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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2025): 20240090, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889793

RESUMO

The more insects there are, the more food there is for insectivores and the higher the likelihood for insect-associated ecosystem services. Yet, we lack insights into the drivers of insect biomass over space and seasons, for both tropical and temperate zones. We used 245 Malaise traps, managed by 191 volunteers and park guards, to characterize year-round flying insect biomass in a temperate (Sweden) and a tropical (Madagascar) country. Surprisingly, we found that local insect biomass was similar across zones. In Sweden, local insect biomass increased with accumulated heat and varied across habitats, while biomass in Madagascar was unrelated to the environmental predictors measured. Drivers behind seasonality partly converged: In both countries, the seasonality of insect biomass differed between warmer and colder sites, and wetter and drier sites. In Sweden, short-term deviations from expected season-specific biomass were explained by week-to-week fluctuations in accumulated heat, rainfall and soil moisture, whereas in Madagascar, weeks with higher soil moisture had higher insect biomass. Overall, our study identifies key drivers of the seasonal distribution of flying insect biomass in a temperate and a tropical climate. This knowledge is key to understanding the spatial and seasonal availability of insects-as well as predicting future scenarios of insect biomass change.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Clima Tropical , Animais , Suécia , Madagáscar , Insetos/fisiologia , Água , Ecossistema
2.
Ecol Evol Physiol ; 97(3): 164-179, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875141

RESUMO

AbstractFreshwater salinity regimes vary naturally and are changing in response to anthropogenic activities. Few insect species tolerate saline waters, and biodiversity losses are associated with increasing salinity in freshwater. We used radiotracers (22Na, 35SO4, and 45Ca) to examine ion uptake rates across concentration gradients in mayflies (Ephemeroptera), caddis flies (Trichoptera), and mosquitoes (Diptera) and made observations for some traits in seven other taxa representing mayflies, stone flies (Plecoptera), true flies (Diptera), and true bugs (Hemiptera). We further assessed the permeability of the cuticle to 3H2O influx and 22Na efflux when faced with deionized water in these same taxa. We hypothesized a relationship between uptake rates and reported saline tolerances, but our data did not support this hypothesis, likely because acclimatory responses were not part of this experimental approach. However, we found several common physiological traits across the taxa studied, including (i) ionic uptake rates that were always positively correlated with dissolved concentrations, (ii) generally low Ca uptake rates relative to other freshwater taxa, (iii) greater Na loss than Na uptake in dilute conditions, (iv) ion uptake that was more variable in ion-rich conditions than in dilute conditions, and (v) 3H2O influx that occurs quickly (but this rapidly exchangeable pool of body water accounts for a surprisingly small percentage of the water content of species tested). There remains much to learn about the physiology of these important organisms in the face of changing salinity regimes worldwide.


Assuntos
Água Doce , Insetos , Osmorregulação , Animais , Osmorregulação/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Salinidade
3.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862169

RESUMO

Octopamine, the functional analog of noradrenaline, modulates many different behaviors and physiological processes in invertebrates. In the central nervous system, a few octopaminergic neurons project throughout the brain and innervate almost all neuropils. The center of memory formation in insects, the mushroom bodies, receive octopaminergic innervations in all insects investigated so far. Different octopamine receptors, either increasing or decreasing cAMP or calcium levels in the cell, are localized in Kenyon cells, further supporting the release of octopamine in the mushroom bodies. In addition, different mushroom body (MB) output neurons, projection neurons, and dopaminergic PAM cells are targets of octopaminergic neurons, enabling the modulation of learning circuits at different neural sites. For some years, the theory persisted that octopamine mediates rewarding stimuli, whereas dopamine (DA) represents aversive stimuli. This simple picture has been challenged by the finding that DA is required for both appetitive and aversive learning. Furthermore, octopamine is also involved in aversive learning and a rather complex interaction between these biogenic amines seems to modulate learning and memory. This review summarizes the role of octopamine in MB function, focusing on the anatomical principles and the role of the biogenic amine in learning and memory.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Memória , Corpos Pedunculados , Octopamina , Octopamina/metabolismo , Octopamina/farmacologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Memória/fisiologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Insetos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
4.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862164

RESUMO

The insect mushroom body has gained increasing attention as a system in which the computational basis of neural learning circuits can be unraveled. We now understand in detail the key locations in this circuit where synaptic associations are formed between sensory patterns and values leading to actions. However, the actual learning rule (or rules) implemented by neural activity and leading to synaptic change is still an open question. Here, I survey the diversity of answers that have been offered in computational models of this system over the past decades, including the recurring assumption-in line with top-down theories of associative learning-that the core function is to reduce prediction error. However, I will argue, a more bottom-up approach may ultimately reveal a richer algorithmic capacity in this still enigmatic brain neuropil.


