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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675087

RESUMO

PAX6 haploinsufficiency causes aniridia, a congenital eye disorder that involves the iris, and foveal hypoplasia. Comprehensive screening of the PAX6 locus, including the non-coding regions, by next-generation sequencing revealed four deep-intronic variants with potential effects on pre-RNA splicing. Nevertheless, without a functional analysis, their pathogenicity could not be established. We aimed to decipher their impact on the canonical PAX6 splicing using in vitro minigene splicing assays and nanopore-based long-read sequencing. Two multi-exonic PAX6 constructs were generated, and minigene assays were carried out. An aberrant splicing pattern was observed for two variants in intron 6, c.357+136G>A and c.357+334G>A. In both cases, several exonization events, such as pseudoexon inclusions and partial intronic retention, were observed due to the creation or activation of new/cryptic non-canonical splicing sites, including a shared intronic donor site. In contrast, two variants identified in intron 11, c.1032+170A>T and c.1033-275A>C, seemed not to affect splicing processes. We confirmed the high complexity of alternative splicing of PAX6 exon 6, which also involves unreported cryptic intronic sites. Our study highlights the importance of integrating functional studies into diagnostic algorithms to decipher the potential implication of non-coding variants, usually classified as variants of unknown significance, thus allowing variant reclassification to achieve a conclusive genetic diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aniridia , Splicing de RNA , Humanos , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Aniridia/genética , Íntrons/genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/metabolismo , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Splicing de RNA/genética
2.
BMC Genom Data ; 24(1): 2, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the protein kinase cGMP-dependent 2 (PRKG2) gene is associated with dwarfism in humans, dogo Argentines, and Angus cattle, as well as with height and osteoblastogenesis in humans. Therefore, the PRKG2 gene was used as the target gene to explore whether this gene is associated with several thoracolumbar vertebrae and carcass traits in Dezhou donkeys. RESULTS: In this study, fifteen SNPs were identified by targeted sequencing, all of which were located in introns of the PRKG2 gene. Association analysis illustrated that the g.162153251 G > A, g.162156524 C > T, g.162158453 C > T and, g.162163775 T > G were significantly different from carcass weight. g.162166224 G > A, g.162166654 T > A, g.162167165 C > A, g.162167314 A > C and, g.162172653 G > C were significantly associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae. g.162140112 A > G was significantly associated with the number and the length of lumbar vertebrae, and g.162163775 T > G was significantly associated with the total number of thoracolumbar vertebrae. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of this study suggest that PRKG2 gene polymorphism can be used as a molecular marker to breed high-quality Dezhou donkeys.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Dependente de GMP Cíclico Tipo II , Equidae , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Proteína Quinase Dependente de GMP Cíclico Tipo II/genética , Equidae/genética , Íntrons , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Coluna Vertebral
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614255

RESUMO

Rice breeders are now developing new varieties with semi-high or even high plant height to further increase the grain yield, and the problem of lodging has re-appeared. We identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), qSCM4, for resistance to lodging by using an F2 segregant population and a recombinant self-incompatible line population from the cross between Shennong265 (SN265) and Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) after multiple years and multiple environments. Then, the residual heterozygous derived segregant population which consisted of 1781 individual plants, and the BC3F2 segregant population which consisted of 3216 individual plants, were used to shorten the physical interval of qSCM4 to 58.5 kb including 11 genes. DNA sequencing revealed the most likely candidate gene for qSCM4 was Os04g0615000, which encoded a functional protein with structural domains of serine and cysteine. There were 13 DNA sequence changes in LTH compared to SN265 in this gene, including a fragment deletion, two base changes in the 3' UTR region, six base changes in the exons, and four base changes in the introns. A near-isogenic line carrying qSCM4 showed that it improved the lodging resistance through increasing stem thickness by 25.3% and increasing stem folding resistance by 20.3%. Furthermore, it was also discovered that qSCM4 enhanced the primary branch per panicle by 16.7%, secondary branch by per panicle 9.9%, and grain number per panicle by 14.7%. All the above results will give us a valuable genetic resource for concurrently boosting culm strength and lodging resistance, and they will also provide a basis for further research on the lodging resistance mechanism of rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Íntrons
5.
Arch Virol ; 168(2): 60, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629974

