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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(5): 1137-1143, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621960

RESUMO

The protection, development, and utilization of medicinal plant resources are important cornerstones of maintaining human health. However, due to factors such as the reduction of high-quality land resources, deterioration of ecological environments, and excessive and disorderly resource development, medicinal plant resources are becoming scarce, and some of them are insufficiently supplied. With the proposal of "the Belt and Road" Initiative, the cooperation between China and "the Belt and Road" partners(the countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative)is increasingly close, which provides a new opportunity for carrying out trade of medicinal plant resources and alleviating the problem of imbalance and relative inadequacy of medicinal plant resources in countries. This study first determined the distribution and species information of plant resources in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative by investigating the database of plant distribution and that of medicinal plant resources. Then, according to the published data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(CITES), this study identified the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the medicinal plants under trade control in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative and finally sorted out the list of potential medicinal plant resources in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative that can be used by China. This data resource can not only be used for the overall protection of important endangered species but also scientifically guide the development and utilization of medicinal resources, providing guidance and a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of medicinal plant resources in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Animais , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Meio Ambiente , China , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
2.
Global Health ; 20(1): 31, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On July 4, 2021, China officially introduced the drug patent linkage system, which has made more localized adjustments than have similar systems in the US and South Korea. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of China's patent linkage system. METHODS: For this study, we used the database of China's patent information registration platform for marketed drugs to capture all listed patents and patent certifications from June 25, 2021, to June 30, 2023. We used descriptive statistics for the above data to assess the impact of patent linkage on branded drug manufacturers, generic drug manufacturers, and the public's access to medicines. RESULTS: During the study period, the patents of 632 branded drugs were listed, and 5058 ANDAs submitted patent certifications to the Registration Platform. Of these 632 branded drugs, 462 (73.1%) drugs were approved before the year of patent registration, and the average number of listed patents per drug was 1.8, with a standard deviation of 1.4. However, of these 5058 ANDAs, P1 certifications accounted for 85.1%, and P3 and P4 certifications accounted for 16% combined. In addition, according to the detailed statistics of P2 certifications, we found that the proportion of patent invalidation cases was 46.4%. The remaining validity of the patents corresponding to P3 certifications was longer, with a median value of 17 months, and the IQR was 10-30.75, ranging from - 2 to 204 months. CONCLUSIONS: China's patent linkage aims to promote the balance of multiple interests -innovation, imitation and public health-and has its own system characteristics. Patent listing and patent certification are the key indicators reflecting the implementation effect of the system. From the perspective of system outcomes, ANDAs have been connected to the patent linkage system in an orderly manner, but the growth of patent challenges is not obvious. Moreover, manufacturers of foreign branded drugs that have not yet entered the Chinese market need to pay more attention to the role of patent listing.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Genéricos , Internacionalidade , Humanos , República da Coreia , China
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297787, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578812

RESUMO

Protecting human, animal, and plant life or health from additives, toxins, and contaminants in agri-products and promoting green free trade are the main components of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures. However, the SPS measures are heterogeneous. This study examines the impact of SPS measures on the measured export quality and discusses their influence on the environmental protection of the exporting country. International heterogeneous measures do not necessarily promote quality upgrading but greatly increase transaction costs. By contrast, China's agri-product' quality upgrading and environmental pollution are in sharp contrast. Based on a heterogeneous firm-trade model, this study obtains three hypothetical propositions and conducts empirical regressions using the Tobit method. This study finds that heterogeneous SPS measures hinder quality upgrading because firms present a different quality upgrading trend, which in turn impedes the environmental protection of the exporting country; the quality upgrading made by diversified SOEs is higher than that of foreign firms and private firms; the quality upgrading made by general firms is higher than that of processing firms; and protective SPS measures have a stronger negative effect on quality upgrading and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cooperação Internacional , Animais , Humanos , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , China
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300873, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578821

RESUMO

In implementing the equity incentive system, this paper delves into the listed enterprises' selection of equity incentive models. While previous research has extensively covered the effects, models, and influencing factors of equity incentives, there needs to be more in-depth literature focusing on the diverse incentive models and their impact on corporate performance. Notably, there needs to be more literature on considering entrepreneurial spirit as a mechanism. It aims to explore the relationship between executives' choices under different incentive models, the entrepreneurial spirit fostered by these models, and their combined impact on corporate performance. The findings reveal that adopting the restricted stock incentive model by listed enterprises implementing the equity incentive system significantly positively affects enterprise performance. Mechanistic tests show that when a company implements the restricted stock incentive model, executives prioritize maximizing their interests, leading them to embrace more risk in their investment decisions. This behavior, in turn, stimulates the adventurous spirit of executives, positively impacting enterprise performance, particularly pronounced in companies with more concentrated executive power. Moreover, executives may be more inclined to invest in high-risk, high-reward innovative projects, a behavior indicative of innovation and more prevalent in firms with higher research and development (R&D) investment. However, the limitation of this paper is that the study evaluates the operation of the equity incentive system in China by taking listed companies in China as an example, which is not necessarily suitable for foreign developed capitalist countries. This study contributes to the study of principal-agent problems by exploring the relationship between executives, entrepreneurship and firm performance.


