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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

RESUMO

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Invertebrados , Estações do Ano , Aves
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMO

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Rios
3.
BMC Biol ; 21(1): 7, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogens. In animals, the Toll pathway, the Imd pathway, the complement system, and lectins are well-known mechanisms involved in innate immunity. Although these pathways and systems are well understood in vertebrates and arthropods, they are understudied in other invertebrates. RESULTS: To shed light on immunity in the nemertean Lineus ruber, we performed a transcriptomic survey and identified the main components of the Toll pathway (e.g., myD88, dorsal/dif/NFκB-p65), the Imd pathway (e.g., imd, relish/NFκB-p105/100), the complement system (e.g., C3, cfb), and some lectins (FreD-Cs and C-lectins). In situ hybridization showed that TLRß1, TLRß2, and imd are expressed in the nervous system; the complement gene C3-1 is expressed in the gut; and the lectins are expressed in the nervous system, the blood, and the gut. To reveal their potential role in defense mechanisms, we performed immune challenge experiments, in which Lineus ruber specimens were exposed to the gram-negative bacteria Vibrio diazotrophicus. Our results show the upregulation of specific components of the Toll pathway (TLRα3, TLRß1, and TLRß2), the complement system (C3-1), and lectins (c-lectin2 and fred-c5). CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, similarly to what occurs in other invertebrates, our study shows that components of the Toll pathway, the complement system, and lectins are involved in the immune response in the nemertean Lineus ruber. The presence of these pathways and systems in Lineus ruber, but also in other spiralians; in ecdysozoans; and in deuterostomes suggests that these pathways and systems were involved in the immune response in the stem species of Bilateria.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Vibrioses , Animais , Vibrioses/veterinária , NF-kappa B , Imunidade Inata , Lectinas
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e267886, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629546

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence of plastic particles in the digestive tracts of fish from headwater streams in a human-thinly populated region of the subtropical Sinos River basin in southern Brazil. In total, 258 individuals from 17 species were collected using electric fishing. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of the specimens contained plastic particles. All of them were fibers, with a maximum count of 43 per individual. Plastic fibers were the fourth most abundant food category. Results showed that the uptake of these plastic particles was proportional to the number of ingested food items. Fiber counts in the guts correlated with the uptake of Trichoptera, which are invertebrates using plastic particles to construct their protective cases. No significant difference in plastic uptake was detected between benthic and water column fish. No evidence of bioaccumulation of plastic particles was found in the intestines. The distance from urban areas was not related to the number of ingested plastic particles, concluding that plastics are ubiquitous and available to biota, even in remote locations. The most probable source of these particles is residences close to the streams which discharge the sewage of washing machines without any treatment.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Invertebrados , Peixes
5.
Environ Pollut ; 319: 120960, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587783

RESUMO

While meta-analyses are common in the health and some biological sciences, there is a lack of such analyses for petroleum-related marine research. Oil is a highly complex substance consisting of thousands of different compounds. Measurement limitations, different protocols and a lack of standards in recording and reporting various elements of laboratory experiments impede attempts to homogenize and compare data and identify trends. Nevertheless, oil toxicology research would benefit from meta-analyses, through which we could develop meaningful research questions and design robust experiments. Here we report findings from an effort to quantitatively summarize results from oil toxicology studies on arctic and subarctic marine invertebrates. We discovered that the vast majority of studies was conducted on crustaceans, followed by molluscs. Analyzing the sensitivity of response measures across taxa we found that the most sensitive responses tend to rank low in ecological relevance, while less sensitive response measures tend to be more ecologically relevant. We further uncovered that crustaceans appear to be more sensitive to mechanically dispersed than chemically dispersed oil while the opposite seems true for molluscs, albeit not statistically significant. Both crustaceans and molluscs show a higher sensitivity to fresh than to weathered oil. No differences in the sensitivities of crustacean life stages were found. However, due to a lack of data, many questions remain unanswered. Our study revealed that while trends in responses can be elucidated, heterogeneous experimental protocols and reporting regimes prevent a proper meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Petróleo/toxicidade , Regiões Árticas , Organismos Aquáticos , Invertebrados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Environ Pollut ; 319: 120993, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623788

