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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304088, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837983

RESUMO

In this digital age, promoting economic development through technology innovation and adoption has become a pressing matter, contributing to increased productivity and, in turn, carbon emissions. Consequently, this study employs a novel technique (Newey-West Standard Error Method, Technology Adaptation Model) to quantify information and communication technology (ICT) adoption rates as a proxy indicator for evaluating the Persian Gulf economy's technology development. Moreover, this study investigates the evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve, with trade openness, technological adoption, and innovation as sustainable development controls. The findings reveal that two of three technological innovation instruments, fixed telephone, and internet subscriptions, increase carbon emissions. In contrast, mobile cellular subscriptions simultaneously reduce carbon emissions in the Persian Gulf. Furthermore, measures of technology adoption, high-technology exports, and electricity use contribute to the increase in carbon emissions. Trade openness also raises carbon emissions in the Persian Gulf. These findings suggest that policymakers must develop technological innovation and adoption strategies that effectively promote a greener environment.


Assuntos
Carbono , Oceano Índico , Carbono/análise , Invenções , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305144, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848381

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of foreign executives on firms' innovation performance and the mediation role of digital transformation in Chinese-listed firms from 2011 to 2021. Our findings indicate that the presence of foreign executives in top management teams promotes firms' innovation performance by enhancing digital transformation. Further analyses show that foreign executives contribute significantly to improving firms' radical innovation performance rather than incremental innovation performance. We also examine the moderating effect of negative performance feedback and financing constraints between foreign executives and innovation performance, finding that foreign executives can promote innovation performance particularly in firms with negative performance feedback and weak financing constraints.


Assuntos
Comércio , China , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Invenções , População do Leste Asiático
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304688, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829914

RESUMO

The high-quality development of SRDI enterprises is crucial for China to overcome critical technological bottlenecks and thereby achieve technological independence and strength. However, the factors driving the high-quality development of SRDI enterprises are not isolated elements, but rather a complex system of interconnected antecedents. This study employs the TOE framework and fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) with 141 Chinese SRDI "little giant" listed companies as samples to explore how various factors contribute to their high-quality development. The findings indicate: (1) No single factor is necessary for SRDI enterprises' high-quality development. (2) It is the synergy of multiple factors, in various combinations, that drives their high-quality development. (3) Technological innovation plays a key role in these pathways; SRDI enterprises should leverage their resources and capabilities for a synergistic technology-organization-environment match, selecting the most suitable development path. The results of this study not only enrich our understanding of the factors influencing SRDI enterprises' high-quality development but also offer insights for both the enterprises and government policy-making.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , China , Humanos , Tecnologia , Invenções
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304560, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861522

RESUMO

Academic freedom is a critical norm of science. Despite the widely postulated importance of academic freedom, the literature attests to a dearth of research on the topic. Specifically, we know little about how academic freedom relates to indicators of societal progress, such as innovation. We address this research gap by empirically assessing the impact of academic freedom on the quantity (patent applications) and quality (patent citations) of innovation output using a comprehensive sample of 157 countries over the 1900-2015 period. We find that improving academic freedom by one standard deviation increases patent applications by 41% and forward citations by 29%. The results are robust across a range of different specifications. Our findings constitute an alarming plea to policymakers: global academic freedom has declined over the past decade for the first time in the last century and our estimates suggest that this decline poses a substantial threat to the innovation output of countries in terms of both quantity and quality.


Assuntos
Liberdade , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , Invenções , Ciência
5.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304625, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870152