Assuntos
Empreendedorismo , Motivação , Capitalismo , China , Internacionalidade
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 12(5): e756-e770, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are 1·3 billion people with disabilities globally. On average, they have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, but the extent of increased risk of premature mortality is unknown. We aimed to systematically review the association between disability and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Global Health, PsycINFO, and EMBASE from Jan 1, 1990 to Nov 14, 2022. Longitudinal epidemiological studies in any language with a comparator group that measured the association between disability and all-cause mortality in people of any age were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality by disability status. We then conducted meta-analyses separately for different impairment and age groups. FINDINGS: We identified 6146 unique articles, of which 70 studies (81 cohorts) were included in the systematic review, from 22 countries. There was variability in the methods used to assess and report disability and mortality. The meta-analysis included 54 studies, representing 62 cohorts (comprising 270 571 people with disabilities). Pooled HRs for all-cause mortality were 2·02 (95% CI 1·77-2·30) for people with disabilities versus those without disabilities, with high heterogeneity between studies (τ2=0·23, I2=98%). This association varied by impairment type: from 1·36 (1·17-1·57) for visual impairment to 3·95 (1·60-9·74) for multiple impairments. The association was highest for children younger than 18 years (4·46, [3·01-6·59]) and lower in people aged 15-49 years (2·45 [1·21-4·97]) and people older than 60 years (1·97 [1·65-2·36]). INTERPRETATION: People with disabilities had a two-fold higher mortality rate than people without disabilities in LMICs. Interventions are needed to improve the health of people with disabilities and reduce their higher mortality rate. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health and Care Research; and UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Pessoas com Deficiência , Criança , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura , Definição da Elegibilidade , Internacionalidade
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300262, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557680

RESUMO

Top managers' past experiences (e.g., foreign experience) significantly impact their decision-making behavior, which may influence firms' sustainable development. The available literature, focusing on the role of the increase in the number of top executives with foreign experience in corporate social responsibility (CSR), yields mixed results. In order to clarify the ambiguous relationship between executive foreign experience and CSR, we empirically examine the effect of the geographic diversity of top executives' foreign experience on CSR. Based on a hand-collected dataset of the top management team's (TMT's) foreign experience, we demonstrate the positive impact of the geographic diversity of returnee executives' foreign experience on firms' CSR using Chinese A-share listed firms from 2009 to 2018. Moreover, this impact is stronger in firms with political connections with the central government and in regions with good market development. Furthermore, the mechanism analysis shows that returnee executives drive firms' CSR by promoting corporate donations and green innovation. This paper offers clear policy implications by suggesting that hiring returnees with a broad geographic scope of foreign experience as corporate executives is an efficient way to enhance firms' CSR.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Mãos , Humanos , Governo Federal , Internacionalidade , Seleção de Pessoal , Responsabilidade Social
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300655, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626178

RESUMO

Ports are critical centers of international trade and global logistics now that economic globalization has taken hold. The efficiency performance of port logistics is crucial to building an emerging pattern of development in which domestic and foreign dual cycles are complementary for China. This paper examines the efficiency performance of 19 ports within five major economic circles in China. It explores how their efficiency is distributed, and the configurations of efficiency improvement during the new normal of China's economy. First, the DEA-BCC model is employed to calculate the technical efficiency performance and distribution of each port from 2011 to 2020. Then, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was applied to integrate and analyze the influencing factors. The results show as follows: (1) Each port group performed differently on efficiency rankings, as well as regional distributions. Among these, the port groups of the Bohai Rim region, the Yangtze River Delta region, and the Bohai Rim region continue to rank highly. (2) From the perspective of configuration analysis, the results suggest that government support is not necessary for port logistics with better economic endowments. However, it is critical for backward ones. (3) A rational industrial structure can enhance levels of infrastructure, openness, and information technology, improving port performance. The findings can provide theoretical and practical references for better promoting the development of Chinese port management.al references for better promoting the development of Chinese port management.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Eficiência , Indústrias , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299727, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573973