RESUMO

Complex legacy contamination from human use is a major issue for estuaries globally. In particular, contamination of water and sediments with bioavailable metals/metalloids, in addition to other industrial contaminants, such as hydrocarbons. Yet, understanding of complex toxicity and local adaptation in field exposed, non-model, invertebrate communities is limited. Herein, we apply multi-omics (metabolomics, lipidomics, proteomics) coupled to traditional sediment quality analyses, to better characterise molecular and cellular responses necessary for application to monitoring, as an eco-surveillance tool. Using these approaches, we characterise functional phenotypes of a sediment associated invertebrate (sipunculid), from an estuary exposed to complex legacy contamination (metals: Zn, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, As; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs). We sampled individuals at a range of exposure sites, highly (NTB5), moderately (NTB13), and lesser-influenced reference sites. Size differences were observed in sampled individuals between sites, with smaller individuals collected from NTB13. Analysis of environmental variables that correlated with change in the metabolite data revealed that the metabolism of smaller individuals at medium exposure NTB13 was highly differentiated by sediment concentrations of Hg, despite higher concentrations at more exposed NTB5. Functional phenotypes of these smaller individuals were characterised by sulphur and aromatic amino acid metabolism, increases in oxidised intermediates, upregulation of protein responses to oxidative stress, and melanin synthesis, and saturation of membrane and storage of lipids; in addition to the metabolism of naphthalene (PAH). Such widespread change was not observed in the metabolite and lipid profiles of larger individuals at high exposure NTB5, suggesting possible differences in effects between sites may also be associated with size (developmental stage, or age) and/or PAH exposure. This study serves to further understanding of differing modes of toxicity and local adaptation to multiple contaminants, and drivers of functional change in a complex estuary environment.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Estuários , Metais Pesados/análise
7.
Neotrop Entomol ; 52(1): 5-10, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656488

RESUMO

The world is facing an incoming global protein shortage due to existing malnutrition and further rapid increases in population size. It will however be difficult to greatly expand traditional methods of protein production such as cattle, chicken and pig farming, due to space limitations and environmental costs such as deforestation. As a result, alternative sources of protein that require less space and fewer resources, such as insects and other invertebrates, are being sought. The Neotropics are a key area of focus given the widespread prevalence of entomophagy and developing animal welfare regulations. Unlike vertebrate livestock however, insect "minilivestock" are typically not protected by existing animal welfare regulations. This is despite the fact that the evidence is mounting that insects possess "personalities", may experience affective states analogous to emotions and feel something like pain. In this forum article, we highlight this discrepancy, outline some of the emerging research on the topic and identify areas for future research. There are various empirical and ethical questions that must be addressed urgently while insect farming is ramped up around the globe. Finally, we describe the benefits and also potential costs of regulation for insect welfare.


Assuntos
Insetos , Invertebrados , Animais , Bovinos , Suínos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Agricultura , Fazendas
8.
J Vis Exp ; (191)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715425

RESUMO

Body size is an important functional trait that can be used as a bioindicator to assess the impacts of perturbations in natural communities. Community size structure responds to biotic and abiotic gradients, including anthropogenic perturbations across taxa and ecosystems. However, the manual measurement of small-bodied organisms such as benthic macroinvertebrates (e.g., >500 µm to a few centimeters long) is time-consuming. To expedite the estimation of community size structure, here, we developed a protocol to semi-automatically measure the individual body size of preserved river macroinvertebrates, which are one of the most commonly used bioindicators for assessing the ecological status of freshwater ecosystems. This protocol is adapted from an existing methodology developed to scan marine mesozooplankton with a scanning system designed for water samples. The protocol consists of three main steps: (1) scanning subsamples (fine and coarse sample size fractions) of river macroinvertebrates and processing the digitized images to individualize each detected object in each image; (2) creating, evaluating, and validating a learning set through artificial intelligence to semi-automatically separate the individual images of macroinvertebrates from detritus and artifacts in the scanned samples; and (3) depicting the size structure of the macroinvertebrate communities. In addition to the protocol, this work includes the calibration results and enumerates several challenges and recommendations to adapt the procedure to macroinvertebrate samples and to consider for further improvements. Overall, the results support the use of the presented scanning system for the automatic body size measurement of river macroinvertebrates and suggest that the depiction of their size spectrum is a valuable tool for the rapid bioassessment of freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Água Doce , Rios
9.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 232, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646694

