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1.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116592, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323119

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed a landmark shift in global food prices due to the frequency of extreme weather events caused by temperature anomalies as well as the overlapping risks of COVID-19. Notably, the threat posed by temperature anomalies has spread beyond agricultural production to all aspects across food supply and demand channels, further amplifying volatility in food markets. Exploring trends in global food prices will give nations early warning signs to ensure the stability of food market. Accordingly, we utilize the Distributed Lag Non-Linear Model (DLNM) to simultaneously establish the exposure-lag-response associations between global temperature anomalies and food price returns in two dimensions: "Anomaly Degree" and "Response Time". Meanwhile, we also examine the cumulative lagged effects of temperature anomalies in terms of different quantiles and lag times. Several conclusions have been drawn. First, global food price returns will continue to decrease when the average temperature drops or rises slightly. While it turns up once the average temperature rises more than 1.1 °C. Second, major food commodities are more sensitive to temperature changes, and their price returns may also trend in a directional shift at different lags, with the trend in meat price being more particular. Third, food markets are more strongly affected in the case of extreme temperature anomalies. Many uncertainties still exist regarding the impact of climate change on food markets, and our work serves as a valuable reference for international trade regulation as well as the creation of dynamic climate risk hedging strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comércio , Humanos , Temperatura , Biodiversidade , Internacionalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159094, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179825

RESUMO

Given metropolises' participation in complex regional and global trade networks, they have huge demands for vast carbon-embodied intermediate and final goods. To clarify embodied carbon transfers of metropolises in regional and international trade, a metropolis-centered model was constructed by nesting the World's multi-regional input-output table and China's multi-regional input-output (CMRIO) table. Based on this model, we analyzed the multi-scale impact of two typical Chinese metropolises, namely Beijing and Shanghai, on global carbon emissions. Structural decomposition analysis and social network analysis (SNA) were used to explore the driving factors of consumption-based carbon (CBC) and the roles of metropolises in the carbon networks. Results showed that both Beijing and Shanghai are net embodied carbon consumers, which respectively drove 231.19 and 219.52 Mt global carbon emissions in 2017. These figures were underestimated by 12.54 % and 15.41 % when using the CMRIO. After China's economy entered a new normal, instead of technological progress, structural adjustment became the prominent factor driving the CBC reduction of metropolises. During 2012-2017, the consumption structure optimization reduced 18.87 and 32.48 Mt CBC in Beijing and Shanghai, respectively. Compared with other domestic regions, the CBC of Beijing has continued to increase, whereas that of Shanghai has declined. At the international scale, the combined net carbon emission imported by the two metropolises was 88.43 Mt in 2017, equivalent to 18.09 % of China's total carbon deficit. This indicates that metropolises have become pioneering regions for China to alleviate the carbon deficit in international trade. By using SNA, we further found that both metropolises are crucial carbon consumers in the global carbon network, with strong stability and obvious hub roles. Furthermore, various urban functions and geographical locations form the heterogeneous structural characteristics of CBC in the two metropolises, highlighting the need for different strategies for embodied carbon mitigation in these metropolises.


Assuntos
Carbono , Comércio , Carbono/análise , China , Internacionalidade , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
3.
Ambio ; 52(1): 95-106, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997989

