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1.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 601, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849407

RESUMO

Freshwater macroinvertebrates are a diverse group and play key ecological roles, including accelerating nutrient cycling, filtering water, controlling primary producers, and providing food for predators. Their differences in tolerances and short generation times manifest in rapid community responses to change. Macroinvertebrate community composition is an indicator of water quality. In Europe, efforts to improve water quality following environmental legislation, primarily starting in the 1980s, may have driven a recovery of macroinvertebrate communities. Towards understanding temporal and spatial variation of these organisms, we compiled the TREAM dataset (Time seRies of European freshwAter Macroinvertebrates), consisting of macroinvertebrate community time series from 1,816 river and stream sites (mean length of 19.2 years and 14.9 sampling years) of 22 European countries sampled between 1968 and 2020. In total, the data include >93 million sampled individuals of 2,648 taxa from 959 genera and 212 families. These data can be used to test questions ranging from identifying drivers of the population dynamics of specific taxa to assessing the success of legislative and management restoration efforts.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Água Doce , Dinâmica Populacional , Qualidade da Água , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13334, 2024 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858480

RESUMO

The Namib Desert is a hyperarid coastal desert where fog is a major moisture source. We hypothesized that the fog-harvesting grass Stipagrostis sabulicola establishes an important ecological niche, termed the "Fog-Plant-Oases" (FPOs), and serves as the primary carbon source for the invertebrate community. To determine this, we measured the natural variations of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of invertebrates as well as that of plant biomass and belowground detritus and estimated the contributions of the fog plants in their diets. Our findings revealed a complex trophic structure and demonstrated that S. sabulicola fuels carbon flow from lower to higher trophic levels in the aboveground food web. The distinct δ13C values of bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes indicated however the separation of the aboveground niche, which is primarily sustained by S. sabulicola, from the belowground niche, where wind-blown sediments may serve as the main energy source for the soil biota. Our findings further accentuate the critical role of S. sabulicola FPOs in establishing complex trophic dynamics and a distinctive food web within the hyperarid Namib dunes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Namíbia , Poaceae/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Biomassa , Clima Desértico , Solo/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Invertebrados
3.
Neural Dev ; 19(1): 5, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chaetognaths are a clade of marine worm-like invertebrates with a heavily debated phylogenetic position. Their nervous system superficially resembles the protostome type, however, knowledge regarding the molecular processes involved in neurogenesis is lacking. To better understand these processes, we examined the expression profiles of marker genes involved in bilaterian neurogenesis during post-embryonic stages of Spadella cephaloptera. We also investigated whether the transcription factor encoding genes involved in neural patterning are regionally expressed in a staggered fashion along the mediolateral axis of the nerve cord as it has been previously demonstrated in selected vertebrate, insect, and annelid models. METHODS: The expression patterns of genes involved in neural differentiation (elav), neural patterning (foxA, nkx2.2, pax6, pax3/7, and msx), and neuronal function (ChAT and VAChT) were examined in S. cephaloptera hatchlings and early juveniles using whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The Sce-elav + profile of S. cephaloptera hatchlings reveals that, within 24 h of post-embryonic development, the developing neural territories are not limited to the regions previously ascribed to the cerebral ganglion, the ventral nerve center (VNC), and the sensory organs, but also extend to previously unreported CNS domains that likely contribute to the ventral cephalic ganglia. In general, the neural patterning genes are expressed in distinct neural subpopulations of the cerebral ganglion and the VNC in hatchlings, eventually becoming broadly expressed with reduced intensity throughout the CNS in early juveniles. Neural patterning gene expression domains are also present outside the CNS, including the digestive tract and sensory organs. ChAT and VAChT domains within the CNS are predominantly observed in specific subpopulations of the VNC territory adjacent to the ventral longitudinal muscles in hatchlings. CONCLUSIONS: The observed spatial expression domains of bilaterian neural marker gene homologs in S. cephaloptera suggest evolutionarily conserved roles in neurogenesis for these genes among bilaterians. Patterning genes expressed in distinct regions of the VNC do not show a staggered medial-to-lateral expression profile directly superimposable to other bilaterian models. Only when the VNC is conceptually laterally unfolded from the longitudinal muscle into a flat structure, an expression pattern bearing resemblance to the proposed conserved bilaterian mediolateral regionalization becomes noticeable. This finding supports the idea of an ancestral mediolateral patterning of the trunk nervous system in bilaterians.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Neurogênese , Animais , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Invertebrados/genética , Padronização Corporal/genética , Padronização Corporal/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10681, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724542