RESUMO

Methylation of cytosines is a prototypic epigenetic modification of the DNA. It has been implicated in various regulatory mechanisms across the animal kingdom and particularly in vertebrates. We mapped DNA methylation in 580 animal species (535 vertebrates, 45 invertebrates), resulting in 2443 genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of multiple organs. Bioinformatic analysis of this large dataset quantified the association of DNA methylation with the underlying genomic DNA sequence throughout vertebrate evolution. We observed a broadly conserved link with two major transitions-once in the first vertebrates and again with the emergence of reptiles. Cross-species comparisons focusing on individual organs supported a deeply conserved association of DNA methylation with tissue type, and cross-mapping analysis of DNA methylation at gene promoters revealed evolutionary changes for orthologous genes. In summary, this study establishes a large resource of vertebrate and invertebrate DNA methylomes, it showcases the power of reference-free epigenome analysis in species for which no reference genomes are available, and it contributes an epigenetic perspective to the study of vertebrate evolution.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Genoma , Animais , Metilação de DNA/genética , Genoma/genética , Invertebrados/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Vertebrados/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , DNA/metabolismo
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 186: 114456, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502776

RESUMO

M-AMBI, a multivariate benthic index, has been used by European and American (U.S.) authorities to assess estuarine and coastal health and has been used in scientific studies throughout the world. It has been shown to be related to multiple pressures and stressors, but the relative importance of individual stressors within a multiple stressor context has not generally been assessed. In this study, we assembled data collected between 1999 and 2015 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency using consistent methods. These data included sediment and water quality measures and benthic invertebrate data which were used to calculate M-AMBI. We further assembled watersheds for all US estuaries with benthic data and calculated land use metrics. Random forest (RF) was used to identify those variables most strongly related to M-AMBI. Because RF is a compilation of multiple, nonlinear models, we then assessed which of these variables had a direct relationship with M-AMBI. The resulting variables were then assessed using RF to identify the subsets of variables that produced an effective and parsimonious model. This process was conducted at the national and ecoregional scale and the variables identified as being most important to predict M-AMBI were compared with literature reports of ecological patterns in a given area. At the national scale, better condition was correlated with clearer waters, lower amounts of agriculture in the watershed, and lower carbon and metal concentrations in estuarine sediments. Other stressors were identified as being important at the ecoregional scale, although sediment metal concentrations and watershed agriculture were identified as being important in most ecoregions. Our results suggest that this technique is useful to identify the most important variables impacting M-AMBI at broad spatial scales, even when the percentage of sites in Bad or Poor condition is low. This technique also provides an initial identification of important stressors that can be used to target more intensive local studies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Estuários , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados , Qualidade da Água
11.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 116970, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528939

RESUMO

Reservoirs are aquatic ecosystems created by humans to supply water needs. They can impair aquatic diversity due to the lack of connectivity, reduced water volume, and pressures exerted by surrounding human activities. These changes are expected to produce abrupt fluctuations in the reservoirs' environment, thus influencing the structure and functioning of aquatic communities. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the impact of a range of environmental stressors in reservoirs on benthic macroinvertebrates by analyzing their functional threshold response. Biological data were collected in six reservoirs from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil, as case study. A total of 37.874 benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 taxa were collected. Nevertheless, almost 90% of this abundance belonged to three species alone, considered generalists, with multivoltine reproduction and from the gatherer-collectors feeding group. Increases in environmental stressors such as salinity, nitrate, ammonia, and dissolved solids led to the selection of macroinvertebrates with specific traits (e.g., protected body, gill respiration, and large body size). These functional traits showed differences in their threshold response depending on the stressors and are indicators of the effects of these stressors on the reservoirs. Some of the potential sensitive traits (with a negative threshold response to the stressor) could also associate with other stressors, demonstrating that tolerance of benthic macroinvertebrates is defined by a set of functional characteristics. Overall, the increase in stressor' gradients selected functionally tolerant organisms with high resistance capacity, but these were represented by dominant species. This resulted in low diversity in the reservoirs, which may compromise ecosystem functioning, and raises concerns about adequate management of the systems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Animais , Humanos , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Reprodução
12.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 117111, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566728

RESUMO

Understanding biotic assemblage variations resulting from water diversions and other pressures is critical for aquatic ecosystem conservation, but hampered by limited research. Mechanisms driving macroinvertebrate assemblages were determined across five lakes along China's South-to-North Water Diversion Project, an over 900-km water transfer system connecting four river basins. We assessed macroinvertebrate patterns from 59 sites in relation to water quality, climatic, spatial, and hydrologic factors. Macroinvertebrate density, biomass, and species richness increased from upriver to downriver lakes, and were higher during the water transfer period than in the non-water transfer period. Non-native species including Nephtys sp., Paranthura japonica, Potamillacf acuminata, Capitekkidae spp. and Novaculina chinensis, were distributed along the entire study system, some become dominant in upriver lakes. High species turnover occurred in two upriver lakes. Hydrology and water quality are critical factors in shaping these macroinvertebrate patterns. Hydrological disturbance by water transfer boosted macroinvertebrate abundance during the water transfer period while facilitated non-native species dispersals and increased biotic homogenization. This study indicates the need for: 1) an effective ecosystem monitoring system; 2) unified system management standards; 3) external pollution controls; and 4) limiting the dispersal of non-native species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Invertebrados , Espécies Introduzidas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrologia , Rios
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160717, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528099

