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1.
J Virol Methods ; 328: 114953, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759872

RESUMO

Viruses in the families Dicistroviridae and Iflaviridae are among the main threats to western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and native bee species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for pathogen detection in bees. However, high throughput screening for bee virus infections in singleplex PCR reactions is cumbersome and limited by the high quantities of sample RNA required. Thus, the development of a sensitive and specific multiplex PCR detection method for screening for multiple viruses simultaneously is necessary. Here, we report the development of a one-step multiplex reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay to detect four viruses commonly encountered in pollinator species. The optimized multiplex RT-qPCR protocol described in this study allows simultaneous detection of two dicistroviruses (Israeli acute paralysis virus and Black queen cell virus) and two iflaviruses (Sacbrood virus and Deformed wing virus) with high efficiency and specificity comparable to singleplex detection assays. This assay provides a broad range of detection and quantification, and the results of virus quantification in this study are similar to those performed in other studies using singleplex detection assays. This method will be particularly useful for data generation from small-bodied insect species that yield low amounts of RNA.


Assuntos
Dicistroviridae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Vírus de RNA , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Animais , Abelhas/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Dicistroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Dicistroviridae/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2023): 20240518, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747703

RESUMO

Drosophila remains a pre-eminent insect model system for host-virus interaction, but the host range and fitness consequences of the drosophilid virome are poorly understood. Metagenomic studies have reported approximately 200 viruses associated with Drosophilidae, but few isolates are available to characterize the Drosophila immune response, and most characterization has relied on injection and systemic infection. Here, we use a more natural infection route to characterize the fitness effects of infection and to study a wider range of viruses. We exposed laboratory Drosophila melanogaster to 23 naturally occurring viruses from wild-collected drosophilids. We recorded transmission rates along with two components of female fitness: survival and the lifetime number of adult offspring produced. Nine different viruses transmitted during contact with laboratory D. melanogaster, although for the majority, rates of transmission were less than 20%. Five virus infections led to a significant decrease in lifespan (D. melanogaster Nora virus, D. immigrans Nora virus, Muthill virus, galbut virus and Prestney Burn virus), and three led to a reduction in the total number of offspring. Our findings demonstrate the utility of the Drosophila model for community-level studies of host-virus interactions, and suggest that viral infection could be a substantial fitness burden on wild flies.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Longevidade , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/virologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
3.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 204: 108125, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705353

RESUMO

In La Réunion, the established honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera unicolor, an endemic subspecies of African lineage, is facing considerable challenges. Since the introduction of the Varroa destructor mite in 2017 high colony losses have been recorded. We investigated the dynamics of V. destructor and two viruses, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), known to be transmitted by the mite, and the Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV), in A. m. unicolor. Colonies from two apiaries located at 300 and 900 m a.s.l were monitored twice for one year without any acaricide treatment. The brood area, V. destructor infestation rates, DWV and CBPV prevalence and load were recorded monthly. A. m. unicolor maintained brood rearing throughout the year. Varroa destructor infestation resulted in high colony mortality (up to 85 %) and high phoretic mite rates (up to 52 mites per hundred bees). The establishment of DWV in colonies occurred after that of V. destructor and the mite infestation rate had a significant effect on the virus prevalence and load. CBPV appeared only transiently throughout the surveys. The data showed that, in tropical colonies with permanent brood rearing, V. destructor and DWV can reach high levels, but are still subject to seasonal variations that appear to be influenced by environmental conditions. This suggests that beekeeping practices could be adapted by favouring sites and periods for transhumance or acaricide treatment.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Varroidae , Animais , Abelhas/virologia , Abelhas/parasitologia , Varroidae/virologia , Varroidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Vírus de Insetos , Espécies Introduzidas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ilhas , Dicistroviridae/fisiologia
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 177, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission (VT) of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) can serve as an essential link in the transmission cycle during adverse environmental conditions. The extent of VT among mosquito-borne arboviruses can vary significantly among different virus families and even among different viruses within the same genus. For example, orthobunyaviruses exhibit a higher VT rate than orthoflaviviruses and alphaviruses. Mosquitoes are also the natural hosts of a large number of insect-specific viruses (ISV) that belong to several virus families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), an insect-specific orthoflavivirus, displays higher VT rates than other dual-host orthoflaviviruses, such as Zika and dengue viruses. High VT rates require establishment of stabilized infections in the germinal tissues of female vectors. To delve deeper into understanding the mechanisms governing these differences in VT rates and the establishment of stabilized infections, the ovary infection patterns and VT of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CFAV were compared. METHODS: Laboratory colonized Aedes aegypti females were infected with either ZIKV or CFAV by intrathoracic injection. Ovary infection patterns were monitored by in situ hybridization using virus-specific probes, and VT was determined by detecting the presence of the virus among the progeny, using a reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. RESULTS: Both ZIKV and CFAV infect mosquito ovaries after intrathoracic injection. Infections then become widespread following a non-infectious blood meal. VT rates of ZIKV are similar to previously reported results (3.33%). CFAV, on the contrary transmits vertically very rarely. VT was not observed in the first gonotrophic cycle following intrathoracic injection, and only rarely in the second gonotrophic cycle. VT of CFAV is mosquito population independent, since similar results were obtained with Aedes aegypti collected from two different geographic locations. CONCLUSIONS: Although CFAV infects mosquito ovaries, the occurrence of VT remains infrequent in artificially infected Ae. aegypti, despite the observation of high VT rates in field-collected mosquitoes. These results suggest that infections of insect-specific viruses are stabilized in mosquitoes by some as yet unidentified mechanisms.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus de Insetos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9612, 2024 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671077