RESUMO

As the world grows more interconnected through the flows of people, goods, and information, many challenges are becoming more difficult to address since human needs are increasingly being met through global supply chains. Global shocks (e.g., war, economic recession, pandemic) can severely disrupt these interconnections and generate cascading consequences across local to global scales. To comprehensively evaluate these consequences, it is crucial to use integrated frameworks that consider multiple interconnections and flows among coupled human and natural systems. Here we use the framework of metacoupling (human-nature interactions within as well as across adjacent and distant systems) to illustrate the effects of major global shocks on the evolution of global interconnectedness between the early 1900s and the 2010s. Based on these results we make a few actionable recommendations to reduce the negative impacts of an ongoing global shock, the COVID-19 pandemic, to promote global sustainability.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Recessão Econômica
4.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114460, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globalisation has led to international trade expand rapidly. Seaborne transport moves 80% of traded goods across the globe, producing around 3% of greenhouse gases and other hazardous pollutants, such as PM, NOx and SOx, known to be harmful to health. METHODS: A scoping literature review was conducted reviewing peer-reviewed studies on health impact assessments (HIA) of global shipping and port-sourced air pollution. For review inclusion, studies had to (1) use a HIA methodology; (2) quantify the air pollution concentration attributable to at least one shipping or port activity scenario; (3) assess at least one health outcome (i.e. epidemiological measure or monetization); (4) quantify the attributable health burden of the respective scenario. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included, studying predominantly European Sea shipping/ port-sourced emissions with health impacts for global or respective European populations. Also, Global, Asian, North American and Australian Sea shipping/ port-sourced emissions were studied, with attributable health impacts for global or respective populations. The health outcome predominantly studied was mortality (all-cause, cause-specific, loss in life expectancy, years of life lost (YLLs)), but also morbidity (disease cases, hospital admissions, years lived with disability (YLDs)), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), restricted activity days and work loss days. The highest air pollution concentrations were identified along major shipping routes and ports, and the strongest health impacts occurred among respective riparian populations. Globally, ∼265,000 premature deaths were projected for 2020 (∼0.5% of global mortality) attributable to global shipping-sourced emissions. Emission control scenarios studied were predominantly sulphur fuel content caps and NOx emission reduction scenarios, consisting of technological interventions, cleaner fuels or fuel switches, and were assessed as effective in reducing shipping-sourced emissions, and hence, health burdens. CONCLUSIONS: Our review positions maritime transport an important source of air pollution and health risk factor, which needs more research and policy attention and rigorous emission control efforts, as shipping-sourced emissions are projected to increase with increases in global trade and shipping volumes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Comércio , Austrália , Internacionalidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276621, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327272

RESUMO

This study examines the causal nexus between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the economic growth of seven (7) regions encompassing 117 countries. A more recent panel dataset over the period 2010-2020 was analysed using the Granger causality approach and panel VAR/block exogeneity test to conduct predictive analysis among the panel series. Wavelet coherence techniques too were adapted in bringing novelty and further justifications to the research in exploring the interaction effects of the variables, which are yet to be popularised in the studied discipline. The empirical results indicate the presence of bi-directional causality between FDI and economic growth globally and in the Asian region. In contrast, the causality is uni-directional in the American region. A non-directional causality was discovered in European, Oceanian, Mediterranean, and African regions, and the findings were consistent with the outcome of the wavelet coherence technique results. The study further classifies the regions into three cross-market categories such as developed, emerging and frontier markets. The results imply no causality for most developed and emerging economies in the regional analysis. Findings also provide insights for governments and policymakers worldwide to formulate policies on directing FDI flows and propositions for a host country to become a more conducive destination for FDI and accelerate economic growth.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Investimentos em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Políticas
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277977, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417481