Assuntos
Insetos , Corpos Pedunculados , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia
5.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862175

RESUMO

In 1998, a special edition of Learning & Memory was published with a discrete focus of synthesizing the state of the field to provide an overview of the function of the insect mushroom body. While molecular neuroscience and optical imaging of larger brain areas were advancing, understanding the basic functioning of neuronal circuits, particularly in the context of the mushroom body, was rudimentary. In the past 25 years, technological innovations have allowed researchers to map and understand the in vivo function of the neuronal circuits of the mushroom body system, making it an ideal model for investigating the circuit basis of sensory encoding, memory formation, and behavioral decisions. Collaborative efforts within the community have played a crucial role, leading to an interactive connectome of the mushroom body and accessible genetic tools for studying mushroom body circuit function. Looking ahead, continued technological innovation and collaborative efforts are likely to further advance our understanding of the mushroom body and its role in behavior and cognition, providing insights that generalize to other brain structures and species.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Insetos , Corpos Pedunculados , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XXI , História do Século XX
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20232831, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864145

RESUMO

In autumn 1950 David and Elizabeth Lack chanced upon a huge migration of insects and birds flying through the Pyrenean Pass of Bujaruelo, from France into Spain, later describing the spectacle as combining both grandeur and novelty. The intervening years have seen many changes to land use and climate, posing the question as to the current status of this migratory phenomenon. In addition, a lack of quantitative data has prevented insights into the ecological impact of this mass insect migration and the factors that may influence it. To address this, we revisited the site in autumn over a 4 year period and systematically monitored abundance and species composition of diurnal insect migrants. We estimate an annual mean of 17.1 million day-flying insect migrants from five orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Odonata) moving south, with observations of southward 'mass migration' events associated with warmer temperatures, the presence of a headwind, sunlight, low windspeed and low rainfall. Diptera dominated the migratory assemblage, and annual numbers varied by more than fourfold. Numbers at this single site hint at the likely billions of insects crossing the entire Pyrenean mountain range each year, and we highlight the importance of this route for seasonal insect migrants.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Insetos , Animais , Espanha , Insetos/fisiologia , França , Voo Animal , Estações do Ano
7.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 61, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although China has a long history of using insects as food and medicine and has developed numerous associated knowledge and practices, especially in its rural and mountainous areas, systematic surveys concerning this subject are limited. In-depth ethnobiological research is needed to compile a comprehensive database of edible and medicinal insects and record the associated knowledge of these food and medicinal resources. METHODS: Data on edible and medicinal insects and associated knowledge about them were collected by interviewing 216 local villagers in a mountainous territory in southeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. RESULTS: Local villagers used at least 16 edible and 9 medicinal insects, of which 4 wasp species were used in both entomophagy and medicinal practices. Parapolybia varia, Polistes olivaceus, and Anomala chamaeleon were newly recorded edible insects in China. The wasps, Euconocephalus sp., Gryllotalpa orientalis, and Cyrtotrachelus longimanus, were preferred and culturally important edible insects. Populations of Euconocephalus sp. and G. orientalis were reported to have substantially decreased in recent years. Wasps and a bamboo bee were used to treat rheumatism, while cockroaches and antlions were used to treat common cold symptoms in infants. Insect-related knowledge was positively correlated with the interviewees' age. CONCLUSIONS: Villagers have accumulated considerable local and traditional knowledge of entomophagy and entomo-therapeutic practices. However, this knowledge is in danger of being lost, which highlights the urgent need to document this information. Edible insects enrich local diets, and a more sustainable supply (such as through insect farming) could maintain local entomophagy practices. Medicinal insects are a part of local folk medicine, and pharmacological and chemical techniques could be applied to identify various biologically active substances in these insects.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , China , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Insetos , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Adolescente , Vespas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20232811, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864325

RESUMO

Pesticides have been identified as major drivers of insect biodiversity loss. Thus, the study of their effects on non-pest insect species has attracted a lot of attention in recent decades. In general toxicology, the 'gold standard' to assess the toxicity of a substance is to measure mass-specific LD50 (i.e. median lethal dose per unit body mass). In entomology, reviews attempting to compare these data across all available studies are lacking. To fill this gap in knowledge, we performed a systematic review of the lethality of imidacloprid for adult insects. Imidacloprid is possibly the most extensively studied insecticide in recent times, yet we found that little is comparable across studies, owing to both methodological divergence and missing estimates of body mass. By accounting for body mass whenever possible, we show how imidacloprid sensitivity spans across an apparent range of approximately six orders of magnitude across insect species. Very high variability within species can also be observed owing to differences in exposure methods and observation time. We suggest that a more comparable and comprehensive approach has both biological and economic relevance. Ultimately, this would help to identify differences that could direct research towards preventing non-target species from being negatively affected.


