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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 592, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829468

RESUMO

Freshwater aquatic ecosystems are threatened globally. Biological monitoring is required to deliver rapid and replicable assessment of changes in habitat quality. The Ephemeroptera, Plectoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) index is a globally recognised rapid bioassessment that measures taxa richness of three insect orders whose larvae are considered sensitive to freshwater habitat degradation. South-western Australia contains threatened freshwater ecosystems but has depauperate EPT fauna and high endemism, potentially reducing the capacity of the EPT index to track degradation. This study investigated if EPT species richness, composition or individual species tracked physical or chemical river degradation in three catchments in south-western Australia. We sampled EPT fauna and measured water chemistry, erosion, sedimentation, riparian vegetation cover and instream habitat at 98 sites in the winters of 2007 and 2023. We found 35 EPT taxa across the study area with a median number of species per site of two. EPT species richness had weak positive associations with a composite water quality index and dissolved oxygen and weak negative associations with electrical conductivity and total nitrogen. No association was found between physical and fringing zone degradation measures and EPT species richness. EPT community structure generally did not distinguish between sites with high or low degradation levels. The presence of the mayfly Nyungara bunni tracked salinity, dissolved oxygen and nitrogen levels, but its usefulness as a bioindicator could be limited by its restricted range. This study suggests that the EPT index would need modification or combination with other indices to be a useful rapid bioassessment in south-western Australia.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Animais , Rios/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Austrália Ocidental , Insetos , Ephemeroptera
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303834, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837960

RESUMO

We derive an equation that applies for the wing-beat frequency of flying animals and to the fin-stroke frequency of diving animals like penguins and whales. The equation states that the wing/fin-beat frequency is proportional to the square root of the animal's mass divided by the wing area. Data for birds, insects, bats, and even a robotic bird-supplemented by data for whales and penguins that must swim to stay submerged-show that the constant of proportionality is to a good approximation the same across all species; thus the equation is universal. The wing/fin-beat frequency equation is derived by dimensional analysis, which is a standard method of reasoning in physics. We finally demonstrate that a mathematically even simpler expression without the animal mass does not apply.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Asas de Animais , Animais , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Baleias/fisiologia , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Natação/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia
4.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862169

RESUMO

Octopamine, the functional analog of noradrenaline, modulates many different behaviors and physiological processes in invertebrates. In the central nervous system, a few octopaminergic neurons project throughout the brain and innervate almost all neuropils. The center of memory formation in insects, the mushroom bodies, receive octopaminergic innervations in all insects investigated so far. Different octopamine receptors, either increasing or decreasing cAMP or calcium levels in the cell, are localized in Kenyon cells, further supporting the release of octopamine in the mushroom bodies. In addition, different mushroom body (MB) output neurons, projection neurons, and dopaminergic PAM cells are targets of octopaminergic neurons, enabling the modulation of learning circuits at different neural sites. For some years, the theory persisted that octopamine mediates rewarding stimuli, whereas dopamine (DA) represents aversive stimuli. This simple picture has been challenged by the finding that DA is required for both appetitive and aversive learning. Furthermore, octopamine is also involved in aversive learning and a rather complex interaction between these biogenic amines seems to modulate learning and memory. This review summarizes the role of octopamine in MB function, focusing on the anatomical principles and the role of the biogenic amine in learning and memory.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Memória , Corpos Pedunculados , Octopamina , Octopamina/metabolismo , Octopamina/farmacologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Memória/fisiologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Insetos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
5.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862164

RESUMO

The insect mushroom body has gained increasing attention as a system in which the computational basis of neural learning circuits can be unraveled. We now understand in detail the key locations in this circuit where synaptic associations are formed between sensory patterns and values leading to actions. However, the actual learning rule (or rules) implemented by neural activity and leading to synaptic change is still an open question. Here, I survey the diversity of answers that have been offered in computational models of this system over the past decades, including the recurring assumption-in line with top-down theories of associative learning-that the core function is to reduce prediction error. However, I will argue, a more bottom-up approach may ultimately reveal a richer algorithmic capacity in this still enigmatic brain neuropil.