RESUMO

The organic enrichment effects on the meiofauna and nematofauna were assessed for field sediment and other experimental ones enriched with organic matters conducted in the laboratory for 4 weeks. Also, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were monitored for each one. The abundance and diversity of meiofaunal groups and nematofauna varied. Strong significant correlations were found between DO and the studied items. Nematoda was the most abundant group in the field sediment and other experimental ones; their counts increased with the increase in organic enrichments and were dominated by deposit feeders. Amphipoda, Ostracoda and predator/omnivore nematodes disappeared in highly organic-enriched sediments. Changes in DO and organic enrichments might be the more attributable reasons for the alteration of the meiobenthic assemblages. The generic compositions of Nematoda provide a good indicator for environmental alterations.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Sedimentos Geológicos , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nematoides , Oxigênio/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Invertebrados , Anfípodes
5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(5): e17305, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712651

RESUMO

Anthropogenic climate change is altering precipitation regimes at a global scale. While precipitation changes have been linked to changes in the abundance and diversity of soil and litter invertebrate fauna in forests, general trends have remained elusive due to mixed results from primary studies. We used a meta-analysis based on 430 comparisons from 38 primary studies to address associated knowledge gaps, (i) quantifying impacts of precipitation change on forest soil and litter fauna abundance and diversity, (ii) exploring reasons for variation in impacts and (iii) examining biases affecting the realism and accuracy of experimental studies. Precipitation reductions led to a decrease of 39% in soil and litter fauna abundance, with a 35% increase in abundance under precipitation increases, while diversity impacts were smaller. A statistical model containing an interaction between body size and the magnitude of precipitation change showed that mesofauna (e.g. mites, collembola) responded most to changes in precipitation. Changes in taxonomic richness were related solely to the magnitude of precipitation change. Our results suggest that body size is related to the ability of a taxon to survive under drought conditions, or to benefit from high precipitation. We also found that most experiments manipulated precipitation in a way that aligns better with predicted extreme climatic events than with predicted average annual changes in precipitation and that the experimental plots used in experiments were likely too small to accurately capture changes for mobile taxa. The relationship between body size and response to precipitation found here has far-reaching implications for our ability to predict future responses of soil biodiversity to climate change and will help to produce more realistic mechanistic soil models which aim to simulate the responses of soils to global change.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Chuva , Solo , Animais , Solo/química , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados/fisiologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 932: 172879, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697529

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA) are central to the growth and reproduction of aquatic consumers. Dissolved nutrients in aquatic ecosystems strongly affect algal taxonomic composition and thus the production and transfer of specific ω3-PUFA to consumers at higher trophic levels. However, most studies were conducted in nutrient-poor, oligotrophic lakes, leading to an insufficient understanding of how water nutrients affect algal ω3-PUFA and their trophic transfer in consumers in highly eutrophic lakes. We conducted a field investigation in a highly eutrophic lake and collected basal food sources (phytoplankton, periphyton and macrophytes) and aquatic consumers (invertebrates, zooplankton and fish), and measured their fatty acid (FA) composition. Our results showed that periphyton and phytoplankton were both important sources of ω3-PUFA supporting the highly eutrophic lake food web. High water nutrient levels led to low ω3-PUFA levels in phytoplankton and periphyton, resulting in decreased nutritional quality. Consequently, ω3-PUFA of invertebrates and zooplankton reflected variations in ω3-PUFA of phytoplankton and periphyton, respectively. The ω3-PUFA levels of fish decreased as phytoplankton and periphyton ω3-PUFA decreased. Among fish, the Redfin Culter (Cultrichthys erythropterus) and Bar Cheek Goby (Rhinogobius giurinus) exhibited significantly higher levels of EPA and DHA compared to the Pond Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), which may have been caused by their different feeding modes. Decreases in the ω3-PUFA levels of basal food sources may be one of the causes leading to the reduction of trophic links in aquatic food webs. Our study elucidated the sources and fate of ω3-PUFA in highly eutrophic lakes, complemented previous studies in oligo- and mesotrophic lakes, and emphasized the role of high-quality food sources. Our results offer new perspectives for the conservation and management of highly eutrophic lake ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos , Fitoplâncton , Lagos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Animais , Zooplâncton , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Invertebrados
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303263, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748719