RESUMO

The Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) plays an essential role in crop pollination, environment diversity, and the production of honey bee products. However, the health of individual honey bees and their colonies is under pressure due to multiple stressors, including viruses as a significant threat to bees. Monitoring various virus infections could be a crucial selection tool during queen rearing. In the present study, samples from all developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae, and queens) were screened for the incidence of seven viruses during queen rearing in Slovenia. The screening of a total of 108 samples from five queen breeders was performed by the RT-qPCR assays. The results showed that the highest incidence was observed for black queen cell virus (BQCV), Lake Sinai virus 3 (LSV3), deformed wing virus B (DWV-B), and sacbrood virus (SBV). The highest viral load was detected in queens (6.07 log10 copies/queen) and larvae (5.50 log10 copies/larva) for BQCV, followed by SBV in larvae (5.47 log10 copies/larva). When comparing all the honey bee developmental stages, the eggs exhibited general screening for virus incidence and load in queen mother colonies. The results suggest that analyzing eggs is a good indicator of resilience to virus infection during queen development.


Assuntos
Larva , Animais , Abelhas/virologia , Larva/virologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Dicistroviridae/genética , Dicistroviridae/patogenicidade , Dicistroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Óvulo/virologia , Feminino , Pupa/virologia , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
6.
Viruses ; 16(4)2024 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675859

RESUMO

In Australia, Soldier flies (Inopus spp.) are economically significant pests of sugarcane that currently lack a viable management strategy. Despite various research efforts, the mechanisms underlying the damage caused by soldier fly larvae remain poorly understood. Our study aims to explore whether this damage is associated with the transmission of plant viruses during larval feeding. We also explore the larval transcriptome to identify any entomopathogenic viruses with the potential to be used as biocontrol agents in future pest management programs. Seven novel virus sequences are identified and characterised using de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data obtained from salivary glands of larvae. The novel virus sequences belong to different virus families and are tentatively named SF-associated anphevirus (SFaAV), SF-associated orthomyxo-like virus (SFaOV), SF-associated narna-like virus (SFaNV), SF-associated partiti-like virus (SFaPV), SF-associated toti-like virus (SFaTV-1 and SFaTV-2) and SF-associated densovirus (SFaDV). These newly identified viruses are more likely insect-associated viruses, as phylogenetic analyses show that they cluster with other insect-specific viruses. Small RNA analysis indicates prominent peaks at both 21 nt and 26-29 nt, suggesting the activation of host siRNA and piwiRNA pathways. Our study helps to improve understanding of the virome of soldier flies and could identify insect viruses for deployment in novel pest management strategies.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva , Filogenia , Saccharum , Animais , Larva/virologia , Dípteros/virologia , Austrália , Saccharum/virologia , Transcriptoma , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas/classificação , Genoma Viral
7.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 63: 101194, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522648