Assuntos
Insetos , Corpos Pedunculados , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia
6.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862175

RESUMO

In 1998, a special edition of Learning & Memory was published with a discrete focus of synthesizing the state of the field to provide an overview of the function of the insect mushroom body. While molecular neuroscience and optical imaging of larger brain areas were advancing, understanding the basic functioning of neuronal circuits, particularly in the context of the mushroom body, was rudimentary. In the past 25 years, technological innovations have allowed researchers to map and understand the in vivo function of the neuronal circuits of the mushroom body system, making it an ideal model for investigating the circuit basis of sensory encoding, memory formation, and behavioral decisions. Collaborative efforts within the community have played a crucial role, leading to an interactive connectome of the mushroom body and accessible genetic tools for studying mushroom body circuit function. Looking ahead, continued technological innovation and collaborative efforts are likely to further advance our understanding of the mushroom body and its role in behavior and cognition, providing insights that generalize to other brain structures and species.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Insetos , Corpos Pedunculados , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XXI , História do Século XX
7.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121219, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838532

RESUMO

At least 87% of angiosperm species require animal vectors for their reproduction, while more than two-thirds of major global food crops depend on zoogamous pollination. Pollinator insects are a wide variety of organisms that require diverse biotic and abiotic resources. Many factors have contributed to a serious decrease in the abundance of populations and diversity of pollinator species over the years. This decline is alarming, and the European Union has taken several actions aimed at counteracting it by issuing new conservation policies and standardizing the actions of member countries. In 2019, the European Green Deal was presented, aiming to restore 100% of Europe's degraded land by 2050 through financial and legislative instruments. Moreover, the Common Agricultural Policies have entailed greening measures for the conservation of habitats and beneficial species for more than 10 years. The new CAP (CAP 23-27) reinforces conservation objectives through strategic plans based on eco-schemes defined at the national level by the member countries, and some states have specifically defined eco-schemes for pollinator conservation. Here, we review the framework of EU policies, directives, and regulations, which include measures aimed at protecting pollinators in agricultural, urban, and peri-urban environments. Moreover, we reviewed the literature reporting experimental works on the environmental amelioration for pollinators, particularly those where CAP measures were implemented and evaluated, as well as studies conducted in urban areas. Among CAP measures, several experimental works have considered the sowing and management of entomophilous plants and reported results important for environmental ameliorations. Some urban, peri-urban and wasteland areas have been reported to host a considerable number of pollinators, especially wild bees, and despite the lack of specific directives, their potential to contribute to pollinator conservation could be enhanced through targeted actions, as highlighted by some studies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Polinização , Europa (Continente) , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Política , Insetos , União Europeia
8.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 61, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although China has a long history of using insects as food and medicine and has developed numerous associated knowledge and practices, especially in its rural and mountainous areas, systematic surveys concerning this subject are limited. In-depth ethnobiological research is needed to compile a comprehensive database of edible and medicinal insects and record the associated knowledge of these food and medicinal resources. METHODS: Data on edible and medicinal insects and associated knowledge about them were collected by interviewing 216 local villagers in a mountainous territory in southeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. RESULTS: Local villagers used at least 16 edible and 9 medicinal insects, of which 4 wasp species were used in both entomophagy and medicinal practices. Parapolybia varia, Polistes olivaceus, and Anomala chamaeleon were newly recorded edible insects in China. The wasps, Euconocephalus sp., Gryllotalpa orientalis, and Cyrtotrachelus longimanus, were preferred and culturally important edible insects. Populations of Euconocephalus sp. and G. orientalis were reported to have substantially decreased in recent years. Wasps and a bamboo bee were used to treat rheumatism, while cockroaches and antlions were used to treat common cold symptoms in infants. Insect-related knowledge was positively correlated with the interviewees' age. CONCLUSIONS: Villagers have accumulated considerable local and traditional knowledge of entomophagy and entomo-therapeutic practices. However, this knowledge is in danger of being lost, which highlights the urgent need to document this information. Edible insects enrich local diets, and a more sustainable supply (such as through insect farming) could maintain local entomophagy practices. Medicinal insects are a part of local folk medicine, and pharmacological and chemical techniques could be applied to identify various biologically active substances in these insects.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , China , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Insetos , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Adolescente , Vespas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20232831, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864145