Assuntos
Imidazóis , Insetos , Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Especificidade da Espécie , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 592, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829468

RESUMO

Freshwater aquatic ecosystems are threatened globally. Biological monitoring is required to deliver rapid and replicable assessment of changes in habitat quality. The Ephemeroptera, Plectoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) index is a globally recognised rapid bioassessment that measures taxa richness of three insect orders whose larvae are considered sensitive to freshwater habitat degradation. South-western Australia contains threatened freshwater ecosystems but has depauperate EPT fauna and high endemism, potentially reducing the capacity of the EPT index to track degradation. This study investigated if EPT species richness, composition or individual species tracked physical or chemical river degradation in three catchments in south-western Australia. We sampled EPT fauna and measured water chemistry, erosion, sedimentation, riparian vegetation cover and instream habitat at 98 sites in the winters of 2007 and 2023. We found 35 EPT taxa across the study area with a median number of species per site of two. EPT species richness had weak positive associations with a composite water quality index and dissolved oxygen and weak negative associations with electrical conductivity and total nitrogen. No association was found between physical and fringing zone degradation measures and EPT species richness. EPT community structure generally did not distinguish between sites with high or low degradation levels. The presence of the mayfly Nyungara bunni tracked salinity, dissolved oxygen and nitrogen levels, but its usefulness as a bioindicator could be limited by its restricted range. This study suggests that the EPT index would need modification or combination with other indices to be a useful rapid bioassessment in south-western Australia.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Animais , Rios/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Austrália Ocidental , Insetos , Ephemeroptera
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892195

RESUMO

The effect of pesticides on insects is often discussed in terms of acute and chronic toxicity, but an important and often overlooked aspect is the impact of sublethal doses on insect physiology and behavior. Pesticides can influence various physiological parameters of insects, including the innate immune system, development, and reproduction, through a combination of direct effects on specific exposed tissues and the modification of behaviors that contribute to health and reproductive success. Such behaviors include mobility, feeding, oviposition, navigation, and the ability to detect pheromones. Pesticides also have a profound effect on insect learning and memory. The precise effects depend on many different factors, including the insect species, age, sex, caste, physiological condition, as well as the type and concentration of the active ingredients and the exposure route. More studies are needed to assess the effects of different active ingredients (and combinations thereof) on a wider range of species to understand how sublethal doses of pesticides can contribute to insect decline. This review reflects our current knowledge about sublethal effects of pesticides on insects and advancements in the development of innovative methods to detect them.


Assuntos
Insetos , Praguicidas , Animais , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892266

RESUMO

Insects have developed sophisticated detoxification systems to protect them from plant secondary metabolites while feeding on plants to obtain necessary nutrients. As an important enzyme in the system, glycosyltransferase 1 (GT1) conjugates toxic compounds to mitigate their harm to insects. However, the evolutionary link between GT1s and insect plant feeding remains elusive. In this study, we explored the evolution of GT1s across different insect orders and feeding niches using publicly available insect genomes. GT1 is widely present in insect species; however, its gene number differs among insect orders. Notably, plant-sap-feeding species have the highest GT1 gene numbers, whereas blood-feeding species display the lowest. GT1s appear to be associated with insect adaptations to different plant substrates in different orders, while the shift to non-plant feeding is related to several losses of GT1s. Most large gene numbers are likely the consequence of tandem duplications showing variations in collinearity among insect orders. These results reveal the potential relationships between the evolution of GT1s and insect adaptation to plant feeding, facilitating our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insect-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Duplicação Gênica , Glicosiltransferases , Insetos , Animais , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Herbivoria , Genoma de Inseto , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo
12.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121219, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838532

