4.04-15.64) were the perinatal risk factors for EONS. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia or intrauterine distress, meconium contamination in amniotic fluid, GBS colonization in pregnant women, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, lower gestational age, maternal urinary tract or reproductive tract infection, perinatal fever, very low birth weight, and vaginal examinations ≥3 times may increase the risk of EONS.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite , Sepse Neonatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Asfixia , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Líquido Amniótico , Febre
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 547, 2023 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37608250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genital tract infections pose a public health concern. In many low-middle-income countries, symptom-based algorithms guide treatment decisions. Advantages notwithstanding, this strategy has important limitations. We aimed to determine the infections causing lower genital tract symptoms in women, evaluated the Kenyan syndromic treatment algorithm for vaginal discharge, and proposed an improved algorithm. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included symptomatic non-pregnant adult women presenting with lower genital tract symptoms at seven outpatient health facilities in Nairobi. Clinical, socio-demographic information and vaginal swabs microbiological tests were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to find predictive factors for the genital infections and used to develop an alternative vaginal discharge treatment algorithm (using 60% of the dataset). The other 40% of data was used to assess the performance of each algorithm compared to laboratory diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 813 women, 66% had an infection (vulvovaginal candidiasis 40%, bacterial vaginosis 17%, Neisseria gonorrhoea 14%, multiple infections 23%); 56% of women reported ≥ 3 lower genital tract symptoms episodes in the preceding 12 months. Vulvovaginal itch predicted vulvovaginal candidiasis (odds ratio (OR) 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46); foul-smelling vaginal discharge predicted bacterial vaginosis (OR 3.63, 95% CI 2.17-6.07), and sexually transmitted infection (Neisseria gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium) (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.06-2.55). Additionally, lower abdominal pain (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.79) predicted sexually transmitted infection. Inappropriate treatment was 117% and 75% by the current and alternative algorithms respectively. Treatment specificity for bacterial vaginosis/Trichomonas vaginalis was 27% and 82% by the current and alternative algorithms, respectively. Performance by other parameters was poor to moderate and comparable between the two algorithms. CONCLUSION: Single and multiple genital infections are common among women presenting with lower genital tract symptoms at outpatient clinics in Nairobi. The conventional vaginal discharge treatment algorithm performed poorly, while the alternative algorithm achieved only modest improvement. For optimal care of vaginal discharge syndrome, we recommend the inclusion of point-of-care diagnostics in the flowcharts.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos , Gonorreia , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Vaginose Bacteriana , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais
18.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1182108, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37397732

RESUMO

Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the commonest sexually transmitted bacterial infection. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of genital chlamydia and associated risk factors in Chinese female outpatients with genital tract infections. Methods: A prospective, multicenter epidemiological study of genital chlamydia prevalence in 3008 patients with genital tract infections in 13 hospitals in 12 provinces of China was performed between May 2017 and November 2018. Vaginal secretion specimens were collected for the clinical diagnosis of vaginitis, whereas cervical secretion specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. All patients participated in a one-on-one cross-sectional questionnaire interview. Results: Totally 2,908 participants were included. The prevalence rates of chlamydia and gonococcal infections in women with genital tract infections were 6.33% (184/2908) and 0.01% (20/2908), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed high risk factors for chlamydia were premarital sex behavior, first sexual intercourse before the age of 20 and bacterial vaginosis. Discussion: Given that most chlamydia cases are asymptomatic and no vaccine is currently available, chlamydia prevention strategies should include behavioral interventions as well as early screening programs to identify and treat individuals with genital tract infections, especially those with the above identified risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Prevalência , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco , Chlamydia trachomatis
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 135: 28-40, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37516425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malaria and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs) are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the individual and combined effects of malaria and curable STIs/RTIs on fetal growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Malawi. METHODS: This study was nested within a randomized trial comparing monthly intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine vs dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, alone or combined with azithromycin. Fetal weight gain was assessed by serial prenatal ultrasound. Malaria was assessed monthly, and Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and bacterial vaginosis at enrollment and in the third trimester. The effect of malaria and STIs/RTIs on fetal weight/birthweight Z-scores was evaluated using mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: In total, 1435 pregnant women had fetal/birth weight assessed 3950 times. Compared to women without malaria or STIs/RTIs (n = 399), malaria-only (n = 267), STIs/RTIs only (n = 410) or both (n = 353) were associated with reduced fetal growth (adjusted mean difference in fetal/birth weight Z-score [95% confidence interval]: malaria = -0.18 [-0.31,-0.04], P = 0.01; STIs/RTIs = -0.14 [-0.26,-0.03], P = 0.01; both = -0.20 [-0.33,-0.07], P = 0.003). Paucigravidae experienced the greatest impact. CONCLUSION: Malaria and STIs/RTIs are associated with poor fetal growth especially among paucigravidae women with dual infections. Integrated antenatal interventions are needed to reduce the burden of both malaria and STIs/RTIs.


Assuntos
Malária , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Quênia/epidemiologia , Peso Fetal , Malaui/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Fetal
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