RESUMO

In autumn 1950 David and Elizabeth Lack chanced upon a huge migration of insects and birds flying through the Pyrenean Pass of Bujaruelo, from France into Spain, later describing the spectacle as combining both grandeur and novelty. The intervening years have seen many changes to land use and climate, posing the question as to the current status of this migratory phenomenon. In addition, a lack of quantitative data has prevented insights into the ecological impact of this mass insect migration and the factors that may influence it. To address this, we revisited the site in autumn over a 4 year period and systematically monitored abundance and species composition of diurnal insect migrants. We estimate an annual mean of 17.1 million day-flying insect migrants from five orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Odonata) moving south, with observations of southward 'mass migration' events associated with warmer temperatures, the presence of a headwind, sunlight, low windspeed and low rainfall. Diptera dominated the migratory assemblage, and annual numbers varied by more than fourfold. Numbers at this single site hint at the likely billions of insects crossing the entire Pyrenean mountain range each year, and we highlight the importance of this route for seasonal insect migrants.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Insetos , Animais , Espanha , Insetos/fisiologia , França , Voo Animal , Estações do Ano
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20232811, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864325

RESUMO

Pesticides have been identified as major drivers of insect biodiversity loss. Thus, the study of their effects on non-pest insect species has attracted a lot of attention in recent decades. In general toxicology, the 'gold standard' to assess the toxicity of a substance is to measure mass-specific LD50 (i.e. median lethal dose per unit body mass). In entomology, reviews attempting to compare these data across all available studies are lacking. To fill this gap in knowledge, we performed a systematic review of the lethality of imidacloprid for adult insects. Imidacloprid is possibly the most extensively studied insecticide in recent times, yet we found that little is comparable across studies, owing to both methodological divergence and missing estimates of body mass. By accounting for body mass whenever possible, we show how imidacloprid sensitivity spans across an apparent range of approximately six orders of magnitude across insect species. Very high variability within species can also be observed owing to differences in exposure methods and observation time. We suggest that a more comparable and comprehensive approach has both biological and economic relevance. Ultimately, this would help to identify differences that could direct research towards preventing non-target species from being negatively affected.


Assuntos
Imidazóis , Insetos , Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Especificidade da Espécie , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230114, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705173

RESUMO

The amount of energy available in a system constrains large-scale patterns of abundance. Here, we test the role of temperature and net primary productivity as drivers of flying insect abundance using a novel continental-scale data source: weather surveillance radar. We use the United States NEXRAD weather radar network to generate a near-daily dataset of insect flight activity across a gradient of temperature and productivity. Insect flight activity was positively correlated with mean annual temperature, explaining 38% of variation across sites. By contrast, net primary productivity did not explain additional variation. Grassland, forest and arid-xeric shrubland biomes differed in their insect flight activity, with the greatest abundance in subtropical and temperate grasslands. The relationship between insect flight abundance and temperature varied across biome types. In arid-xeric shrublands and in forest biomes the temperature-abundance relationship was indirectly (through net primary productivity) or directly (in the form of precipitation) mediated by water availability. These results suggest that temperature constraints on metabolism, development, or flight activity shape macroecological patterns in ectotherm abundance. Assessing the drivers of continental-scale patterns in insect abundance and their variation across biomes is particularly important to predict insect community response to warming conditions. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Insetos , Temperatura , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Ecossistema , Florestas
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230103, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705174

RESUMO

None of the global targets for protecting nature are currently met, although humanity is critically dependent on biodiversity. A significant issue is the lack of data for most biodiverse regions of the planet where the use of frugal methods for biomonitoring would be particularly important because the available funding for monitoring is insufficient, especially in low-income countries. We here discuss how three approaches to insect biomonitoring (computer vision, lidar, DNA sequences) could be made more frugal and urge that all biomonitoring techniques should be evaluated for global suitability before becoming the default in high-income countries. This requires that techniques popular in high-income countries should undergo a phase of 'innovation through simplification' before they are implemented more broadly. We predict that techniques that acquire raw data at low cost and are suitable for analysis with AI (e.g. images, lidar-signals) will be particularly suitable for global biomonitoring, while techniques that rely heavily on patented technologies may be less promising (e.g. DNA sequences). We conclude the opinion piece by pointing out that the widespread use of AI for data analysis will require a global strategy for providing the necessary computational resources and training. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Insetos , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Insetos/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230115, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705175