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are vectors for arboviruses, such as dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya. Symbiotic interactions can affect the intrinsic ability of mosquitoes to acquire and transmit arboviruses, referred to as vector competence. Insect-specific viruses (ISVs) are commonly found in symbiotic associations with mosquitoes in the wild and can affect many aspects of mosquito biology. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of symbiotic ISV-mosquito interactions on vector competence. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying these interactions and their implications for shaping new biological control strategies. Finally, we highlight the need for field data analyzing the circulation of ISVs in mosquitoes associated with mechanistic studies in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Mosquitos Vetores , Simbiose , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Arbovírus/fisiologia , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Culicidae/virologia , Culicidae/fisiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão
8.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519112

RESUMO

The significance of gut microbiota in regulating animal immune response to viral infection is increasingly recognized. However, how chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) exploits host immune to disturb microbiota for its proliferation remains elusive. Through histopathological examination, we discovered that the hindgut harbored the highest level of CBPV, and displayed visible signs of damages. The metagenomic analysis showed that a notable reduction in the levels of Snodgrassella alvi and Lactobacillus apis, and a significant increase in the abundance of the opportunistic pathogens such as Enterobacter hormaechei and Enterobacter cloacae following CBPV infection. Subsequent co-inoculation experiments showed that these opportunistic pathogens facilitated the CBPV proliferation, leading to accelerated mortality in bees and exacerbation of bloated abdomen symptoms after CBPV infection. The expression level of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) was found to be significantly up-regulated by over 1000 times in response to CBPV infection, as demonstrated by subsequent transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR investigations. In particular, through correlation analysis and a bacteriostatic test revealed that the AMPs did not exhibit any inhibitory effect against the two opportunistic pathogens. However, they did demonstrate inhibitory activity against S. alvi and L. apis. Our findings provide different evidence that the virus infection may stimulate and utilize the host's AMPs to eradicate probiotic species and facilitate the proliferation of opportunistic bacteria. This process weakens the intestinal barrier and ultimately resulting in the typical bloated abdomen.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vírus de Insetos , Vírus de RNA , Viroses , Vírus , Abelhas , Animais , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Paralisia
9.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543716

RESUMO

We investigated the interaction between the insect-specific virus, Piura virus (PIUV), and the arbovirus Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes albopictus cells. We performed coinfection experiments in C6/36 cells. Piura virus (Cor 33 strain, Colombia) and ZIKV (PRVABC58 strain, Puerto Rico) were co-inoculated into C6/36 cells using two multiplicity of infection (MOI) combinations: 0.1 for both viruses and 1.0 for ZIKV, 0.1 for PIUV. Wells were infected in triplicate with either PIUV and ZIKV coinfection, ZIKV-only, or PIUV-only. Mock infected cells served as control wells. The cell suspension was collected daily 7 days post-infection. Zika virus load was titrated by TCID50 on Vero 76 cells. The ZIKV-only infection and PIUV and ZIKV coinfection experiments were also quantified by RT-qPCR. We also investigated whether ZIKV interfered in the PIUV replication. PIUV suppressed the replication of ZIKV, resulting in a 10,000-fold reduction in ZIKV titers within 3 days post-infection. PIUV viral loads were not reduced in the presence of ZIKV. We conclude that, when concurrently infected, PIUV suppresses ZIKV in C6/36 cells while ZIKV does not interfere in PIUV replication.


Assuntos
Aedes , Coinfecção , Vírus de Insetos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Replicação Viral
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(1): e22082, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288492

RESUMO

Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) is one of the most important pathogens of silkworm. It mainly infects midgut cells of silkworm and causes losses to the sericulture industry. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in the regulation of antiviral immune response in silkworm. To explore whether lncRNAs are involved in BmBDV infection and immune response of silkworm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to identify the lncRNAs and mRNAs between the BmBDV infected and noninfected silkworm larvae at the early stage. A total of 16,069 genes and 974 candidate lncRNAs were identified, among which 142 messenger RNA (mRNAs) and four lncRNAs were differentially expressed (DE). Target gene prediction revealed that 142 DEmRNAs were coexpressed with four DElncRNAs, suggesting that the expression of mRNA is mainly affected through trans-regulation activities. A regulatory network of DElncRNAs and DEmRNAs was constructed, showing that many genes targeted by different DElncRNAs are involved in metabolism and immunity, which implies that these genes and lncRNAs play an important role in the replication of BmBDV. Our results will help us to improve our understanding of lncRNA-mediated regulatory roles in BmBDV infection, providing a new perspective for further exploring the interaction between host and BmBDV.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Vírus de Insetos , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 352, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172530