RESUMO

The intron-based stabilization approach is a very useful strategy for construction of stable flavivirus infectious clones. SA14-14-2 is a highly attenuated Japanese encephalitis (JE) live vaccine strain that has been widely used in China since 1989. To develop safe and effective recombinant vaccines with SA14-14-2 as a backbone vector, we constructed the DNA-based infectious clone pCMW-JEV of SA14-14-2 using the intron-based stabilization approach and acquired the rescued virus rDJEV, which retained the biological properties of the parental virus. Unexpectedly, a rescued virus strain with altered virulence, designated rHV-DJEV, was accidentally acquired in one of the transfection experiments. rHV-DJEV showed up to 105-fold increased neurovirulence compared with the SA14-14-2 parental strain. Genome sequencing showed that the inserted introns were still present in the genome of rHV-DJEV. Therefore, we think that the intron-based stabilization approach should be used with caution in vaccine development and direct iDNA immunization.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vacinas contra Encefalite Japonesa , Humanos , Sequência de Bases , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Genoma Viral , Íntrons , Vacinas contra Encefalite Japonesa/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética
6.
Mol Cell ; 83(2): 203-218.e9, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626906

RESUMO

Many spliceosomal introns are excised from nascent transcripts emerging from RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). The extent of cell-type-specific regulation and possible functions of such co-transcriptional events remain poorly understood. We examined the role of the RNA-binding protein PTBP1 in this process using an acute depletion approach followed by the analysis of chromatin- and RNA Pol II-associated transcripts. We show that PTBP1 activates the co-transcriptional excision of hundreds of introns, a surprising effect given that this protein is known to promote intron retention. Importantly, some co-transcriptionally activated introns fail to complete their splicing without PTBP1. In a striking example, retention of a PTBP1-dependent intron triggers nonsense-mediated decay of transcripts encoding DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B. We provide evidence that this regulation facilitates the natural decline in DNMT3B levels in developing neurons and protects differentiation-specific genes from ectopic methylation. Thus, PTBP1-activated co-transcriptional splicing is a widespread phenomenon mediating epigenetic control of cellular identity.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , RNA Polimerase II , RNA Polimerase II/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA/genética , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Processamento Alternativo
7.
Nature ; 613(7942): 96-102, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517591

RESUMO

Expansion of a single repetitive DNA sequence, termed a tandem repeat (TR), is known to cause more than 50 diseases1,2. However, repeat expansions are often not explored beyond neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. In some cancers, mutations accumulate in short tracts of TRs, a phenomenon termed microsatellite instability; however, larger repeat expansions have not been systematically analysed in cancer3-8. Here we identified TR expansions in 2,622 cancer genomes spanning 29 cancer types. In seven cancer types, we found 160 recurrent repeat expansions (rREs), most of which (155/160) were subtype specific. We found that rREs were non-uniformly distributed in the genome with enrichment near candidate cis-regulatory elements, suggesting a potential role in gene regulation. One rRE, a GAAA-repeat expansion, located near a regulatory element in the first intron of UGT2B7 was detected in 34% of renal cell carcinoma samples and was validated by long-read DNA sequencing. Moreover, in preliminary experiments, treating cells that harbour this rRE with a GAAA-targeting molecule led to a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation. Overall, our results suggest that rREs may be an important but unexplored source of genetic variation in human cancer, and we provide a comprehensive catalogue for further study.


Assuntos
Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias , Humanos , Sequência de Bases , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , Íntrons/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 140: 104624, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586430

RESUMO

Cross-species comparison of vertebrate genomes has unraveled previously unknown complexities of interferon (IFN) systems in amphibian species. Recent genomic curation revealed that amphibian species have evolved expanded repertoires of four types of intron-containing IFN genes akin to those seen in jawed fish, intronless type I IFNs and intron-containing type III IFNs akin to those seen in amniotes, as well as uniquely intronless type III IFNs. This appears to be the case with at least ten analyzed amphibian species; with distinct species encoding diverse repertoires of these respective IFN gene subsets. Amphibians represent a key stage in vertebrate evolution, and in this context offer a unique perspective into the divergent and converged pathways leading to the emergence of distinct IFN families and groups. Recent studies have begun to unravel the roles of amphibian IFNs during these animals' immune responses in general and during their antiviral responses, in particular. However, the pleiotropic potentials of these highly expanded amphibian IFN repertoires warrant further studies. Based on recent reports and our omics analyses using Xenopus models, we posit that amphibian IFN complex may have evolved novel functions, as indicated by their extensive molecular diversity. Here, we provide an overview and an update of the present understanding of the amphibian IFN complex in the context of the evolution of vertebrate immune systems. A greater understanding of the amphibian IFN complex will grant new perspectives on the evolution of vertebrate immunity and may yield new measures by which to counteract the global amphibian declines.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I , Interferons , Animais , Interferons/genética , Evolução Molecular , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Íntrons , Xenopus laevis
9.
Curr Biol ; 33(1): 189-196.e4, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543167