RESUMO

Radar networks hold great promise for monitoring population trends of migrating insects. However, it is important to elucidate the nature of responses to environmental cues. We use data from a mini-network of vertical-looking entomological radars in the southern UK to investigate changes in nightly abundance, flight altitude and behaviour of insect migrants, in relation to meteorological and celestial conditions. Abundance of migrants showed positive relationships with air temperature, indicating that this is the single most important variable influencing the decision to initiate migration. In addition, there was a small but significant effect of moonlight illumination, with more insects migrating on full moon nights. While the effect of nocturnal illumination levels on abundance was relatively minor, there was a stronger effect on the insects' ability to orientate close to downwind: flight headings were more tightly clustered on nights when the moon was bright and when cloud cover was sparse. This indicates that nocturnal illumination is important for the navigational mechanisms used by nocturnal insect migrants. Further, our results clearly show that environmental conditions such as air temperature and light levels must be considered if long-term radar datasets are to be used to assess changing population trends of migrants. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Voo Animal , Insetos , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Iluminação , Radar , Lua , Temperatura
14.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230112, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705178

RESUMO

Insects are the most diverse animal taxon on Earth and play a key role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are often neglected by ecological surveys owing to the difficulties involved in monitoring this small and hyper-diverse taxon. With technological advances in biomonitoring and analytical methods, these shortcomings may finally be addressed. Here, we performed passive acoustic monitoring at 141 sites (eight habitats) to investigate insect acoustic activity in the Viruá National Park, Brazil. We first describe the frequency range occupied by three soniferous insect groups (cicadas, crickets and katydids) to calculate the acoustic evenness index (AEI). Then, we assess how AEI varies spatially and temporally among habitat types, and finally we investigate the relationship between vegetation structure variables and AEI for each insect category. Overall, crickets occupied lower and narrower frequency bands than cicadas and katydids. AEI values varied among insect categories and across space and time. The highest acoustic activity occurred before sunrise and the lowest acoustic activity was recorded in pastures. Canopy cover was positively associated with cricket acoustic activity but not with katydids. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of time, habitat and vegetation structure in shaping insect activity within diverse Amazonian ecosystems. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Acústica , Ecossistema , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Brasil , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Ortópteros/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia
15.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230101, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705179

RESUMO

Insects are the most diverse group of animals on Earth, yet our knowledge of their diversity, ecology and population trends remains abysmally poor. Four major technological approaches are coming to fruition for use in insect monitoring and ecological research-molecular methods, computer vision, autonomous acoustic monitoring and radar-based remote sensing-each of which has seen major advances over the past years. Together, they have the potential to revolutionize insect ecology, and to make all-taxa, fine-grained insect monitoring feasible across the globe. So far, advances within and among technologies have largely taken place in isolation, and parallel efforts among projects have led to redundancy and a methodological sprawl; yet, given the commonalities in their goals and approaches, increased collaboration among projects and integration across technologies could provide unprecedented improvements in taxonomic and spatio-temporal resolution and coverage. This theme issue showcases recent developments and state-of-the-art applications of these technologies, and outlines the way forward regarding data processing, cost-effectiveness, meaningful trend analysis, technological integration and open data requirements. Together, these papers set the stage for the future of automated insect monitoring. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos
16.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230104, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705176

RESUMO

Technological advancements in biological monitoring have facilitated the study of insect communities at unprecedented spatial scales. The progress allows more comprehensive coverage of the diversity within a given area while minimizing disturbance and reducing the need for extensive human labour. Compared with traditional methods, these novel technologies offer the opportunity to examine biological patterns that were previously beyond our reach. However, to address the pressing scientific inquiries of the future, data must be easily accessible, interoperable and reusable for the global research community. Biodiversity information standards and platforms provide the necessary infrastructure to standardize and share biodiversity data. This paper explores the possibilities and prerequisites of publishing insect data obtained through novel monitoring methods through GBIF, the most comprehensive global biodiversity data infrastructure. We describe the essential components of metadata standards and existing data standards for occurrence data on insects, including data extensions. By addressing the current opportunities, limitations, and future development of GBIF's publishing framework, we hope to encourage researchers to both share data and contribute to the further development of biodiversity data standards and publishing models. Wider commitments to open data initiatives will promote data interoperability and support cross-disciplinary scientific research and key policy indicators. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Disseminação de Informação , Insetos , Animais , Entomologia/métodos , Entomologia/normas , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Metadados
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230102, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705182