RESUMO

Anchor scour from shipping is increasingly recognised as a global threat to benthic marine biodiversity, yet no replicated ecological assessment exists for any seabed community. Without quantification of impacts to biota, there is substantial uncertainty for maritime stakeholders and managers of the marine estate on how these impacts can be managed or minimised. Our study focuses on a region in SE Australia with a high proportion of mesophotic reef (>30 m), where ships anchor while waiting to enter nearby ports. Temperate mesophotic rocky reefs are unique, providing a platform for a diversity of biota, including sponges, ahermatypic corals and other sessile invertebrates. They are rich in biodiversity, provide essential food resources, habitat refugia and ecosystem services for a range of economically, as well as ecologically important taxa. We examined seven representative taxa from four phyla (porifera, cnidaria, bryozoan, hydrozoa) across anchored and 'anchor-free' sites to determine which biota and which of their morphologies were most at risk. Using stereo-imagery, we assessed the richness of animal forest biota, morphology, size, and relative abundance. Our analysis revealed striking impacts to animal forests exposed to anchoring with between three and four-fold declines in morphotype richness and relative abundance. Marked compositional shifts, relative to those reefs that were anchor-free, were also apparent. Six of the seven taxonomic groups, most notably sponge morphotypes, exhibited strong negative responses to anchoring, while one morphotype, soft bryozoans, showed no difference between treatments. Our findings confirm that anchoring on reefs leads to the substantial removal of biota, with marked reductions of biodiversity and requires urgent management. The exclusion of areas of high biological value from anchorages is an important first step towards ameliorating impacts and promoting the recovery of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Animais , Navios , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160922, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539085

RESUMO

The essential key to routine molecular species identification (DNA barcoding/metabarcoding) is the existence of an error-free DNA barcode reference library providing full coverage of all species. Published studies generally state the need to produce more barcodes, and control their quality, but unfortunately, the number of barcoded species is still low. However, to initiate real progress, we need to know where the gaps lie, how big they are and why they persist. Our aims were to draw and understand the current state of knowledge regarding species diversity, distribution, and barcode coverage, and offer solutions for improvement. In this study, we used two groups of aquatic insects, beetles and true bugs. We have compiled and critically evaluated an essentially complete and up-to-date European list, containing 1527 species. The list served as a basis for the barcode gap analyses in the Barcode-of-Life-Data-System (BOLD) conducted in three subsequent years (2020-2022). The overall barcode coverage of the pan-European fauna was around 50 % in both groups. The lowest coverage was in the Mediterranean, the Balkans and South-eastern Europe. The coverage in each country depended significantly on the local diversity, the number of rare, endemic species and the similarity of its fauna to that of the most active barcoding European countries. Gap analyses showed a very small increase in species coverage (<1 % in European aquatic beetles) despite an ~25 % increase in the number of barcodes. Hence, it is clear that future barcoding campaigns must prioritise quality over quantity. To visibly improve reference libraries, we need to increase the involvement of taxonomic experts and focus on targeted studies and underexplored but biodiversity-rich areas.


Assuntos
Besouros , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Animais , Invertebrados , Insetos , Biodiversidade , Besouros/genética , Península Balcânica
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(1): 165-178, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016505