RESUMO

The effect of carbon emissions on the environment has made some of the Sustainable Development Goals difficult to achieve. Despite the efforts of international bodies, there is still a need to address the problem since the transition is not complete. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of globalization, economic growth, financial inclusion, renewable energy, and government institutions on carbon emissions from the period of 1998 to 2021. To be able to assess both the direct and indirect effects of the variables, the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling is employed, where renewable energy serves as the mediator, and the Two-Stage Least Squares is employed as the robustness check. The findings of the study reveal that globalization promotes the use of renewable energy, but financial inclusion has a negative effect on renewable energy use. Renewable energy has a direct positive and significant effect on carbon emissions. Financial inclusion has an indirect negative and significant effect on carbon emissions. The results imply that more enlightenment on financial inclusion will help a smooth transition, and globalization should be embraced when all environmental regulations are enforced.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Análise de Classes Latentes , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono , Internacionalidade
9.
Sci Adv ; 10(12): eadj5782, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517967

RESUMO

This paper reports a high-resolution isotopic study of medieval horse mobility, revealing their origins and in-life mobility both regionally and internationally. The animals were found in an unusual horse cemetery site found within the City of Westminster, London, England. Enamel strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope analysis of 15 individuals provides information about likely place of birth, diet, and mobility during the first approximately 5 years of life. Results show that at least seven horses originated outside of Britain in relatively cold climates, potentially in Scandinavia or the Western Alps. Ancient DNA sexing data indicate no consistent sex-specific mobility patterning, although three of the five females came from exceptionally highly radiogenic regions. Another female with low mobility is suggested to be a sedentary broodmare. Our results provide direct and unprecedented evidence for a variety of horse movement and trading practices in the Middle Ages and highlight the importance of international trade in securing high-quality horses for medieval London elites.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Comércio , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Cavalos , Animais , Londres , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Internacionalidade
10.
J Environ Manage ; 355: 120307, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428178

RESUMO

Addressing global carbon inequality constitutes an important task for both international negotiations on climate-change mitigation and the achievement of sustainable development goals. Soaring international trade might become a vigorous modifier for reducing global carbon inequality through production reallocation and economic boosts in different countries. However, this effect remains largely unexplored, not only because of little awareness of the windfall benefits from international trade but also because of debates on quantifying global carbon inequality from both production- and consumption-based perspectives. To avoid incomplete implications from a single perspective, this study first adapted a producer-consumer shared responsibility to evaluate global carbon inequality using the technology-adjusted consumption-based accounting method for 189 countries from 2006 to 2016. A dynamic panel data model was developed to examine the different channels through which international trade affects global carbon inequality in developed and developing countries. The results demonstrate that even with increasing carbon emissions, less global carbon inequality was witnessed from 2006 to 2016. International trade plays an important role in reducing global carbon inequality, mostly by stimulating the economy and increasing household income in developing countries. However, production reallocation via international trade fails in reducing the emission responsibilities of developed countries, rendering this futile in alleviating global carbon inequality. Carbon leakage that transfers carbon-intensive production across borders can lead to this unintended result, and more stringent cross-border regulations such as the carbon border adjustment mechanism can be effective. This study not only highlights the pivotal role of international trade in reducing global carbon inequality but also the future direction of international cooperation on climate change mitigation in a globalized world.


Assuntos
Carbono , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Dióxido de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Econômico
13.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0295505, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551986

RESUMO

Against the backdrop of globalization, interpreting, a translation communicative activity in a verbal way, plays an increasingly important role in international communications and exchanges. In response to this world pattern, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the interpreting industry. However, due to the national condition of uneven regional development, the English interpreting level across China is also unbalanced. Confronting this circumstance, previous research only stagnates at the level of recognizing the problem, but very few studies have attempted to solve the problem. Thus, the current study aims to figure out the regional interpreting level in mainland China by establishing and utilizing an innovative indicator system based on statistics and geography technologies. Based on the literature review and empirical questionnaire survey from different stakeholders, the study proposes an indicator system containing 3 first-level factors and 7 second-level factors to measure regional English interpreting levels. The weight of each indicator and scoring method is laid down based on factor analysis and interval marking. In addition, putting the innovative indicator system into practice, a total of 38 groups of regional data are collected to rank the regional interpreting level across China. Integrating with GIS and statistical techniques, the result visually shows that the English interpreting level across China is uneven at present: higher in the southern and eastern parts of China compared to that of northern and western China, which is unfriendly to sustainable development in the future. Facing this reality, a following-up analysis has been made for offering explanations of the results and suggestions for regional interpreting sustainable development.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Internacionalidade
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 25(4): e164-e172, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547900