RESUMO

Insect monitoring is pivotal for assessing biodiversity and informing conservation strategies. This study delves into the complex realm of insect monitoring in the Global South-world developing and least-developed countries as identified by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development-highlighting challenges and proposing strategic solutions. An analysis of publications from 1990 to 2024 reveals an imbalance in research contributions between the Global North and South, highlighting disparities in entomological research and the scarcity of taxonomic expertise in the Global South. We discuss the socio-economic factors that exacerbate the issues, including funding disparities, challenges in collaboration, infrastructure deficits, information technology obstacles and the impact of local currency devaluation. In addition, we emphasize the crucial role of environmental factors in shaping insect diversity, particularly in tropical regions facing multiple challenges including climate change, urbanization, pollution and various anthropogenic activities. We also stress the need for entomologists to advocate for ecosystem services provided by insects in addressing environmental issues. To enhance monitoring capacity, we propose strategies such as community engagement, outreach programmes and cultural activities to instill biodiversity appreciation. Further, language inclusivity and social media use are emphasized for effective communication. More collaborations with Global North counterparts, particularly in areas of molecular biology and remote sensing, are suggested for technological advancements. In conclusion, advocating for these strategies-global collaborations, a diverse entomological community and the integration of transverse disciplines-aims to address challenges and foster inclusive, sustainable insect monitoring in the Global South, contributing significantly to biodiversity conservation and overall ecosystem health. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Entomologia/métodos , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230121, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705183

RESUMO

Aquatic macroinvertebrates, including many aquatic insect orders, are a diverse and ecologically relevant organismal group yet they are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities. As many of these taxa are highly sensitive to environmental change, they offer a particularly good early warning system for human-induced change, thus leading to their intense monitoring. In aquatic ecosystems there is a plethora of biotic monitoring or biomonitoring approaches, with more than 300 assessment methods reported for freshwater taxa alone. Ultimately, monitoring of aquatic macroinvertebrates is used to calculate ecological indices describing the state of aquatic systems. Many of the methods and indices used are not only hard to compare, but especially difficult to scale in time and space. Novel DNA-based approaches to measure the state and change of aquatic environments now offer unprecedented opportunities, also for possible integration towards commonly applicable indices. Here, we first give a perspective on DNA-based approaches in the monitoring of aquatic organisms, with a focus on aquatic insects, and how to move beyond traditional point-based biotic indices. Second, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept for spatially upscaling ecological indices based on environmental DNA, demonstrating how integration of these novel molecular approaches with hydrological models allows an accurate evaluation at the catchment scale. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , DNA Ambiental , Insetos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , DNA Ambiental/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Insetos/genética
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230122, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705185

RESUMO

To understand insect abundance, distribution and dynamics, we need to understand the relevant drivers of their populations and communities. While microbial symbionts are known to strongly affect many aspects of insect biology, we lack data on their effects on populations or community processes, or on insects' evolutionary responses at different timescales. How these effects change as the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems intensify is an area of intense research. Recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics permit cost-effective microbial diversity surveys, tracking symbiont transmission, and identification of functions across insect populations and multi-species communities. In this review, we explore how different functional categories of symbionts can influence insect life-history traits, how these effects could affect insect populations and their interactions with other species, and how they may affect processes and patterns at the level of entire communities. We argue that insect-associated microbes should be considered important drivers of insect response and adaptation to environmental challenges and opportunities. We also outline the emerging approaches for surveying and characterizing insect-associated microbiota at population and community scales. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Insetos , Microbiota , Simbiose , Animais , Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Biodiversidade
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230113, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705181

RESUMO

In the current biodiversity crisis, populations of many species have alarmingly declined, and insects are no exception to this general trend. Biodiversity monitoring has become an essential asset to detect biodiversity change but remains patchy and challenging for organisms that are small, inconspicuous or make (nocturnal) long-distance movements. Radars are powerful remote-sensing tools that can provide detailed information on intensity, timing, altitude and spatial scale of aerial movements and might therefore be particularly suited for monitoring aerial insects and their movements. Importantly, they can contribute to several essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) within a harmonized observation system. We review existing research using small-scale biological and weather surveillance radars for insect monitoring and outline how the derived measures and quantities can contribute to the EBVs 'species population', 'species traits', 'community composition' and 'ecosystem function'. Furthermore, we synthesize how ongoing and future methodological, analytical and technological advancements will greatly expand the use of radar for insect biodiversity monitoring and beyond. Owing to their long-term and regional-to-large-scale deployment, radar-based approaches can be a powerful asset in the biodiversity monitoring toolbox whose potential has yet to be fully tapped. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos , Radar , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Voo Animal
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