RESUMO

Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly useful method for detecting pelagic animals in the ocean but typically requires large water volumes to sample diverse assemblages. Ship-based pelagic sampling programs that could implement eDNA methods generally have restrictive water budgets. Studies that quantify how eDNA methods perform on low water volumes in the ocean are limited, especially in deep-sea habitats with low animal biomass and poorly described species assemblages. Using 12S rRNA and COI gene primers, we quantified assemblages comprised of micronekton, coastal forage fishes, and zooplankton from low volume eDNA seawater samples (n = 436, 380-1800 mL) collected at depths of 0-2200 m in the southern California Current. We compared diversity in eDNA samples to concurrently collected pelagic trawl samples (n = 27), detecting a higher diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate groups in the eDNA samples. Differences in assemblage composition could be explained by variability in size-selectivity among methods and DNA primer suitability across taxonomic groups. The number of reads and amplicon sequences variants (ASVs) did not vary substantially among shallow (<200 m) and deep samples (>600 m), but the proportion of invertebrate ASVs that could be assigned a species-level identification decreased with sampling depth. Using hierarchical clustering, we resolved horizontal and vertical variability in marine animal assemblages from samples characterized by a relatively low diversity of ecologically important species. Low volume eDNA samples will quantify greater taxonomic diversity as reference libraries, especially for deep-dwelling invertebrate species, continue to expand.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Biodiversidade , DNA Ambiental , Animais , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/análise , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Água do Mar , Peixes/genética , Peixes/classificação , Zooplâncton/genética , Zooplâncton/classificação , Ecossistema , Invertebrados/genética , Invertebrados/classificação
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11845, 2024 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782941

RESUMO

Tardigrades are renowned for their ability to survive a wide array of environmental stressors. In particular, tardigrades can curl in on themselves while losing a significant proportion of their internal water content to form a structure referred to as a tun. In surviving varying conditions, tardigrades undergo distinct morphological transformations that could indicate different mechanisms of stress sensing and tolerance specific to the stress condition. Methods to effectively distinguish between morphological transformations, including between tuns induced by different stress conditions, are lacking. Herein, an approach for discriminating between tardigrade morphological states is developed and utilized to compare sucrose- and CaCl2-induced tuns, using the model species Hypsibius exemplaris. A novel approach of shadow imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled production of three-dimensional renderings of Hys. exemplaris in various physiological states resulting in volume measurements. Combining these measurements with qualitative morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy revealed that sucrose- and CaCl2-induced tuns have distinct morphologies, including differences in the amount of water expelled during tun formation. Further, varying the concentration of the applied stressor did not affect the amount of water lost, pointing towards water expulsion by Hys. exemplaris being a controlled process that is adapted to the specific stressors.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio , Sacarose , Animais , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico , Invertebrados , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
9.
Chronobiol Int ; 41(5): 738-756, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722073

RESUMO

Circadian clocks, internal mechanisms that generate 24-hour rhythms, play a crucial role in coordinating biological events with day-night cycles. In light-deprived environments such as caves, species, particularly isolated obligatory troglobites, may exhibit evolutionary adaptations in biological rhythms due to light exposure. To explore rhythm expression in these settings, we conducted a comprehensive literature review on invertebrate chronobiology in global subterranean ecosystems, analyzing 44 selected studies out of over 480 identified as of September 2023. These studies revealed significant taxonomic diversity, primarily among terrestrial species like Coleoptera, with research concentrated in the United States, Italy, France, Australia, and Brazil, and a notable gap in African records. Troglobite species displayed a higher incidence of aperiodic behavior, while troglophiles showed a robust association with rhythm expression. Locomotor activity was the most studied aspect (>60%). However, approximately 4% of studies lacked information on periodicity or rhythm asynchrony, and limited research under constant light conditions hindered definitive conclusions. This review underscores the need to expand chronobiological research globally, encompassing diverse geographical regions and taxa, to deepen our understanding of biological rhythms in subterranean species. Such insights are crucial for preserving the resilience of subsurface ecosystems facing threats like climate change and habitat loss.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Ritmo Circadiano , Invertebrados , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo
10.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(5): e17336, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775780