RESUMO

The Colorado potato beetle is one of the most devastating potato pests in the world. However, its viral pathogens, which might have potential in pest control, have remained unexplored. With high-throughput sequencing of Colorado potato beetle samples derived from prepupal larvae which died from an unknown infection, we have identified two previously unknown RNA viruses and assembled their nearly complete genome sequences. The subsequent genetic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the viruses, tentatively named Leptinotarsa iflavirus 1 and Leptinotarsa solinvi-like virus 1, are the novel representatives of the Iflaviridae and Solinviviridae families, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first sequencing-confirmed insect viruses derived from Colorado potato beetle samples. We propose that Leptinotarsa iflavirus 1 may be associated with a lethal disease in the Colorado potato beetle.


Assuntos
Besouros , Vírus de Insetos , Solanum tuberosum , Humanos , Animais , Besouros/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Filogenia , Larva/genética
12.
Insect Sci ; 31(1): 255-270, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37358052

RESUMO

Sap-sucking insects often transmit plant viruses but also carry insect viruses, which infect insects but not plants. The impact of such insect viruses on insect host biology and ecology is largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel insect-specific virus carried by brown citrus aphid (Aphis citricidus), which we tentatively named Aphis citricidus picornavirus (AcPV). Phylogenetic analysis discovered a monophyletic cluster with AcPV and other unassigned viruses, suggesting that these viruses represent a new family in order Picornavirales. Systemic infection with AcPV triggered aphid antiviral immunity mediated by RNA interference, resulting in asymptomatic tolerance. Importantly, we found that AcPV was transmitted horizontally by secretion of the salivary gland into the feeding sites of plants. AcPV influenced aphid stylet behavior during feeding and increased the time required for intercellular penetration, thus promoting its transmission among aphids with plants as an intermediate site. The gene expression results suggested that this mechanism was linked with transcription of salivary protein genes and plant defense hormone signaling. Together, our results show that the horizontal transmission of AcPV in brown citrus aphids evolved in a manner similar to that of the circulative transmission of plant viruses by insect vectors, thus providing a new ecological perspective on the activity of insect-specific viruses found in aphids and improving the understanding of insect virus ecology.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Citrus , Vírus de Insetos , Vírus de Plantas , Vírus de RNA , Animais , Afídeos/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas
13.
J Virol ; 98(1): e0150723, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38095414

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of the virome in mosquito vectors is crucial for assessing the potential transmission of viral agents, designing effective vector control strategies, and advancing our knowledge of insect-specific viruses (ISVs). In this study, we utilized Oxford Nanopore Technologies metagenomics to characterize the virome of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in various regions of Colombia, a country hyperendemic for dengue virus (DENV). Analyses were conducted on groups of insects with previous natural DENV infection (DENV-1 and DENV-2 serotypes), as well as mosquito samples that tested negative for virus infection (DENV-negative). Our findings indicate that the Ae. aegypti virome exhibits a similar viral composition at the ISV family and species levels in both DENV-positive and DENV-negative samples across all study sites. However, differences were observed in the relative abundance of viral families such as Phenuiviridae, Partitiviridae, Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Picornaviridae, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae, depending on the serotype of DENV-1 and DENV-2. In addition, ISVs are frequently found in the core virome of Ae. aegypti, such as Phasi Charoen-like phasivirus (PCLV), which was the most prevalent and showed variable abundance in relation to the presence of specific DENV serotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of the L, M, and S segments of the PCLV genome are associated with sequences from different regions of the world but show close clustering with sequences from Brazil and Guadeloupe, indicating a shared evolutionary relationship. The profiling of the Ae. aegypti virome in Colombia presented here improves our understanding of viral diversity within mosquito vectors and provides information that opens the way to possible connections between ISVs and arboviruses. Future studies aimed at deepening our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the interactions between ISVs and DENV serotypes in Ae. aegypti could provide valuable information for the design of effective vector-borne viral disease control and prevention strategies.IMPORTANCEIn this study, we employed a metagenomic approach to characterize the virome of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with and without natural DENV infection, in several regions of Colombia. Our findings indicate that the mosquito virome is predominantly composed of insect-specific viruses (ISVs) and that infection with different DENV serotypes (DENV-1 and DENV-2) could lead to alterations in the relative abundance of viral families and species constituting the core virome in Aedes spp. The study also sheds light on the identification of the genome and evolutionary relationships of the Phasi Charoen-like phasivirus in Ae. aegypti in Colombia, a widespread ISV in areas with high DENV incidence.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Animais , Humanos , Aedes/virologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus de Insetos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Sorogrupo
14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 67(1): 175-187, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946067