RESUMO

Spliceosomal introns, which interrupt nuclear genes, are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic nuclear genes.1 Spliceosomal intron evolution is complex, with different lineages ranging from virtually zero to thousands of newly created introns.2,3,4,5 This punctate phylogenetic distribution could be explained if intron creation is driven by specialized transposable elements ("Introners"), with Introner-containing lineages undergoing frequent intron gain.6,7,8,9,10 Fragmentation of nuclear genes by spliceosomal introns reaches its apex in dinoflagellates, which have some twenty introns per gene11,12; however, little is known about dinoflagellate intron evolution. We reconstructed intron evolution in five dinoflagellate genomes, revealing a dynamic history of intron gain. We find evidence for historical creation of introns in all five species and identify recently active Introners in 4/5 studied species. In one species, Polarella glacialis, we find an unprecedented diversity of Introners, with recent Introner insertion leading to creation of some 12,253 introns, and with 15 separate families of Introners accounting for at least 100 introns each. These Introner families show diverse mechanisms of moblization and intron creation. Comparison within and between Introner families provides evidence that biases in the so-called intron phase, intron position relative to codon periodicity, could be driven by Introner insertion site requirements.9,13,14 Finally, we report additional transformations of the spliceosomal system in dinoflagellates, including widespread loss of ancestral introns, and novelties of tolerated and favored donor sequence motifs. These results reveal unappreciated diversity of intron-creating elements and spliceosomal evolutionary capacity and highlight the complex evolutionary dependencies shaping genome structures.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Dinoflagelados , Íntrons/genética , Filogenia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Evolução Molecular , Spliceossomos/genética
10.
N Engl J Med ; 388(2): 128-141, 2023 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The late-onset cerebellar ataxias (LOCAs) have largely resisted molecular diagnosis. METHODS: We sequenced the genomes of six persons with autosomal dominant LOCA who were members of three French Canadian families and identified a candidate pathogenic repeat expansion. We then tested for association between the repeat expansion and disease in two independent case-control series - one French Canadian (66 patients and 209 controls) and the other German (228 patients and 199 controls). We also genotyped the repeat in 20 Australian and 31 Indian index patients. We assayed gene and protein expression in two postmortem cerebellum specimens and two induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC)-derived motor-neuron cell lines. RESULTS: In the six French Canadian patients, we identified a GAA repeat expansion deep in the first intron of FGF14, which encodes fibroblast growth factor 14. Cosegregation of the repeat expansion with disease in the families supported a pathogenic threshold of at least 250 GAA repeats ([GAA]≥250). There was significant association between FGF14 (GAA)≥250 expansions and LOCA in the French Canadian series (odds ratio, 105.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.09 to 334.20; P<0.001) and in the German series (odds ratio, 8.76; 95% CI, 3.45 to 20.84; P<0.001). The repeat expansion was present in 61%, 18%, 15%, and 10% of French Canadian, German, Australian, and Indian index patients, respectively. In total, we identified 128 patients with LOCA who carried an FGF14 (GAA)≥250 expansion. Postmortem cerebellum specimens and iPSC-derived motor neurons from patients showed reduced expression of FGF14 RNA and protein. CONCLUSIONS: A dominantly inherited deep intronic GAA repeat expansion in FGF14 was found to be associated with LOCA. (Funded by Fondation Groupe Monaco and others.).