RESUMO

Climate change and land-use change are widely altering freshwater ecosystem functioning and there is an urgent need to understand how these broad stressor categories may interact in future. While much research has focused on mean temperature increases, climate change also involves increasing variability of both water temperature and flow regimes and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, all with potential to alter stream invertebrate communities. Deposited fine sediment is a pervasive land-use stressor with widespread impacts on stream invertebrates. Sedimentation may be managed at the catchment scale; thus, uncovering interactions with these three key climate stressors may assist mitigation of future threats. This is the first experiment to investigate the individual and combined effects of enriched CO2, heatwaves, flow velocity variability, and fine sediment on realistic stream invertebrate communities. Using 128 mesocosms simulating small stony-bottomed streams in a 7-week experiment, we manipulated dissolved CO2 (ambient; enriched), fine sediment (no sediment; 300 g dry sediment), temperature (ambient; two 7-day heatwaves), and flow velocity (constant; variable). All treatments changed community composition. CO2 enrichment reduced abundances of Orthocladiinae and Chironominae and increased Copepoda abundance. Variable flow velocity had only positive effects on invertebrate abundances (7 of 13 common taxa and total abundance), in contrast to previous experiments showing negative impacts of reduced velocity. CO2 was implicated in most stressor interactions found, with CO2 × sediment interactions being most common. Communities forming under enriched CO2 conditions in sediment-impacted mesocosms had ~20% fewer total invertebrates than those with either treatment alone. Copepoda abundances doubled in CO2-enriched mesocosms without sediment, whereas no CO2 effect occurred in mesocosms with sediment. Our findings provide new insights into potential future impacts of climate change and land use in running freshwaters, in particular highlighting the potential for elevated CO2 to interact with fine sediment deposition in unpredictable ways.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Sedimentos Geológicos , Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Movimentos da Água , Ecossistema
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173243, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761946

RESUMO

Determining biological status of freshwater ecosystems is critical for ensuring ecosystem health and maintaining associated services to such ecosystems. Freshwater macroinvertebrates respond predictably to environmental disturbances and are widely used in biomonitoring programs. However, many freshwater species are difficult to capture and sort from debris or substrate and morphological identification is challenging, especially larval stages, damaged specimens, or hyperdiverse groups such as Diptera. The advent of high throughput sequencing technologies has enhanced DNA barcoding tools to automatise species identification for whole communities, as metabarcoding is increasingly used to monitor biodiversity. However, recent comparisons have revealed little congruence between morphological and molecular-based identifications. Using broad range universal primers for DNA barcode marker cox1, we compare community composition captured between morphological and molecular-based approaches from different sources - tissue-based (bulk benthic and bulk drift samples) and environmental DNA (eDNA, filtered water) metabarcoding - for samples collected along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbances. For comparability, metabarcoding taxonomic assignments were filtered by taxa included in the standardised national biological metric IBMWP. At the family level, bulk benthic metabarcoding showed the highest congruence with morphology, and the most abundant taxa were captured by all techniques. Richness captured by morphology and bulk benthic metabarcoding decreased along the gradient, whereas richness recorded by eDNA remained constant and increased downstream when sequencing bulk drift. Estimates of biological metrics were higher using molecular than morphological identification. At species level, diversity captured by bulk benthic samples were higher than the other techniques. Importantly, bulk benthic and eDNA metabarcoding captured different and complementary portions of the community - benthic versus water column, respectively - and their combined use is recommended. While bulk benthic metabarcoding can likely replace morphology using similar benthic biological indices, water eDNA will require new metrics because this technique sequences a different portion of the community.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Invertebrados , Animais , Invertebrados/genética , Invertebrados/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , DNA Ambiental , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 120990, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763115

RESUMO

Hydro-morphological threats impact the natural physical characteristics of river ecosystems, such as flow regimes, sediment transport, and channel morphology. These negative effects can occur at multiple scales, ranging from local microhabitats to geographic regions. Understanding these interactions can be useful for an integrated conservation approach and is needed for effective freshwater management. The aim of the study was to elucidate the combined effects of hydro-morphological threats on macroinvertebrates at three spatial scales: macroscale, including whole catchments, mesoscale (hydro-morphological changes in individual river sections) and the microscale, describing the microhabitat conditions of European rivers. The diversity and trophic structure of 1120 local macroinvertebrate communities in 28 catchments of various hydro-morphological disturbance levels, ranging from 0 to 2400 m asl, were analyzed. The response of macroinvertebrates to the main disturbance gradient differed between mountain and lowland communities. Random forest analysis indicated that the most important predictor of the ecological, diversity, and trophic indices was described by flow rate reduction. Generalized additive mixed models showed that decreased flow combined with river incision explained most of the variation in macroinvertebrate indices. Our results emphasize that based on multi-spatial scale analysis, hydro-morphological threats are very important factors in invertebrates biodiversity loss. Thus, to implement effective river management, we should pay more attention to the combined effects of geomorphological threats.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Europa (Continente)
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 472: 134483, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703684