RESUMO

Heatwave frequency and intensity will increase as climate change progresses. Intertidal sessile invertebrates, which often form thermally benign microhabitats for associated species, are vulnerable to thermal stress because they have minimal ability to behaviourally thermoregulate. Understanding what factors influence the mortality of biogenic species and how heatwaves might impact their ability to provide habitat is critical. Here, we characterize the community associated with the thatched barnacle, Semibalanus cariosus (Pallass, 1788), in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Then, we investigate what site-level and plot-level environmental factors explained variations in barnacle mortality resulting from an unprecedented regional heatwave in BC, Canada. Furthermore, we used a manipulative shading experiment deployed prior to the heatwave to examine the effect of thermal stress on barnacle survival and recruitment and the barnacle-associated community. We identified 50 taxa inhabiting S. cariosus beds, with variations in community composition between sites. Site-scale variables and algal canopy cover did not predict S. cariosus mortality, but patch-scale variation in substratum orientation did, with more direct solar irradiance corresponding with higher barnacle mortality. The shading experiment demonstrated that S. cariosus survival, barnacle recruitment, and invertebrate community diversity were higher under shades where substratum temperatures were lower. Associated community composition also differed between shaded and non-shaded plots, suggesting S. cariosus was not able to fully buffer acute thermal stress for its associated community. While habitat provisioning by intertidal foundation species is an important source of biodiversity, these species alone may not be enough to prevent substantial community shifts following extreme heatwaves. As heatwaves become more frequent and severe, they may further reduce diversity via the loss of biogenic habitat, and spatial variation in these impacts may be substantial.


Assuntos
Thoracica , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(1): 179-188, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045500

RESUMO

Global warming is affecting the Antarctic continent in complex ways. Because Antarctic organisms are specialized to living in the cold, they are vulnerable to increasing temperatures, although quantitative analyses of this issue are currently lacking. Here we compiled a total of 184 estimates of heat tolerance belonging to 39 marine species and quantified how survival is affected concomitantly by the intensity and duration of thermal stress. Species exhibit thermal limits displaced toward colder temperatures, with contrasting strategies between arthropods and fish that exhibit low tolerance to acute heat challenges, and brachiopods, echinoderms, and molluscs that tend to be more sensitive to chronic exposure. These differences might be associated with mobility. A dynamic mortality model suggests that Antarctic organisms already encounter temperatures that might be physiologically stressful and indicate that these ecological communities are indeed vulnerable to ongoing rising temperatures.


El calentamiento global está afectando al continente antártico de formas complejas. Dado que los organismos antárticos están especializados a vivir en el frío, son vulnerables al aumento de las temperaturas, aunque en la actualidad hay carencia de análisis cuantitativos al respecto. Aquí recopilamos un total de 184 estimaciones de tolerancia al calor pertenecientes a 39 especies marinas, y cuantificamos cómo la supervivencia de estos organismos se ve afectada concomitantemente por la intensidad y la duración de un estrés térmico. Efectivamente las especies antárticas muestran límites térmicos desplazados hacia temperaturas más frías, con estrategias contrastadas entre los artrópodos y los peces que muestran una baja tolerancia a los desafíos térmicos agudos, y los braquiópodos, equinodermos y moluscos que tienden a ser más sensibles a la exposición crónica. Estas diferencias podrían estar asociadas con la movilidad. Un modelo dinámico de mortalidad sugiere que los organismos antárticos ya se enfrentan a temperaturas que podrían ser fisiológicamente estresantes e indican que estas comunidades ecológicas son realmente vulnerables al aumento continuo de las temperaturas.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Aquecimento Global , Invertebrados , Temperatura
18.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137496, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502915

RESUMO

The intensity and frequency of forest fires is increasing across the globe due to climate change. Additives are often added to make water more effective at extinguishing fire and preventing re-ignition. This study investigated the toxicity of nine different firefighting water additives to four species of soil invertebrates (Folsomia candida, Porcellio laevis, Porcellio scaber, and Trichorhina tomentosa) and two plant species (Agropyron cristatum and Raphanus sativus). Considerable variation in toxicity was observed among the firefighting products. The toxicity of individual products also varied considerably amongst the tested species. A hazard assessment was conducted by comparing the concentration of firefighting water additive that caused a 50% effect (LC50 or EC50) or a concentration that caused no effect (NOEC) to the concentration recommended by the manufacturer. At a rate of application representative of a forest firefighting scenario, most firefighting water additives tested in this study posed a hazard to F. candida and the three isopod species. The majority of products did not pose a risk to the two plant species included in this study. Consideration of the toxicity of firefighting water additives to terrestrial biota should be considered along with the efficacy of the product to fight fires when deciding which products to use.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Incêndios , Isópodes , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Solo , Invertebrados , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
19.
J Mol Biol ; 434(4): 167273, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599942