RESUMO

In globalization's era, the sustainability of a region is inseparable from the in-depth and close economic and trade cooperation of intra-regional countries to achieve complementary advantages, intra-regional and extra-regional positive economic cycles, and stable and balanced benefits distribution. For Asia-Pacific countries, the lack of deep cooperation in the past has affected their sustainability, but this can be made up for by the RCEP agreement aimed at achieving intra-regional trade liberalization. We adopt the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) simulation analysis method to quantitatively analyze the impact of changes in macroeconomic and international trade indicators of several intra-regional countries after implementing the RCEP tariff reduction and exemption on the RCEP. Simulation results and comparative analysis based on international relations prove that despite the interference of trade benefits conflicts and international political factors, the RCEP can still exist in long term, and effectively promote regional economic integration and sustainability in the Asia-Pacific region. It is also a development opportunity for intra-regional countries and can also be used in the context of globalization providing references for integration and sustainability in other regions.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Ásia
7.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(7): 428-431, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illicit tobacco trade is focused on Iran as a main target in the WHO's eastern Mediterranean region. Serial studies of Cigarette Packs Survey with same method were conducted in Tehran between 2003 and 2015 to evaluate consumed smuggled cigarettes. This study as the fourth Cigarette Packs Survey is designed to indicate the trends of illicit cigarette trade in Tehran in the last two decades. METHODS: A cross-sectional household study was carried out in early 2021 in Tehran on 3042 persons who smoked at least one daily cigarette for a year. The sampling method was like the sampling method used in three previous studies. Participants aged≥15 years were asked to reveal their current cigarette pack, which was either legal cigarettes (having governmental label); or illegal cigarettes (without governmental label). RESULTS: The subjects included 2536 males (83.4%) and the mean age was 39.9±12.1 years; 1854 subjects (60.9%) showed foreign cigarettes and 1188 (39.1%) showed domestic cigarettes; 2705 (88.9%) consumed legal cigarettes and 337 (11.1%) consumed illegal cigarettes. Consumption of illegal cigarettes by gender showed greater use of smuggled cigarettes in males (11.7%vs 8.1%). No significant differences were seen based on the marital and educational status in terms of illegal cigarettes prevalence. CONCLUSION: Compare with previous studies, the trend of consumption of illicit cigarettes was decreasing in past two decades. This could be due to new regulation on monitoring cigarette distribution and changing illegal brands to legal as joint production.


Assuntos
Comércio , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385056

RESUMO

The article discusses the prospects for the development of the export of medical services and issues of regulatory regulation of medical tourism in the Russian Federation. Today, Russian legislation does not unite a number of concepts related to medical tourism and are drivers of the development of the tourism industry. The development of medical tourism has a close relationship with plans to expand the volume of incoming tourist flow and attract funds from foreign investors to Russia. At the same time, medical organizations and structures providing treatment and rehabilitation of foreign citizens note the absence of the concept of «medical tourism¼ in the regulatory legal framework, which acts as a significant barrier to the transformation of this process. In this regard, it is necessary to improve the current legislative framework and develop an appropriate model law.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Turismo , Federação Russa
10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385059

RESUMO

The article discusses the development of telemedicine technologies. It is noted that throughout history, technological revolutions have destroyed the workforce, creating new forms and models of work, making others obsolete and leading to broader changes in society, and digital technologies have developed faster than any innovation in recent history. By the method of content analysis of thematic publications, a review of the country practice of implementing telemedicine technologies in national health systems was carried out. It is concluded that telemedicine is an excellent tool for use in the health sector, reducing inequality and providing access to medical services. Where the construction of hospital facilities can take months, telemedicine uses improvised technologies to provide and maintain remotely.


Assuntos
Telemedicina , Telemedicina/métodos , Internacionalidade , Recursos Humanos
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385060

RESUMO

The predominance of the state dominant in the field of healthcare dictates the conditions of management and financing. As international practice shows, the main source of financing for the provision of medical services are state and/or public resources, which inevitably means the need to monitor the effectiveness of their spending by the state. Each country has established and effectively operates a system of state financial control, the functioning of which is based on the principles and concepts laid down in the standards of the International Organization of Supreme Bodies of Financial Control and Audit (INTOSAI). The review provides up-to-date information on the approaches of the state financial control and audit bodies of Russia and European countries to assessing the effectiveness of the functioning of national health systems. The adaptation of the experience of financial control bodies in terms of methods for assessing the effectiveness of management and functioning of national health systems makes it possible to expand the methodological tools used in the development of measures for financing and managing the Russian health system.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Internacionalidade , Instalações de Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Federação Russa
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19641, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385189