RESUMO

Invertebrate species are a natural reservoir of viral genetic diversity, and invertebrate pests are widely distributed in crop fields. However, information on viruses infecting invertebrate pests of crops is limited. In this report, we describe the deep metatranscriptomic sequencing of 88 invertebrate samples covering all major invertebrate pests in rice fields. We identified 296 new RNA viruses and 13 known RNA viruses. These viruses clustered within 31 families, with many highly divergent viruses constituting potentially new families and genera. Of the identified viruses, 13 RNA viruses clustered within the Fiersviridae family of bacteriophages, and 48 RNA viruses clustered within families and genera of mycoviruses. We detected known rice viruses in novel invertebrate hosts at high abundances. Furthermore, some novel RNA viruses have genome structures closely matching to known plant viruses and clustered within genera of several plant virus species. Forty-five potential insect pathogenic RNA viruses were detected in invertebrate species. Our analysis revealed that host taxonomy plays a major role and geographical location plays an important role in structuring viral diversity. Cross-species transmission of RNA viruses was detected between invertebrate hosts. Newly identified viral genomes showed extensive variation for invertebrate viral families or genera. Together, the large-scale metatranscriptomic analysis greatly expands our understanding of RNA viruses in rice invertebrate species, the results provide valuable information for developing efficient strategies to manage insect pests and virus-mediated crop diseases.


Assuntos
Vírus de Insetos , Oryza , Vírus de Plantas , Vírus de RNA , Animais , Oryza/genética , Invertebrados , Vírus de RNA/genética , Insetos , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Genoma Viral/genética
15.
Mol Ecol ; 33(3): e17226, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38018898

RESUMO

Insect-specific viruses (ISVs) can affect insect health and fitness, but can also interact with other insect-associated microorganisms. Despite this, ISVs are often studied in isolation from each other, in laboratory populations. Consequently, their diversity, prevalence and associations with other viruses in field populations are less known, yet these parameters are important to understanding virus epidemiology. To help address this knowledge gap, we assessed the diversity, prevalence and coinfections of three ISVs (horizontally transmitted cripavirus, biparentally transmitted sigmavirus and maternally transmitted iflavirus) in 29 field populations of Queensland fruit fly, Australia's most significant horticultural pest, in the context of their different transmission modes. We detected new virus variant diversity. In contrast to the very high virus prevalence in laboratory populations, 46.8% of 293 field flies carried one virus and 4.8% had two viruses. Cripavirus and sigmavirus occurred in all regions, while iflavirus was restricted to subtropical and tropical regions. Cripavirus was most prevalent (37.5%), followed by sigmavirus (13.7%) and iflavirus (4.4%). Cripavirus coinfected some flies with either one of the two vertically transmitted viruses. However, sigmavirus did not coinfect individuals with iflavirus. Three different modelling approaches detected negative association patterns between sigmavirus and iflavirus, consistent with the absence of such coinfections in laboratory populations. This may be linked with their maternal transmission and the ineffective paternal transmission of sigmavirus. Furthermore, we found that, unlike sigmavirus and iflavirus, cripavirus load was higher in laboratory than field flies. Laboratory and mass-rearing conditions may increase ISV prevalence and load due to increased transmission opportunities. We conclude that a combination of field and laboratory studies is needed to uncover ISV interactions and further our understanding of ISV epidemiology.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Vírus de Insetos , Vírus de RNA , Tephritidae , Humanos , Animais , Insetos
16.
Virus Res ; 339: 199266, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944758