RESUMO

Over the past decade, China has emerged as Africa's largest trade partner and source of foreign direct investment, with public health ranked as a top priority in China-Africa collaborations. During the same period, cancer has emerged as a leading cause of death in Africa, with more than 700 000 deaths per year and projections of more than 1 million deaths per year by 2030. In this Review, we explore the effects of increasing China-Africa collaborations on cancer control in Africa. We review the published literature on health-care assistance, research, education and training, and infrastructure and present the results of an institutional review board-approved survey of African oncology health-care professionals and institutional leaders that assessed their perception of the effects of China-Africa collaborations. From peer-reviewed articles and grey literature, we found that the number of China-Africa collaborations have grown substantially over the past decade in different areas, especially in patient care and infrastructure. Research publications have also surged in quantity in the past decade compared with previous years. However, the survey results suggest research collaborations remain infrequent and that medical professionals in African cancer centres rarely participate in direct research collaborations with Chinese institutions. The Review also highlights the challenges and benefits of increasing China-Africa collaborations. Challenges include insufficient monitoring and evaluation of the projects in Africa and poor coordination and alignment of the various initiatives. The benefits of these collaborations for Africa include improved health outcomes, strengthened health systems, and socioeconomic development. Benefits are also apparent for China, such as securing energy and resource supplies, expanded trade and investment opportunities, and improved diplomatic relations. Overall, China-Africa collaborations are increasing and having a substantial effect in both China and the African continent. Recommendations to minimise the challenges and maximise the benefits for more positive consequences on cancer control in Africa are discussed.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Neoplasias , Humanos , África/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Internacionalidade , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
15.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298913, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457448

RESUMO

Foreign Direct Investment is theoretically expected to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the home country to the host country, however, the empirical evidence on the subject is mixed. Some studies have shown that, on one hand, as competition grows, the incentive to innovate reduces with the decrease in monopoly rents (Schumpeterian effect). On the other hand, market competition can also boost investments in R&D activities incentivized by incremental profits (Escape-Competition effect). Therefore, this study aims to explore which of these two effects dominates in the selected group of countries. This study also identifies the moderators of the relationship between FDI stock and domestic innovation. It examines the role of absorptive capacity, quality of regulations, and property rights protection in the innovative activities of the host countries. Generalized Method of Moments is used to estimate the parameters of the multivariate regression equation. The analysis is based on panel data consisting of 49 countries over 14 years. The results show that FDI has a negative relationship with domestic innovation, indicating the presence of the Schumpeterian effect. The extensions of the main models show that FDI positively affects domestic innovation in countries with higher absorptive capacity, the superior quality of regulation, and stronger protection of property rights. This study shows that the positive relationship between FDI and domestic innovation is conditional on the ability to absorb knowledge and quality of governance in the recipient countries.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Propriedade , Investimentos em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Dióxido de Carbono
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0291973, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451902

RESUMO

International industrial transfer (IIT) has spawned changes in the deep-seated structural power of value-added. We creatively construct an IIT index which includes both scale and direction, and constructs the structural power (SP) of value-added based on added value. Furthermore, based on 15 RECP countries from 1995 to 2018, this study uses a two-fixed-effect regression model to investigate the IIT on the structural power of value-added of RCEP countries. The results show that: (1) IIT can significantly promote the structural power of value-added of RCEP countries, and the benchmark regression conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests; (2) Heterogeneity analysis shows that IIT has a more significant promoting effect on the structural power of value-added in developed countries than in developing countries and a more significant promoting effect on the structural power of value-added inward than on the structural power of value-added outward; (3) Intermediary mechanism test shows that IIT mainly affects the structural power of value-added through trade openness and foreign direct investment. The conclusions of this paper provide useful enlightenment for enhancing the structural power of manufacturing value-added in RCEP countries in the context of global value chain division.


Assuntos
Comércio , Indústrias , Investimentos em Saúde , Internacionalidade
17.
Science ; 383(6687): 1135-1141, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452078

RESUMO

The deep ocean is the last natural biodiversity refuge from the reach of human activities. Deepwater sharks and rays are among the most sensitive marine vertebrates to overexploitation. One-third of threatened deepwater sharks are targeted, and half the species targeted for the international liver-oil trade are threatened with extinction. Steep population declines cannot be easily reversed owing to long generation lengths, low recovery potentials, and the near absence of management. Depth and spatial limits to fishing activity could improve conservation when implemented alongside catch regulations, bycatch mitigation, and international trade regulation. Deepwater sharks and rays require immediate trade and fishing regulations to prevent irreversible defaunation and promote recovery of this threatened megafauna group.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Extinção Biológica , Caça , Tubarões , Rajidae , Animais , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Carne , Óleos de Peixe , Biodiversidade , Oceanos e Mares , Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299833, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427673