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Íntrons , Humanos , Austrália , Canadá , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Ataxia de Friedreich/genética , Ataxia de Friedreich/patologia , Íntrons/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 228: 732-743, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563811

RESUMO

Plant AT-rich sequence and zinc-binding (PLATZ) proteins are a class of plant-specific zinc finger transcription factors that perform critical functions in plant development and resistance. However, the function of PLATZs in heavy metal tolerance has not yet been investigated. Moreover, only a few PLATZ proteins have been functionally characterized in tree species. In this study, we identified 18 PtPLATZ genes in Populus trichocarpa, an important woody model plant, and classified them into five groups. PtPLATZ genes attributed to the same clade usually possess similar exon-intron structures containing two or three introns, as well as a similar motif composition. Furthermore, chromosomal location analysis indicated an uneven distribution of PtPLATZ genes on 13 of the 19 Populus chromosomes. Promoter cis-acting element prediction and gene expression analysis showed that PtPLATZ genes were highly responsive to heavy metal stress. Heterologous yeast expression revealed that PtPLATZ1, PtPLATZ2, PtPLATZ3, PtPLATZ4, PtPLATZ8 and PtPLATZ9 are significantly involved in Cd tolerance. In addition, transgenic expression of PtPLATZ3 significantly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation, slowed the decline in chlorophyll content, maintained membrane integrity in Populus, and increased the expression of genes related to Cd tolerance and accumulation. In conclusion, our results suggest the potential of PtPLATZ3 to improve Cd tolerance and accumulation in Populus, which is of great significance for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Populus , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Íntrons , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
12.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2611-2620, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have significantly lower vitamin D levels. Cholesterol is known to be the precursor for vitamin D synthesis, and cholesterol removal is regulated by cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver and cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) in the brain. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes CYP7A1 (rs3808607) and CYP46A1 (rs754203) were investigated for their effects on serum lipid profiles, vitamin D levels, and the risk of developing MS. METHODS: Patients with MS (n = 191) and controls (n = 100) were tested using the PCR-RFLP method to determine their genotypes for rs3808607 and rs754203 SNPs. RESULTS: The minor (C) allele frequency for CYP7A1 rs3808607 variation was 0.380 in patients with MS and 0.305 in control subjects (P = .074). For CYP46A1 rs754203, the frequencies of the minor (C) allele were 0.272 and 0.250 in patients and control subjects, respectively (P = .563). Serum vitamin D (25(OH)D3) concentrations were significantly lower in patients than in control subjects (P = .002). The CYP46A1 rs754203 SNP was associated with total cholesterol levels in patients, whereas the CYP7A1 rs3808607 variant was not associated with serum lipid parameters or vitamin D levels in patients or control subjects. CONCLUSION: CYP7A1 rs3808607 and CYP46A1 rs754203 variations are not likely to confer an independent risk for MS development in the Turkish population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association between CYP46A1 rs754203 and MS risk.


Assuntos
Colesterol 24-Hidroxilase , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase , Esclerose Múltipla , Colesterol , Colesterol 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Humanos , Íntrons , Lipídeos/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue
13.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 799, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BMPR1B (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B) is a receptor in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and has been identified as a candidate gene for reproductive traits in pigs. Our previous study in Taihu pigs found a specific estrogen response element (ERE) in the first intron of the BMPR1B gene that is associated with the number born alive trait. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the ERE regulates the expression of BMPR1B in the endometrium. RESULTS: Here, a 15-bp InDel (insertion/deletion) (AGCCAGAAAGGAGGA) was identified as a unique variation in Taihu pigs, and was shown to be responsible for the binding of the type I receptor of estrogen (ESR1) to the ERE using dual-luciferase assays. Four BMPR1B transcripts (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified by 5' RACE in endometrial tissue. Expression of T3 and T4 in the endometrium of Meishan pigs was significantly higher than in Duroc pigs during pregnancy. Luciferase assays showed that three distinct BMPR1B promoters may drive expression of T1, T3, and T4. Interestingly, ERE-mediated enhancement of T4 promoter activity significantly increased expression of Transcript T4 in the endometrium of Taihu pigs (P < 0.05). In contrast, the ERE inhibited activity of the T3 promoter and decreased expression of the T3 transcript in the Duroc background (P < 0.05). In summary, we identified a 15-bp InDel in the Taihu ERE that can be used as a molecular marker for the number born alive trait, characterized the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of BMPR1B transcripts in the endometrium, and determined how the transcripts are processed by alternative splicing events. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a foundation for understanding the transcriptional regulation of BMPR1B and its contributions to the unique breeding prolificacy characteristics of Taihu pigs.