RESUMO

Surveillance of mosquito vectors is critical for early detection, prevention and control of vector borne diseases. In this study we used advanced molecular tools, such as DNA barcoding in combination with novel sequencing technologies to discover new and already known viruses in genetically identified mosquito species. Mosquitoes were captured using BG sentinel traps in Western Kenya during May and July 2019, and homogenized individually before pooled into groups of ten mosquitoes. The pools and individual samples were then used for molecular analysis and to infect cell cultures. Of a total of fifty-four (54) 10-pools, thirteen (13) showed cytopathic effect (CPE) on VeroB4 cells, eighteen (18) showed CPE on C6/36 cells. Eight (8) 10-pools out of the 31 CPE positive pools showed CPE on both VeroB4 and C6/36 cells. When using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sanger sequencing and Twist Comprehensive Viral Research Panel (CVRP) (Twist Biosciences), all pools were found negative by RT-PCR when using genus specific primers targeting alphaviruses, orthobunyaviruses and virus specific primers towards o'nyong-nyong virus, chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus (previously reported to circulate in the region). Interestingly, five pools were RT-PCR positive for flavivirus. Two of the RT-PCR positive pools showed CPE on both VeroB4 and C6/36 cells, two pools showed CPE on C6/36 cells alone and one pool on VeroB4 cells only. Fifty individual mosquito homogenates from the five RT-PCR positive 10-pools were analyzed further for flavivirus RNA. Of these, 19 out of the 50 individual mosquito homogenates indicated the presence of flavivirus RNA. Barcoding of the flavivirus positive mosquitoes revealed the mosquito species as Aedes aegypti (1), Mansonia uniformis (6), Anopheles spp (3), Culex pipiens (5), Culex spp (1), Coquilletidia metallica (2) and Culex quinquefasciatus (1). Of the 19 flavivirus positive individual mosquitoes, five (5) virus positive homogenates were sequenced. Genome sequences of two viruses were completed. One was identified as the single-stranded RNA Culex flavivirus and the other as the double-stranded RNA Hubei chryso-like virus 1. Both viruses were found in the same Anopheles spp. homogenate extracted from a sample that showed CPE on both VeroB4 and C6/36 cells. The detection of both viruses in a single mosquito homogenate indicated coinfection. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the Culex flavivirus sequence detected was closely related to a Culex flavivirus isolated from Uganda in 2008. All four Hubei chryso-like virus 1 segments clusters closely to Hubei chryso-like virus 1 strains isolated in Australia, China and USA. Two novel strains of insect-specific viruses in Anopheles mosquitoes were detected and characterized.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Culex , Flavivirus , Vírus de Insetos , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Filogenia , Quênia , Vírus de Insetos/genética , RNA
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 22081, 2023 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38086841

RESUMO

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are primary vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that pose significant public health threats. Recent advances in sequencing technology emphasize the importance of understanding the arboviruses and insect-specific viruses (ISVs) hosted by mosquitoes, collectively called the "virome". Colombia, a tropical country with favorable conditions for the development and adaptation of multiple species of Culicidae, offers a favorable scenario for the transmission of epidemiologically important arboviruses. However, entomovirological surveillance studies are scarce in rural areas of the country, where humans, mosquitoes, and animals (both domestic and wild) coexist, leading to a higher risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. Thus, our study aimed to perform a preliminary metagenomic analysis of the mosquitoes of special relevance to public health belonging to the genera Ochlerotatus, Culex, Limatus, Mansonia, Psorophora, and Sabethes, within a rural savanna ecosystem in the Colombian Orinoco. We employed third-generation sequencing technology (Oxford Nanopore Technologies; ONT) to describe the virome of mosquitoes samples. Our results revealed that the virome was primarily shaped by insect-specific viruses (ISVs), with the Iflaviridae family being the most prevalent across all mosquito samples. Furthermore, we identified a group of ISVs that were common in all mosquito species tested, displaying the highest relative abundance concerning other groups of viruses. Notably, Hanko iflavirus-1 was especially prevalent in Culex eknomios (88.4%) and Ochlerotatus serratus (88.0%). Additionally, other ISVs, such as Guadalupe mosquito virus (GMV), Hubei mosquito virus1 (HMV1), Uxmal virus, Tanay virus, Cordoba virus, and Castlerea virus (all belonging to the Negevirus genus), were found as common viral species among the mosquitoes, although in lower proportions. These initial findings contribute to our understanding of ISVs within mosquito vectors of the Culicidae family in the Eastern Plains of Colombia. We recommend that future research explore deeper into ISV species shared among diverse vector species, and their potential interactions with arboviruses. In addition, we also showed the need for a thorough exploration of the influence of local rural habitat conditions on the shape of the virome in mosquito vectors.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Culex , Culicidae , Vírus de Insetos , Vírus , Animais , Humanos , Colômbia , Ecossistema , Arbovírus/genética
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 402, 2023 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first insect-specific virus to be characterized, and has been reported to negatively influence the growth of arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, and La Cross, making it a promising biocontrol agent for mosquito-borne disease prevention. Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells were naturally infected with CFAV. However, the ability of this virus to stably colonize an Ae. aegypti population via artificial infection and how it influences the vector competence of this mosquito have yet to be demonstrated. METHODS: CFAV used in this study was harvested from Aag2 cells and its complete genome sequence was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends, followed by Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of newly identified CFAV sequences and other sequences retrieved from GenBank was performed. CFAV stock was inoculated into Ae. aegypti by intrathoracic injection, the survival of parental mosquitoes was monitored and CFAV copies in the whole bodies, ovaries, and carcasses of the injected F0 generation and in the whole bodies of the F1 generation on different days were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The virus harvested from Aag2 cells comprised a mixture of three CFAV strains. All genome sequences of CFAV derived from Aag2 cells clustered into one clade but were far from those isolated or identified from Ae. aegypti. Aag2-derived CFAV efficiently replicated in the mosquito body and did not attenuate the survival of Ae. aegypti. However, the viral load in the ovarian tissues was much lower than that in other tissues and the virus could not passage to the offspring by vertical transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that Aag2-derived CFAV was not vertically transmitted in Ae. aegypti and provide valuable information on the colonization of mosquitoes by this virus.