RESUMO

The gasdermin family of pore-forming proteins (PFPs) has recently emerged as key molecular players controlling immune-related cell death in mammals. Characterized mammalian gasdermins are activated through proteolytic cleavage by caspases or serine proteases, which remove an inhibitory carboxy-terminal domain, allowing the pore-formation process. Processed gasdermins form transmembrane pores permeabilizing the plasma membrane, which often results in lytic and inflammatory cell death. While the gasdermin-dependent cell death (pyroptosis) has been predominantly characterized in mammals, it now has become clear that gasdermins also control cell death in early vertebrates (teleost fish) and invertebrate animals such as corals (Cnidaria). Moreover, gasdermins and gasdermin-like proteins have been identified and characterized in taxa outside of animals, notably Fungi and Bacteria. Fungal and bacterial gasdermins share many features with mammalian gasdermins including their mode of activation through proteolysis. It has been shown that in some cases the proteolytic activation is executed by evolutionarily related proteases acting downstream of proteins resembling immune receptors controlling pyroptosis in mammals. Overall, these findings establish gasdermins and gasdermin-regulated cell death as an extremely ancient mechanism of cellular suicide and build towards an understanding of the evolution of regulated cell death in the context of immunology. Here, we review the broader gasdermin family, focusing on recent discoveries in invertebrates, fungi and bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Caspases , Fungos , Invertebrados , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Piroptose , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Porinas , Piroptose/fisiologia
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387705

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Durante millones de años, los organismos marinos han venido desarrollando estrategias para adaptarse a los cambios ambientales y con esto, sintetizando una gran variedad de metabolitos secundarios con actividades biológicas. Objetivo: Evaluar las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante e identificar los ácidos grasos del extracto metanólico de la esponja marina Tetilla rodriguesi recolectada en la bahía de Cispatá. Métodos: Los especímenes de T. rodriguesi se sometieron a extracción para obtener el extracto metanólico, del cual se obtuvieron los ácidos grasos que fueron esterificados e identificados haciendo uso de técnicas cromatográficas. Con el extracto metanólico se realizó la actividad antioxidante frente a los radicales ABTS+• y DPPH• y la actividad antimicrobiana por el método de microdilución frente a cepas de referencia de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis y Candida albicans; además de aislados clínicos de Candida albicans (obtenida en sangre) y Candida krusei (obtenida en catéter). Resultados: Los resultados arrojaron la identificación de 19 ácidos grasos de diferente naturaleza. En el análisis de la actividad antioxidante se pudo encontrar, que la inhibición de los radicales evaluados fue moderada (296.98 ppm para ABTS+• y 3 523.62 ppm para DPPH•). La evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana mostró, que el extracto metanólico de T. rodriguesi logró reducir en gran medida el crecimiento de todos los microorganismos evaluados. Conclusión: A pesar de que los poríferos tienden a poseer ácidos grasos de gran tamaño, en este trabajó no se encontró la presencia de ácidos grasos de cadena carbonada mayor a 20 miembros. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante, se asemejan en gran medida al encontrado en otras especies del mismo phylum. En esta investigación, se pudo establecer que el extracto metanólico de T. rodriguesi logró disminuir en gran medida el crecimiento de todas las cepas bacterianas y fúngicas utilizadas.


Abstract Introduction: For millions of years, organisms that inhabit the marine environment have been developing strategies to adapt to environmental changes and with this, synthesizing a great variety of secondary metabolites with biological activities. Objective: Evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and identify the fatty acids of the methanolic extract of the marine sponge Tetilla rodriguesi collected in Cispatá bay, Colombian Caribbean. Methods: T. rodriguesi specimens were subjected to extraction to obtain the methanolic extract, of which the fatty acids were obtained, esterified and identified it using chromatographic techniques. With the methanolic extract, the antioxidant activity was carried out against the radicals ABTS+• and DPPH•, and the antimicrobial activity by the microdilution method against reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans; in addition to clinical isolates of Candida albicans (obtained in blood) and Candida krusei (obtained in catheter). Result: The results yielded the identification of 19 fatty acids of different nature. In the analysis of the antioxidant activity could be found that inhibition of radical evaluated was moderate (296.98 ppm for ABTS+• and 3 523.62 ppm for DPPH•). The evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that the methanol extract of T. rodriguesi managed to greatly reduce the growth of all microorganisms tested. Conclusions: Despite the fact that porifers tend to have large fatty acids, in this study the presence of fatty acids with a carbon chain greater than 20 members was not found. The result of antioxidant activity is largely resembled that found in other species of the same phylum. In this research, it was established that the methanolic extract of T. rodriguesi managed to greatly reduce the growth of all the bacterial and fungal strains used.


Assuntos
Animais , Crambe (Esponja) , Ácidos Graxos , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Biologia Marinha
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