RESUMO

The international pesticide trade network (iPTN) is a key factor affecting global food production and food security. The trade relationship is a key component in iPTNs. In a complex international trade environment, we model the impacts of uncertain factors such as trade wars, economic blockades and local wars, as removing vital relationships in the trade network. There are many complex network studies on node centrality, but few on link centrality or link importance. We propose a new method for computing network link centrality. The main innovation of the method is in converting the original network into a dual graph, the nodes in the dual graph corresponding to the links of the original network. Through the dual graph, the node centrality indicators can measure the centrality of the links in the original network. We verify the effectiveness of the network link centrality indicator based on the dual graph in the iPTN, analyze the relationship between the existing network link centrality indicators and the indicator proposed in this paper, and compare their differences. It is found that the trade relationships with larger indicators (hub, outcloseness, outdegree) based on the dual graph have a greater impact on network efficiency than those based on the original pesticide trade networks.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Alimentos
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277730, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395150

RESUMO

Financial inclusion is critical to inclusive growth, proffering policy solutions to eradicate the barriers that exclude individuals from financial markets. This study explores the effects of financial inclusion on economic growth in a global perspective with a large number of panels classified by income and regional levels from 2002-2020. The analysis begins with the development of a comprehensive composite financial inclusion index comprised of penetration, availability, and usage of financial services and the estimation of heterogeneous panel data models augmented with well-known variables. The results obtained from the panel cointegration test support a long-run relationship between economic growth, financial inclusion, and the control variables in the full panel, income-level, and regional-level economies. Furthermore, the study employs a GMM (generalized method of moment) approach using System-GMM estimators to examine the effects of financial inclusion and the control predictors on economic growth. The results of the GMM model clearly indicate that financial inclusion has a significantly positive impact on economic growth across all panels, implying that financial inclusion is an effective tool in fostering rapid economic growth in the world. Finally, the study delves into the causality relationship between the predictors and provides statistical evidence of bidirectional causality between economic growth and financial inclusion, whereas it only supports unidirectional causality relationships from credit to the private sector, foreign direct investment, inflation rate, the rule of law, school enrollment ratio, and trade openness with no feedback causality. Moreover, the study fails to provide causality evidence from the age dependency ratio and population to economic growth.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Investimentos em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Setor Privado
15.
JBI Evid Implement ; 20(3): 180-188, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facilitation is a key component of JBI's approach to evidence implementation along with context analysis and evaluation of process and outcomes. Although the role of facilitation is recognized as a critical component of evidence implementation, what constitutes effective facilitation is poorly understood. AIM: This article presents a descriptive exploration of facilitation as it occurs in evidence implementation initiatives conducted in various healthcare and geographical contexts. All projects used the JBI approach to evidence implementation. METHODS: To provide a multinational perspective on how facilitation was operationalized to promote positive changes in clinical practice and health outcomes, five case studies of evidence implementation projects are presented. RESULTS: The cases highlighted that facilitation is a multifaceted process that can be met through a variety of roles that address aspects of education and capacity building, partnerships, action planning, problem solving and evaluation. Facilitation in all cases appeared to be collaborative, with multiple 'players' within and outside of the health organization being involved in the process. Although there are similarities in activities, facilitation involved some level of local contextualization where there were unique or additional activities performed to accommodate the local needs and requirements of the health organization involved in each case. Numerous contextual factors influenced the success of the implementation initiative. CONCLUSION: The cases emphasized the complex nature of facilitation as a strategy for evidence implementation, indicating that contextual attributes and features define the range of knowledge, skills, and activities that should take place in order for facilitation to be effective. Although there appears to be some core components, tailoring and adaptation of the facilitation process (or roles) is required.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18895, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344614