Assuntos
Aedes , Flavivirus , Vírus de Insetos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Filogenia , Mosquitos Vetores
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(10): e1011726, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37883353

RESUMO

Fungi are highly widespread and commonly colonize multicellular organisms that live in natural environments. Notably, studies on viruses infecting plant-associated fungi have revealed the interesting phenomenon of the cross-kingdom transmission of viruses and viroids from plants to fungi. This implies that fungi, in addition to absorbing water, nutrients, and other molecules from the host, can acquire intracellular parasites that reside in the host. These findings further suggest that fungi can serve as suitable alternative hosts for certain plant viruses and viroids. Given the frequent coinfection of fungi and viruses in humans/animals, the question of whether fungi can also acquire animal viruses and serve as their hosts is very intriguing. In fact, the transmission of viruses from insects to fungi has been observed. Furthermore, the common release of animal viruses into the extracellular space (viral shedding) could potentially facilitate their acquisition by fungi. Investigations of the cross-infection of animal viruses in fungi may provide new insights into the epidemiology of viral diseases in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Vírus de Insetos , Vírus de Plantas , Viroides , Animais , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fungos , Plantas
20.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0290902, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37733661

RESUMO

Nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) eluting polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogels have a large potential in medical applications and device coatings. NOS3 promotes nitric oxide and nitrate production and can effectively be delivered using insect cell viruses, termed baculoviruses. Nitric oxide is known for regulating cell proliferation, promoting blood vessel vasodilation, and inhibiting bacterial growth. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based hydrogels investigated here sustained baculovirus elution from five to 25 days, depending on the hydrogel composition. The quantity of viable baculovirus loaded significantly declined with each freeze-thaw from one to four (15.3 ± 2.9% vs. 0.9 ± 0.5%, respectively). The addition of gelatin to the hydrogels protected baculovirus viability during the freeze-thaw cycles, resulting in a loading capacity of 94.6 ± 1.2% with sustained elution over 23 days. Adding chitosan, PEG-8000, and gelatin to the hydrogels altered the properties of the hydrogel, including swelling, blood coagulation, and antimicrobial effects, beneficial for different therapeutic applications. Passive absorption of the baculovirus into PVA hydrogels exhibited the highest baculovirus loading (96.4 ± 0.6%) with elution over 25 days. The baculovirus-eluting hydrogels were hemocompatible and non-cytotoxic, with no cell proliferation or viability reduction after incubation. This PVA delivery system provides a method for high loading and sustained release of baculoviruses, sustaining nitric oxide gene delivery. This proof of concept has clinical applications as a medical device or stent coating by delivering therapeutic genes, improving blood compatibility, preventing thrombosis, and preventing infection.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae , Vírus de Insetos , Baculoviridae/genética , Gelatina , Óxido Nítrico , Álcool de Polivinil , Hidrogéis
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