RESUMO

At least 87% of angiosperm species require animal vectors for their reproduction, while more than two-thirds of major global food crops depend on zoogamous pollination. Pollinator insects are a wide variety of organisms that require diverse biotic and abiotic resources. Many factors have contributed to a serious decrease in the abundance of populations and diversity of pollinator species over the years. This decline is alarming, and the European Union has taken several actions aimed at counteracting it by issuing new conservation policies and standardizing the actions of member countries. In 2019, the European Green Deal was presented, aiming to restore 100% of Europe's degraded land by 2050 through financial and legislative instruments. Moreover, the Common Agricultural Policies have entailed greening measures for the conservation of habitats and beneficial species for more than 10 years. The new CAP (CAP 23-27) reinforces conservation objectives through strategic plans based on eco-schemes defined at the national level by the member countries, and some states have specifically defined eco-schemes for pollinator conservation. Here, we review the framework of EU policies, directives, and regulations, which include measures aimed at protecting pollinators in agricultural, urban, and peri-urban environments. Moreover, we reviewed the literature reporting experimental works on the environmental amelioration for pollinators, particularly those where CAP measures were implemented and evaluated, as well as studies conducted in urban areas. Among CAP measures, several experimental works have considered the sowing and management of entomophilous plants and reported results important for environmental ameliorations. Some urban, peri-urban and wasteland areas have been reported to host a considerable number of pollinators, especially wild bees, and despite the lack of specific directives, their potential to contribute to pollinator conservation could be enhanced through targeted actions, as highlighted by some studies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Polinização , Europa (Continente) , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Política , Insetos , União Europeia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 940: 173699, 2024 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830420

RESUMO

The use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased drastically worldwide over the last decades. ALAN can have major effects on nocturnal communities, including insects and bats. Insects are attracted to street lights and few bat species take advantage of this by foraging on the attracted insects. ALAN potentially affects the temporal patterns of insect abundance and thereby bat foraging behaviour. In a natural dark environment, these patterns are usually bimodal, with an activity peak in the early evening and the morning. Little is known about how ALAN affects insect presence throughout the night, and whether the light spectrum plays a role. This is important, as these temporal changes may be a key driver of disturbances in bat-insect interactions. Here, we studied how white and red light affect insects' and bats' nightly activity patterns. The activity of insects and bats (Pipistrellus spp.) was recorded throughout the night at seven experimentally illuminated sites in a forest-edge ecosystem. ALAN disrupted activity patterns, with both insects and bats being more active throughout the night. ALAN facilitated all-night foraging in bats especially near white light, but these effects were attenuated near red light. The ability to forage throughout the night may be a key advantage causing synanthropic bats to dominate in illuminated environments, but this could also prove detrimental in the long term. As red light reduced disturbing effects of ALAN on insects and bats diel activity pattern, it opens the possibility of using spectral composition as a mitigation measure.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Insetos , Iluminação , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Luz
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13856, 2024 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879632

RESUMO

Floral nectar sugar composition is assumed to reflect the nutritional demands and foraging behaviour of pollinators, but the relative contributions of evolutionary and abiotic factors to nectar sugar composition remain largely unknown across the angiosperms. We compiled a comprehensive dataset on nectar sugar composition for 414 insect-pollinated plant species across central Europe, along with phylogeny, paleoclimate, flower morphology, and pollinator dietary demands, to disentangle their relative effects. We found that phylogeny was strongly related with nectar sucrose content, which increased with the phylogenetic age of plant families, but even more strongly with historic global surface temperature. Nectar sugar composition was also defined by floral morphology, though it was not related to our functional measure of pollinator dietary demands. However, specialist pollinators of current plant-pollinator networks predominantly visited plant species with sucrose-rich nectar. Our results suggest that both physiological mechanisms related to plant water balance and evolutionary effects related to paleoclimatic changes have shaped floral nectar sugar composition during the radiation and specialisation of plants and pollinators. As a consequence, the high velocity of current climate change may affect plant-pollinator interaction networks due to a conflicting combination of immediate physiological responses and phylogenetic conservatism.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Flores , Filogenia , Néctar de Plantas , Polinização , Néctar de Plantas/metabolismo , Néctar de Plantas/química , Polinização/fisiologia , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Mudança Climática
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 942: 173626, 2024 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844229

RESUMO

Organic farming is considered the most sustainable form of modern soil cultivation. Yet it often relies on the use of chemical compounds that are not necessarily harmless for the surrounding wildlife. In this study, we tested the effects of realistic concentrations of copper sulphate-largely used in organic farming as a fungicide-on ecologically-relevant traits of the walking stick insect Bacillus rossius, a species commonly found in the proximity of cultivated fields across Europe. By using second-generation progeny of wild-caught parthenogenetic females bred in common gardens, we measured the impact of copper sulphate (CuSO4) on both the life-history (body condition, number of eggs, and hatching success) and behavioural traits (activity and maximum vertical speed) of the individuals. We observed strong negative effects of high, realistic concentrations of copper sulphate on most traits within 12 days of exposure, while effects were less evident at lower concentrations of the pollutant. Our results reveal that realistic concentrations of copper sulphate can compromise important traits that regulate both the survival and reproduction of animals in the wild, with such effects that are, however, dose dependent. We suggest that common practices in organic farming require further consideration on their ecological and evolutionary impact on wildlife.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cobre , Agricultura Orgânica , Animais , Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Feminino , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Neópteros/fisiologia , Neópteros/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303834, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837960