RESUMO

The rapid evolution of the digital economy has significantly accelerated progress towards achieving green and sustainable processes, particularly in the field of green production. While existing research has delved into the effects of the digital economy on Green Innovation (GI) and the consequences of digital transformation on Corporate Value (CV), there remains a notable gap in the literature regarding the potential for synergistic enhancements in firms' GI&CV through the ongoing digital revolution. This study utilizes an evolutionary game model and employs system dynamics methods to simulate the dynamic evolution trajectory of the influence of the digital economy on the synergy between GI&CV. Subsequently, it empirically assesses the interconnected synergies between GI&CV using a dataset comprising information from Chinese listed firms spanning from 2011 to 2020, examining the impact of the digital economy on these synergies. Moreover, the study delves into the analysis of the transmission mechanism and conducts an extended investigation to further explore this phenomenon. The findings of this paper including: (1) The digital economy acts as a driving force behind the synergistic enhancement of firm GI&CV. Moreover, this effect is further augmented by governmental environmental regulation and green subsidy policies. (2) Drawing upon the information asymmetry theory and the resource-based theory, the regional marketization level and firms' digital transformation play intermediary roles. (3) The heterogeneity test indicate that firms situated in eastern regions and those classified as non-heavily polluted benefitted to a greater extent. This study sheds light on the incentive implications of digital economy for the synergistic upgrading of GI&CV, thereby extending the breadth of study on the consequences of digital economy. Moreover, it offers actionable suggestions for enterprises to leverage digital economy development towards achieving a synergistic improvement of GI&CV.


Assuntos
Invenções , China , Invenções/economia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Comércio/economia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298453, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870238

RESUMO

Independent innovation emphasizes the self-reliance and control of all key links. Slack resources within an organization, especially for innovation, are the critical resources that are controllable for independent innovation. However, existing research still lacks evidence on the areas of slack innovation resources and independent innovation for deeper exploration. This research addresses this gap by providing an empirical analysis of the relationship between R&D human resource slack and firms' independent innovation. Based on the unbalanced panel data of China's listed manufacturing firms for eleven years, this research explores the effects of R&D human resource slack on firms' independent innovation, the mediating mechanism of technological diversification, and the boundary effects of top management team functional heterogeneity. The results reveal that R&D human resource slack positively affects firms' independent innovation; R&D human resource slack can promote firms' independent innovation through related technological diversification, while the mediating effect of unrelated technological diversification is not statistically significant; the top management team functional heterogeneity strengthens the positive impact of R&D human resource slack on firm independent innovation.


Assuntos
Invenções , Humanos , China , Tecnologia , Pesquisa
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 69, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facing global grand challenges such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) require the participation of various actors in different sectors and systematically directing their innovative efforts. Considering the complexity, non-linear dynamics, and global extent of the COVID-19 challenge, developing and applying a multi-level, resilient, and systematic innovative framework is vital. Therefore, this study aims to apply the "innovation biosphere" framework inspired by ecological studies for examining and analysing the management dimensions of COVID-19. METHODS: In this research, based on a deductive-inductive approach, the case study methodology is used. In accordance with this strategy, the innovation biosphere metaphor is considered as the basic framework (deductive approach) and subsequently the grand challenge of COVID-19 (inductive approach) is analysed at three levels: micro, meso and macro. RESULTS: The research findings verify the correspondence between what happened in the management of COVID-19 and the proposed framework of innovation biosphere. In other words, the findings of the research show that the effect of global cooperation, role-playing and co-evolution of different actors and subsystems in facing the grand challenge of COVID-19 under an ecosystemic and eco-innovation approach has been evident. These events subsequently led to the cessation of the pandemic after about four years. CONCLUSIONS: The main policy implications include the role of self-organization, the capability of global value networks, mission orientation, and co-evolution between actors as the contributions of innovation biosphere framework for managing grand health challenges, and global cohesion, oligopoly market, supporting local innovations, the critical role of basic research, and deregulation as the contributions of the COVID-19 case study for enhancing the innovation biosphere metaphor.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Invenções , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e081541, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development of paediatric medical devices continues to lag adult medical devices and contributes to issues of inequity, safety, quality and patient outcomes. New legislation and funding mechanisms have been introduced over the past two decades, but the gap remains. Clinical trials have been identified as a pain point, but components of effective clinical research infrastructure are poorly understood. As part of a multimodal research strategy, the Pediatric Device Consortia (PDC) will conduct a scoping review to better understand infrastructural barriers to and facilitators of paediatric medical device clinical research identified in the health sciences literature. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following databases will be included for this review: Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science and IEEE Xplore. Additional grey literature will be sought out through Google Scholar and reviewing the citations of included studies. Included studies will discuss medical devices according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration classification, focus on the paediatric population (ages 0-21 years) and involve human premarket or postmarket research. All study types that were published in 2007-present in English, Spanish, French or Italian will be included. Using Covidence web-based software, two independent reviewers will screen the resulting titles, abstracts and the full text of potential studies. Conflicts will be resolved by the primary investigator during both phases. REDCap will be used for quantitative and qualitative data charting, generating data tables and narrative synthesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research did not require research ethics board consideration as it does not involve human participants and all data will be collected from published literature. We will share our findings through peer-reviewed manuscripts, clinical and research conference presentations and professional networks available to the PDC. STUDY REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/k72bn).