RESUMO

The arguably most important paradox of financial economics-the excess volatility puzzle-first identified by Robert Shiller in 1981 states that asset prices fluctuate much more than information about their fundamental value. We show that this phenomenon is associated with an intrinsic propensity for financial markets to evolve towards instabilities. These properties, exemplified for two major financial markets, the foreign exchange and equity futures markets, can be expected to be generic in other complex systems where excess fluctuations result from the interplay between exogenous driving and endogenous feedback. Using an exact mapping of the key property (volatility/variance) of the price diffusion process onto that of a point process (arrival intensity of price changes), together with a self-excited epidemic model, we introduce a novel decomposition of the volatility of price fluctuations into an exogenous (i.e. efficient) component and an endogenous (i.e. inefficient) excess component. The endogenous excess volatility is found to be substantial, largely stable at longer time scales and thus provides a plausible explanation for the excess volatility puzzle. Our theory rationalises the remarkable fact that small stochastic exogenous fluctuations at the micro-scale of milliseconds to seconds are renormalised into long-term excess volatility with an amplification factor of around 5 for equity futures and 2 for exchange rates, in line with models including economic fundamentals explicitly.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Retroalimentação , Previsões
17.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276987, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383542

RESUMO

Tephritid fruit flies, such as the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, are major horticultural pests worldwide and pose invasion risks due primarily to international trade. Determining movement parameters for fruit flies is critical to effective surveillance and control strategies, from setting quarantine boundaries after incursions to development of agent-based models for management. While mark-release-recapture, flight mills, and visual observations have been used to study tephritid movement, none of these techniques give a full picture of fruit fly movement in nature. Tracking tagged flies offers an alternative method which has the potential to observe individual fly movements in the field, mirroring studies conducted by ecologists on larger animals. In this study, harmonic radar (HR) tags were fabricated using superelastic nitinol wire which is light (tags weighed less than 1 mg), flexible, and does not tangle. Flight tests with wild melon flies showed no obvious adverse effects of HR tag attachment. Subsequent experiments successfully tracked HR tagged flies in large field cages, a papaya field, and open parkland. Unexpectedly, a majority of tagged flies showed strong flight directional biases with these biases varying between flies, similar to what has been observed in the migratory butterfly Pieris brassicae. In field cage experiments, 30 of the 36 flies observed (83%) showed directionally biased flights while similar biases were observed in roughly half the flies tracked in a papaya field. Turning angles from both cage and field experiments were non-random and indicate a strong bias toward continued "forward" movement. At least some of the observed direction bias can be explained by wind direction with a correlation observed between collective melon fly flight directions in field cage, papaya field, and open field experiments. However, individual mean flight directions coincided with the observed wind direction for only 9 out of the 25 flies in the cage experiment and half of the flies in the papaya field, suggesting wind is unlikely to be the only factor affecting flight direction. Individual flight distances (meters per flight) differed between the field cage, papaya field, and open field experiments with longer mean step-distances observed in the open field. Data on flight directionality and step-distances determined in this study might assist in the development of more effective control and better parametrize models of pest tephritid fruit fly movement.


Assuntos
Carica , Cucurbitaceae , Tephritidae , Animais , Radar , Hawaii , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Verduras , Controle de Insetos/métodos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361268

RESUMO

With global warming, China's agricultural products are facing severe production conditions and a complex international trade situation. In order to clarify the relationship between climate change and China's agricultural trade, this paper uses the GTAP model to explore the impact of climate change on China's agricultural trade from the perspectives of agricultural production and supply, energy substitution and trade policy. The results show that: (1) From the overall effect, the production supply risk and energy substitution risk caused by climate change have a positive impact on China's import trade, among which the energy substitution risk has brought about an import trade growth of 38.050%, the production supply risk has brought about an import trade growth of 12.635%, and the trade policy risk has a negative impact, bringing about an import trade decline of 12.589%. (2) Under the impact of production and supply risks caused by climate change, the import volume of different industrial sectors has increased by varying degrees, including livestock products (16.521%) > food crops (14.162%) > cash crops (7.220%). The increase in import trade mainly comes from the United States (10.731%), Canada (10.650%) and Australia (9.455%). (3) Under the impact of energy substitution risk caused by climate change, the increase in import trade was concentrated in food crops (48.144%) and livestock products (42.834%), mainly from the United States (57.098%), the European Union (55.014%) and Canada (53.508%). (4) Under the impact of trade policy risks caused by climate change, the import trade of different industrial sectors showed a downward trend, with cash crops (13.039%) > livestock products (12.588%) > cash crops (12.140%). The countries and regions with significant decline in import trade were ASEAN (-46.131%) and the United States (-28.028%). The trade deficit shifted to surplus, and the terms of trade were improved. Therefore, this paper suggests that we should deal with the impact of climate change on agricultural trade by developing "climate smart" agriculture, actively responding to low-carbon trade measures, and establishing an agricultural trade promotion mechanism to address the risk of climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , China
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361492