RESUMO

We derive an equation that applies for the wing-beat frequency of flying animals and to the fin-stroke frequency of diving animals like penguins and whales. The equation states that the wing/fin-beat frequency is proportional to the square root of the animal's mass divided by the wing area. Data for birds, insects, bats, and even a robotic bird-supplemented by data for whales and penguins that must swim to stay submerged-show that the constant of proportionality is to a good approximation the same across all species; thus the equation is universal. The wing/fin-beat frequency equation is derived by dimensional analysis, which is a standard method of reasoning in physics. We finally demonstrate that a mathematically even simpler expression without the animal mass does not apply.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Asas de Animais , Animais , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Baleias/fisiologia , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Natação/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 217, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806748

RESUMO

Plant pathogens with their abundance are harmful and cause huge damage to different agricultural crops and economy of a country as well as lead towards the shortage of food for humans. For their management, the utilization of entomopathogenic fungi is an eco-friendly technique, sustainable to the environment, safe for humans and has promising effect over chemical-based pesticides. This process requires a biochemical mechanism, including the production of enzymes, toxins, and other metabolites that facilitate host infection and invasion. Essential enzymes such as chitinase, proteinase, and lipase play a direct role in breaking down the host cuticle, the primary barrier to EPF (Entomopathogenic Fungi) infection. Additionally, secondary metabolites such as destruxins in Metarhizium, beauvericin in Beauveria, hirsutellides in Hirsutella, isarolides in Isaria, cordyols in Cordyceps, and vertihemipterins in Verticillium, among others, act both directly and indirectly to disable the defense mechanisms of insect hosts, thereby accelerating the EPF infection process. The chemical composition of these secondary metabolites varies, ranging from simple non-peptide pigments such as oosporine to highly complex piperazine derivatives such as vertihemiptellides. The biocontrol efficacy of EPF is extensively studied, with numerous fungal strains commercially available on a large scale for managing arthropod pests. This review emphasizes the role of proteins and enzymes against crop pathogens, detailing their mode of action, and describing the metabolites from entomopathogenic fungi and their biological activities. In doing so, these findings contribute to establishing a symbiotic equilibrium between agricultural productivity and environmental conservation.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Fungos , Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Beauveria/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Insetos/microbiologia , Metarhizium/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo Secundário
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2802: 473-514, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819569

RESUMO

Genome sequencing quality, in terms of both read length and accuracy, is constantly improving. By combining long-read sequencing technologies with various scaffolding techniques, chromosome-level genome assemblies are now achievable at an affordable price for non-model organisms. Insects represent an exciting taxon for studying the genomic underpinnings of evolutionary innovations, due to ancient origins, immense species-richness, and broad phenotypic diversity. Here we summarize some of the most important methods for carrying out a comparative genomics study on insects. We describe available tools and offer concrete tips on all stages of such an endeavor from DNA extraction through genome sequencing, annotation, and several evolutionary analyses. Along the way we describe important insect-specific aspects, such as DNA extraction difficulties or gene families that are particularly difficult to annotate, and offer solutions. We describe results from several examples of comparative genomics analyses on insects to illustrate the fascinating questions that can now be addressed in this new age of genomics research.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica , Insetos , Animais , Insetos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
20.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 671, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822081

RESUMO

The attraction of insects to artificial light is a global environmental problem with far-reaching implications for ecosystems. Since light pollution is rarely integrated into conservation approaches, effective mitigation strategies towards environmentally friendly lighting that drastically reduce insect attraction are urgently needed. Here, we tested novel luminaires in two experiments (i) at a controlled experimental field site and (ii) on streets within three municipalities. The luminaires are individually tailored to only emit light onto the target area and to reduce spill light. In addition, a customized shielding renders the light source nearly invisible beyond the lit area. We show that these novel luminaires significantly reduce the attraction effect on flying insects compared to different conventional luminaires with the same illuminance on the ground. This underlines the huge potential of spatially optimized lighting to help to bend the curve of global insect decline without compromising human safety aspects. A customized light distribution should therefore be part of sustainable future lighting concepts, most relevant in the vicinity of protected areas.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Luz
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