RESUMO

In our study, we introduce indicators that quantify the influence of each country in complex trade scenarios involving the exchange of raw materials, intermediate goods, and final products across multiple countries. We systematically employ an agent-based model to simulate the propagation of failures from one node to the entire network. This approach allows for the assessment of the impact of each country and the identification of patterns of interaction in the multi-step trade network. Unlike conventional analyses of trade networks, which depict straightforward single-step import/export transactions, our approach captures the intricate realities of processes like raw material procurement, production, and sales in numerous countries from a macroscopic perspective. The findings of our analysis of trade data spanning from 1990 to 2022 reveal several key insights. Firstly, sensitivity to changes in trade volume leading to global failures within interconnected networks has intensified over time. The potential of failure propagation across countries has increased over time, as has the interconnectedness of countries in the global trade landscape. Secondly, despite the increased sensitivity to changes in global trade volume, many countries have become less vulnerable to the influence of others within their multi-step trade networks. This trend aligns with deglobalization, which is evidenced by events such as Brexit and the surge in protectionist measures; these changes indicate a shift in the balance of influence within global trade networks. Thirdly, the results of our analysis of the relationship between load changes and global failures from a regional perspective reveal an intriguing phenomenon: despite limited direct trade connectivity, the interaction between the Latin American and Sub-Saharan African regions is considerable. This suggests the existence of hidden connections between intermediary countries, such that one region's actions can alter the load sensitivity of another, impacting them in unforeseen ways. Furthermore, intra-regional interactions are diminishing in East Asia, while Europe is experiencing a gradual increase in interactions. These trends reflect evolving regional influence, the dynamics of geographic proximity, and the results of economic integration efforts. Additionally, even though the observed period was not long enough to confirm a long-term trend, the previous trend direction was affirmed to persist despite a temporary decrease in trading and reduced sensitivity due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study highlights the complexity of global trade dynamics and the need to consider multi-step trade networks and their potential cascading effects when analyzing trade patterns and vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Humanos , União Europeia , Pandemias , Reino Unido
19.
Global Health ; 20(1): 18, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globalization of platform work has become a challenge for wider social and employment relations and wellbeing of workers, yet on-location work remains governed also by local regulatory context. Understanding common challenges across countries and potential for regulatory measures is essential to enhance health and wellbeing of those who work in platform economy. Our comparative study on platform work analyzed concerns of Uber drivers in three cities with a different regulatory and policy context. METHODS: Drawing from current understanding on employment and precarity as social determinants of health we gathered comparative documentary and contextual data on regulatory environment complemented with key informant views of regulators, trade unions, and platform corporations (N = 26) to provide insight on the wider regulatory and policy environment. We used thematic semi-structured interviews to examine concerns of Uber drivers in Helsinki, St Petersburg, and London (N = 60). We then analysed the driver interviews to identify common and divergent concerns across countries. RESULTS: Our results indicate that worsening of working conditions is not inevitable and for drivers the terms of employment is a social determinant of health. Drivers compensated declining pay with longer working hours. Algorithmic surveillance as such was of less concern to drivers than power differences in relation to terms of work. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show scope for regulation of platform work especially for on-location work concerning pay, working hours, social security obligations, and practices of dismissal.


Assuntos
Emprego , Internacionalidade , Humanos , Cidades , Londres , Federação Russa
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(13): 5760-5771, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507818

RESUMO

Robust empirical assessments of the long-term cumulative global effects of free trade and economic globalization on the environment are limited. This account fills this gap by constructing a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to estimate the environmental effects of a milestone in the recent history of trade liberalization: China's 20-year World Trade Organization (WTO) accession. The modeling shows that China's accession could have resulted in an increase in the global cumulative greenhouse gases (GHGs), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by roughly 14,000 Mt CO2-eq, 64 Mt, and 46 Mt, respectively. The global production scale effect contributed to most of these estimated increases. The regional total output composition effect also caused higher emissions. Meanwhile, the sectoral output composition effect helped reduce total emissions to a limited extent. Fortunately, a package of emission abatement measures led to a decrease in emission factors and a drop in the global cumulative emissions of GHGs, SO2, and NOx. The findings suggest that to enjoy the free trade and economic globalization benefits and minimize the induced emission increases, it is vitally important to systemically reduce emissions across the entire economy and nurture a low-carbon trade regime.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Enxofre , Internacionalidade , China , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
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