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Criança , Pediatria , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Invenções , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(28): 41084-41106, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842782

RESUMO

Current studies do not provide a consensus on whether digital technology innovation can reduce enterprise carbon intensity despite the rise of the digital economy. This paper examines the role and influence pathway of digital technology innovation on enterprise carbon intensity using data from A-share listed enterprises in China's manufacturing industry from 2012 to 2021. The findings indicate that (1) digital technology innovation has been found to significantly reduce enterprise carbon intensity, as confirmed by numerous robustness and endogeneity tests. However, its inhibitory effect on carbon intensity shows a marginal decreasing trend. (2) In the heterogeneity analysis, it was found that digital technology innovation significantly reduces the carbon intensity of consuming coal, coke, kerosene, and diesel. From various perspectives, including enterprise, industry, and external environment, there are significant differences in the carbon reduction effects of digital technology innovation. (3) The analysis of impact paths reveals that digital technology innovation can affect enterprise carbon intensity through three paths: improving productivity, enhancing green innovation efficiency, and adjusting energy consumption. (4) Upon further analysis, it was discovered that the spillover effect of digital technology innovation is more pronounced in the industry cohort of enterprises. Additionally, digital technology innovation plays a positive role in enhancing enterprise ESG performance. The paper's findings offer empirical evidence and decision-making references for the government to develop reasonable policies for reducing carbon emissions, promoting green and low-carbon enterprise transformation, and actively and steadily achieving the goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality.


Assuntos
Carbono , Tecnologia Digital , China , Invenções , Indústrias
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298191, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843281

RESUMO

Currently, digital transformation is having various impacts on enterprises around the world, including the green innovation. However, the current literature on the relationship between digitalization and green innovation in enterprises is scarce. What is the relationship between them, and whether heterogeneous environmental regulation has mediating effects, are questions that are worth exploring. Using a sample of listed manufacturing enterprises in China, this paper empirically tests the impact of digital transformation on enterprise green innovation. The results show that: (1) Digital transformation has a significant positive impact on green innovation, including green innovation output and green innovation capability. (2) Diverse environmental regulation may have mediating effects of digital transformation's influence on green innovation. (3) After a number of robustness tests, the conclusions are still valid. This paper can provide a reference for developing green development strategies for manufacturing enterprises.


Assuntos
Invenções , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Humanos , Indústrias , Indústria Manufatureira
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300315, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805430

RESUMO

The National Sustainable Development Agenda Innovation Demonstration Zones (NSDAIDZs) aim to spearhead green development through scientific and technological innovation, showcasing sustainable development to other regions in China and offering valuable insights for countries worldwide. Taking Chengde City, which is one of the cities in the second batch of NSDAIDZs, as a case study, we examine the quantitative impact of technological innovation on green development. Additionally, it investigates the threshold effect of Research and development investments (R&D investments) on the relationship between technological innovation and green development. The results indicate that: (1) technological innovation has a positive promoting effect on green development, with a 1.01% increase in green development for every one unit increase in technological innovation; (2) The positive effect of technological innovation on green development becomes fully realized only when R&D investments and the upgrading of industrial structure surpass a specific threshold value. We contribute to the existing research on the connection between technological innovation and green development in innovation demonstration zones. It also provides empirical insights to foster a mutually beneficial relationship between R&D investments, industrial structure upgrading, and technological innovation, ultimately maximizing the promoting role of technological innovation in green development.