RESUMO

Global trade drives the world's economic development, while a large amount of embodied carbon is transferred among different countries and regions. Based on a multi-regional input-output model, the trade embodied carbon transfers of bilateral trade between 185 countries/regions around the world were calculated. On the basis, regional trade embodied carbon transfer patterns and major national trade patterns in six continents, eight major economic cooperation organizations, and six representative countries/regions were further analyzed. The results showed that Europe was the continent with the largest embodied carbon inflows from trade and Africa was the continent with the largest embodied carbon outflows from trade. China was the country which had the largest embodied carbon outflows from trade, while the United States, France, Japan, and Germany were countries which had embodied carbon inflows from trade. OECD, EU, and NAFTA were the economic cooperation organizations with embodied carbon inflows from trade, while BRICS, SCO, RCEP, OPEC, and ASEAN were economic cooperation organizations with embodied carbon outflows from trade. Developed countries such as the United States, France, and the United Kingdom protected their environment by exporting high-value products and importing low-value and carbon-intensive products. Developing countries such as China and Russia earned foreign exchange by exporting carbon-intensive and commodity products at a huge environmental cost. In contrast, Germany, China, and Russia played different roles in the global industrial chain, while Germany exchanged more trade surpluses at lower environmental costs. Therefore, for different countries and regions, their own industries should be actively upgraded to adjust the import and export structure, the cooperation and coordination in all regions of the world should be strengthened, and the transfers of embodied carbon needs to be reduced to make the trade model sustainable.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carbono , Indústrias , Internacionalidade , China
20.
Global Health ; 18(1): 97, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past few decades, globalization has rendered more frequent and intensive population movement between countries, which has changed the original disease spectrum and brought a huge health impact on the global population including China. This study aims to describe the spectrum and epidemiological characteristics of imported infections among foreign travelers travelling to China. METHODS: The data on imported infections among foreign travelers were obtained from Custom Inbound Screening System (CISS) and the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System (NNIDRS). All the infections were classified into respiratory, gastrointestinal, vector-borne, blood/sex-transmitted and mucocutaneous diseases, of which case numbers and incidences were calculated and the proportions were compared among subgroups. RESULTS: In total, 17,189 travelers diagnosed with 58 imported infectious diseases were reported from 2014 to 2018, with an overall incidence of 122.59 per million. Respiratory infection (7,351 cases, mainly influenza) and blood/sex-transmitted diseases (6,114 cases mainly Hepatitis B and HIV infection) were the most frequently diagnosed diseases, followed by vector-borne infections (3,128 cases, mainly dengue fever and malaria). The highest case number was from Asia and Europe, while the highest incidence rate was from Africa (296.00 per million). When specific diagnosis was compared, both the highest absolute case number and incidence were observed for influenza. An obvious seasonal pattern was observed for vector-borne diseases, with the annual epidemic spanning from July to November. The origin-destination matrices disclosed the movement of imported infection followed specific routes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided a profile of infectious diseases among foreign travelers travelling to China and pinpointed the target regions, seasons and populations for prevention and control, to attain an informed control of imported infections in China.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Infecções por HIV , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade
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