Assuntos
Endométrio , Mutação INDEL , Feminino , Gravidez , Suínos/genética , Animais , Íntrons , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Estrogênios
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553480

RESUMO

E-cadherin, a CDH1 gene product, is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule playing a critical role in the establishment of epithelial architecture, maintenance of cell polarity, and differentiation. Germline pathogenic variants in the CDH1 gene are associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), and large rearrangements in the CDH1 gene are now being reported as well. Because CDH1 pathogenic variants could be associated with breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, CDH1 rearrangements could also impact it. The aim of our study is to identify rearrangements in the CDH1 gene in 148 BC cases with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants. To do so, a zoom-in CGH array, covering the exonic, intronic, and flanking regions of the CDH1 gene, was used to screen our cohort. Intron 2 of the CDH1 gene was specifically targeted because it is largely reported to include several regulatory regions. As results, we detected one large rearrangement causing a premature stop in exon 3 of the CDH1 gene in a proband with a bilateral lobular breast carcinoma and a gastric carcinoma (GC). Two large rearrangements in the intron 2, a deletion and a duplication, were also reported only with BC cases without any familial history of GC. No germline rearrangements in the CDH1 coding region were detected in those families without GC and with a broad range of BC susceptibility. This study confirms the diversity of large rearrangements in the CDH1 gene. The rearrangements identified in intron 2 highlight the putative role of this intron in CDH1 regulation and alternative transcripts. Recurrent duplication copy number variations (CNV) are found in this region, and the deletion encompasses an alternative CDH1 transcript. Screening for large rearrangements in the CDH1 gene could be important for genetic testing of BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Íntrons/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linhagem , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553512

RESUMO

X-linked Myopathy with Excessive Autophagy (XMEA) is a rare autophagic vacuolar myopathy caused by mutations in the Vacuolar ATPase assembly factor VMA21 gene; onset usually occurs during childhood and rarely occurs during adulthood. We described a 22-year-old patient with XMEA, whose onset was declared at 11 through gait disorder. He had severe four-limb proximal weakness and amyotrophy, and his proximal muscle MRC score was between 2 and 3/5 in four limbs; creatine kinase levels were elevated (1385 IU/L), and electroneuromyography and muscle MRI were suggestive of myopathy. Muscle biopsy showed abnormalities typical of autophagic vacuolar myopathy. We detected a hemizygous, unreported, intronic, single-nucleotide substitution c.164-20T>A (NM_001017980.4) in intron 2 of the VMA21 gene. Fibroblasts derived from this patient displayed a reduced level of VMA21 transcripts (at 40% of normal) and protein, suggesting a pathogenicity related to an alteration of the splicing efficiency associated with an intron retention. This patient with XMEA displayed a severe phenotype (rapid weakness of upper and lower limbs) due to a new intronic variant of VMA21, related to an alteration in the splicing efficiency associated with intron retention, suggesting that phenotype severity is closely related to the residual expression of the VMA21 protein.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras , Masculino , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Mutação , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Autofagia/genética
16.
PeerJ ; 10: e14431, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575684

RESUMO

Background: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the result of the integration of retroviruses into host DNA following germline infection. Endogenous retroviruses are made up of three main genes: gag, pol, and env, each of which encodes viral proteins that can be conserved or not. ERVs have been observed in a wide range of vertebrate genomes and their functions are associated with viral silencing and gene regulation. Results: In this work, we studied the evolutionary history of endogenous retroviruses associated with five human genes (INPP5B, DET1, PSMA1, USH2A, and MACROD2), which are located within intron sections. To verify the retroviral origin of the candidates, several approaches were used to detect and locate ERV elements. Both orthologous and paralogous genes were identified by Ensembl and then analyzed for ERV presence using RetroTector. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed to identify the minimum time point of ERV acquisition. From that search, we detected ERVs throughout the primate lineage and in some other groups. Also, we identified the minimum origin of the ERVs from the parvorder Catarrhini to the Homininae subfamily. Conclusions: With the data collected, and by observing the transcription factors annotated inside ERVs, we propose that these elements play a relevant role in gene expression regulation and they probably possess important features for tumorigenesis control.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos , Animais , Humanos , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Filogenia , Íntrons/genética , Primatas/genética , Sítios de Ligação
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 100, 2022 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After many years of neglect in the field of alternative splicing, the importance of intron retention (IR) in cancer has come into focus following landmark discoveries of aberrant IR patterns in cancer. Many solid and liquid tumours are associated with drastic increases in IR, and such patterns have been pursued as both biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Paradoxically, breast cancer (BrCa) is the only tumour type in which IR is reduced compared to adjacent normal breast tissue. METHODS: In this study, we have conducted a pan-cancer analysis of IR with emphasis on BrCa and its subtypes. We explored mechanisms that could cause aberrant and pathological IR and clarified why normal breast tissue has unusually high IR. RESULTS: Strikingly, we found that aberrantly decreasing IR in BrCa can be largely attributed to normal breast tissue having the highest occurrence of IR events compared to other healthy tissues. Our analyses suggest that low numbers of IR events in breast tumours are associated with poor prognosis, particularly in the luminal B subtype. Interestingly, we found that IR frequencies negatively correlate with cell proliferation in BrCa cells, i.e. rapidly dividing tumour cells have the lowest number of IR events. Aberrant RNA-binding protein expression and changes in tissue composition are among the causes of aberrantly decreasing IR in BrCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that IR should be considered for therapeutic manipulation in BrCa patients with aberrantly low IR levels and that further work is needed to understand the cause and impact of high IR in other tumour types.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Íntrons/genética , Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células
18.
PeerJ ; 10: e14584, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36540806