Assuntos
Cidades , Invenções , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Tecnologia , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302789, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768109

RESUMO

Employing the "Green Credit Guidelines" implemented in 2012 as the basis for a quasi-natural experiment, this study applies the method of Difference-in-Differences(DID) to investigate the influence of the Green Credit Policy on both the quantity and quality of enterprise innovation. The outcomes of our analysis reveal that the policy has significantly boosted both the quantity and quality of innovation among enterprises identified as heavy polluters. It is noteworthy that the policy's positive impact on innovation quantity surpasses its positive effect on innovation quality. This substantiates that the Green Credit Policy effectively generates incentivizing outcomes for innovation among the heavy polluters, thereby verifying Porter's hypothesis within the domain of green credit in China. Furthermore, we find that the positive impact is more significant for enterprises with lower innovation capabilities, large-scale enterprises, state-owned enterprises, and those situated in both the Eastern and Western regions. Through these findings, this study illuminates a novel perspective on the interplay between the Green Credit Policy and enterprise innovation dynamics in China.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , China , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Invenções , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303802, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768189

RESUMO

The innovative performance of manufacturing and service companies can be impacted by the existing relationship between open innovation (OI) and the generation of confidentiality agreements (NDAs) as a tool for the protection of intellectual property. Based on the analysis of a cross-sectional sample of 6,798 industrial companies (2019-2020) and 9,304 companies in the service sector (2017-2019) that are part of the directory of the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) in its Technological Innovation and Development Survey (EDIT and EDITS), it can be suggested that the interaction of these two variables (OI and NDAs) generate positive effects for the manufacturing industry but negative ones for the service sector. It could be deduced that the positive effect is due to the greater tradition of OI in the manufacturing industry and the negative effect to the caution that the service sector presents when collaborating with external actors.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Indústria Manufatureira , Invenções , Propriedade Intelectual , Indústrias , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 100(5): 281-292, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735752

RESUMO

Magnetron production and use far exceed that of other microwave tubes due to their high operational efficiency, power efficiency, and cost-effectiveness in production. The magnetron was named by A. W. Hull; however, the device invented by Hull differs from the magnetron utilized as a microwave tube. The magnetron widely used today is based on the split-anode magnetron invented by K. Okabe. This overview introduces two papers published by Okabe in the Proceedings of the Imperial Academy and discusses the events that led to the discovery of the split-anode magnetron. In addition, the operation mechanisms of magnetrons are explained.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Invenções , História do Século XX , Micro-Ondas , Magnetismo
17.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304344, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814955

RESUMO

China is in a phase of high-quality development, where scientific and technological innovations are serving as the primary driving force for its development strategy. This emphasis on innovations is expected to fuel the upgrading of the industrial structure. This study investigates the role of scientific and technological innovations in industrial upgradation in China using spatial econometric analysis. Leveraging the data of 31 provinces of China from 2005 to 2022, we employed a spatial Durbin model to determine the spatial spillover effects of scientific and technological innovations on industrial upgradation. Our findings reveal the significant positive spatial spillover effects, indicating that provinces with higher levels of scientific and technological innovations tend to experience greater industrial upgradation, which in turn contributes to regional economic development. Furthermore, the findings suggest a strong spatial correlation between innovation and the upgrading of industrial structures, indicating that regional innovations have the potential to drive China's industrial upgradation. These results underscore the critical role of scientific and technological innovations in promoting industrial upgradation and regional development in China.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Industrial , Invenções , China , Desenvolvimento Industrial/tendências , Invenções/economia , Modelos Econométricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Tecnologia , Indústrias/economia
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1403320, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38818446

RESUMO

Introduction: Medicine innovation is crucial in promoting the sustainable development of medicine undertakings, which has significant economic and social benefits. China is the main force in global medicine consumption, with a huge demand for innovative medicines. Thus, the Chinese government releases a series of policies aimed at providing scientific and reasonable guidance for medicine innovation. However, there is inadequate quantitative evaluation and comparison of various medicine innovation policies in the existing studies. Methods: This paper adopts the approach of text mining and the Policy Modeling Consistency Index (PMC-Index) model to construct an evaluation system and then quantitatively evaluates and compares the traditional Chinese medicine innovation policies (TCMIPs), the biological medicine innovation policies (BMIPs), and the multiple medicine innovation policies (MMIPs) in China. Results: The results indicate that: (1) The three types of drug innovation policies have similarities in content and goal through comparative analysis of high-frequency words, while they also have their own characteristics. (2) The average PMC-Index of 29 TCMIPs is 5.77, which has the highest policy bad rate (21%); the average PMC-Index of 12 BMIPs is 6.21, which has the highest policy good rate (92%); moreover, the average PMC-Index of 35 MMIPs is 6.06, which has the highest policy excellence rate (26%). (3) The BMIPs, MMIPs, and TCMIPs have similar scores on policy object, policy orientation, policy timeliness, policy evaluation, and policy accessibility, while they differ significantly mainly on policy nature, incentive method, policy function, policy issuing agency, and policy instrument. Discussion: This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of medicine innovation policies in China, in order to provide theoretical support for future policy formulation and optimization in the medicine industry. Moreover, we expand the application scenarios of policy diffusion theory.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Humanos , Mineração de Dados , Invenções
19.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121229, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796866

RESUMO

China proposed establishing a carbon emission trading market in its 12th Five-Year Plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through market mechanisms, promote the development of science and technology and help China become an environment-friendly country. To examine the impact of carbon emission trading on green technology innovation in Chinese energy enterprises, data from 1993 to 2020 were collected from 494 A-share-listed energy enterprises. Enterprises located in the pilot area of carbon emissions trading were assigned to the treatment group, while those in the non-pilot area were assigned to the control group. The propensity-score-matching method was utilized to match the treatment group with the control group, and the resulting samples were used as the actual sample data. The difference-in-differences method was then employed to assess the net impact of carbon emission trading and investigate its effect on green technology innovation in energy enterprises. This empirical study suggested that carbon emission trading has a positive impact on green technology innovation in energy enterprises, particularly state-owned ones. Larger enterprises are more willing to engage in green technological innovation than small enterprises. Furthermore, when faced with a carbon emission trading system, 'mature' companies tend to pay more attention to green technology innovation than younger enterprises do. This study puts forward policy measures for establishing a national-level carbon emission market in China in the future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , China , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carbono/análise , Tecnologia , Invenções
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301266, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753632

RESUMO

The digital economy is now the expected norm for economic development, warranting strategic importance for enterprise digital transformation. Nonetheless, enterprises have a lengthy journey to embark upon for digital transformation. On the one hand, resource-based demands pose a significant challenge due to the development characteristics of the initiative; on the other hand, excessive emphasis on economic gains may result in severe environmental issues. Therefore, this paper examines whether green innovation, which combines environmental and economic benefits, can effectively address the above dilemma. The study includes all A-share listed companies from 2010 to 2020 as the research sample, and empirically investigates the impact of green innovation on enterprise digital transformation and its mechanism based on resource-based view. The study concluded that (i) green innovation has a significant positive impact on corporate digital transformation performance, exhibiting asymmetric effects. The robustness tests confirmed the validity of the findings. (ii) Enterprises that actively engage in green innovation can effectively reduce their financial constraints, enhance their operational capacity, and enable the efficient allocation of resources, thereby promoting digital transformation within the enterprise. (iii) There is a regional imbalance in the conversion of green innovation performance into economic performance. The aforementioned results offer fresh insights for investigating the connection between green innovation and digital transformation. Additionally, these findings hold significant implications for the discourse on the synergistic advancement of the environment and economy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Invenções , Invenções/tendências , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
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