RESUMO

Phosphorus starvation response (PHR) protein is an important transcription factor in phosphorus regulatory network, which plays a vital role in regulating the effective utilization of phosphorus. So far, the PHR genes have not been systematically investigated in cotton. In the present study, we have identified 22, 23, 41 and 42 PHR genes in G. arboreum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cotton PHR genes were classified into five distinct subfamilies. The gene structure, protein motifs and gene expression were further investigated. The PHR genes of G. hirsutum from the same subfamily had similar gene structures, all containing Myb_DNA-binding and Myb_CC_LHEQLE conserved domain. The structures of paralogous genes were considerably conserved in exons number and introns length. The cis-element prediction in their promoters showed that genes were not only regulated by light induction, but also were related to auxin, MeJA, abscisic acid-responsive elements, of which might be regulated by miRNA. The expression analysis showed that the GhPHR genes were differentially expressed in different tissues under various stresses. Furthermore, GhPHR6, GhPHR11, GhPHR18 and GhPHR38 were significantly changed under low phosphorus stress. The results of this study provide a basis for further cloning and functional verification of genes related to regulatory network of low phosphorus tolerance in cotton.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Íntrons/genética
19.
Open Biol ; 12(12): 220223, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514983

RESUMO

Insertions and deletions (indels) of short DNA segments are common evolutionary events. Numerous studies showed that deletions occur more often than insertions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It raises the question why neutral sequences are not eradicated from the genome. We suggest that this is due to a phenomenon we term border-induced selection. Accordingly, a neutral sequence is bordered between conserved regions. Deletions occurring near the borders occasionally protrude to the conserved region and are thereby subject to strong purifying selection. Thus, for short neutral sequences, an insertion bias is expected. Here, we develop a set of increasingly complex models of indel dynamics that incorporate border-induced selection. Furthermore, we show that short conserved sequences within the neutrally evolving sequence help explain: (i) the presence of very long sequences; (ii) the high variance of sequence lengths; and (iii) the possible emergence of multimodality in sequence length distributions. Finally, we fitted our models to the human intron length distribution, as introns are thought to be mostly neutral and bordered by conserved exons. We show that when accounting for the occurrence of short conserved sequences within introns, we reproduce the main features, including the presence of long introns and the multimodality of intron distribution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Mutação INDEL , Humanos , Íntrons , Genoma , Genômica
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499522

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are an abundant class of endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) generated from exonic, intronic, or untranslated regions of protein-coding genes or intergenic regions. The diverse, stable, and specific expression patterns of circRNAs and their possible functions through cis/trans regulation and protein-coding mechanisms make circRNA a research hotspot in various biological and pathological processes. It also shows practical value as biomarkers, diagnostic indicators, and therapeutic targets. This review summarized the characteristics, classification, biogenesis and elimination, detection and confirmation, and functions of circRNAs. We focused on research advances circRNAs in the mammalian ovary under conditions including ovarian cancer, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and maternal aging, as well as during reproductive status, including ovarian follicle development and atresia. The roles of circRNAs in high reproductive traits in domestic animals were also summarized. Finally, we outlined some obstructive factors and prospects to work with circRNA, aiming to provide insights into the functional research interests of circRNAs in the reproduction and gynecology areas.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , RNA Circular , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Íntrons , Éxons , Mamíferos/metabolismo
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