RESUMO

Soil molybdenum (Mo) levels can reach ecologically hazardous levels. China has not yet established the relevant thresholds, posing challenges for environmental management. Therefore, we present our data relevant to Mo toxicity for several important species. By normalizing soil properties, we obtained a correlation model of Mo toxicity to Hordeum vulgare, as well as 31 models for the toxicity of other elements including Cu and Ni to invertebrates and microbial processes. Using interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) extrapolation, the sensitivity coefficient (0.12-0.71) for five plants were found. For invertebrates and microbial processes lacking Mo data, we used regression analysis to establish Mo toxicity models based on the soil quantitative ion character-activity relationships (s-QICAR; R2 =0.70-0.95) and known toxicities of other metal elements to invertebrate and microbial processes. Furthermore, combining species sensitivity distribution calculations, the HC5 values for protecting 95% of soil species from Mo in three typical soil scenarios in China were calculated. After correction, the predicted no-effect concentrations were 6.8, 4.8, and 3.4 mg/kg, respectively. This study innovatively combined ICE and s - QICAR to derive soil Mo thresholds. Our results can provide a basis for decision-making in the assessment and management of soil Mo pollution.


Assuntos
Molibdênio , Poluentes do Solo , Molibdênio/toxicidade , China , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Medição de Risco , Animais , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos
14.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(6): 1098-1108, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773326

RESUMO

Inland navigation in Europe is proposed to increase in the coming years, being promoted as a low-carbon form of transport. However, we currently lack knowledge on how this would impact biodiversity at large scales and interact with existing stressors. Here we addressed this knowledge gap by analysing fish and macroinvertebrate community time series across large European rivers comprising 19,592 observations from 4,049 sampling sites spanning the past 32 years. We found ship traffic to be associated with biodiversity declines, that is, loss of fish and macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness, diversity and trait richness. Ship traffic was also associated with increases in taxonomic evenness, which, in concert with richness decreases, was attributed to losses in rare taxa. Ship traffic was especially harmful for benthic taxa and those preferring slow flows. These effects often depended on local land use and riparian degradation. In fish, negative impacts of shipping were highest in urban and agricultural landscapes. Regarding navigation infrastructure, the negative impact of channelization on macroinvertebrates was evident only when riparian degradation was also high. Our results demonstrate the risk of increasing inland navigation on freshwater biodiversity. Integrative waterway management accounting for riparian habitats and landscape characteristics could help to mitigate these impacts.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes , Invertebrados , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Rios , Água Doce , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Navios
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806110

RESUMO

From review of the very few topical studies to date, we conclude that while effects are variable, microplastics can induce direct ionoregulatory disturbances in freshwater fish and invertebrates. However, the intensity depends on microplastic type, size, concentration, and exposure regime. More numerous are studies where indirect inferences about possible ionoregulatory effects can be drawn; these indicate increased mucus production, altered breathing, histopathological effects on gill structure, oxidative stress, and alterations in molecular pathways. All of these could have negative effects on ionoregulatory homeostasis. However, previous research has suffered from a lack of standardized reporting of microplastic characteristics and exposure conditions. Often overlooked is the fact that microplastics are dynamic contaminants, changing over time through degradation and fragmentation and subsequently exhibiting altered surface chemistry, notably an increased presence and diversity of functional groups. The same functional groups characterized on microplastics are also present in dissolved organic matter, often termed dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a class of substances for which we have a far greater understanding of their ionoregulatory actions. We highlight instances in which the effects of microplastic exposure resemble those of DOC exposure. We propose that in future microplastic investigations, in vivo techniques that have proven useful in understanding the ionoregulatory effects of DOC should be used including measurements of transepithelial potential, net and unidirectional radio-isotopic ion flux rates, and concentration kinetic analyses of uptake transport. More sophisticated in vitro approaches using cultured gill epithelia, Ussing chamber experiments on gill surrogate membranes, and scanning ion selective electrode techniques (SIET) may also prove useful. Finally, in future studies we advocate for minimum reporting requirements of microplastic properties and experimental conditions to help advance this important emerging field.


Assuntos
Peixes , Água Doce , Brânquias , Invertebrados , Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Invertebrados/fisiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 172981, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705301

RESUMO

Decommissioning consequences of offshore oil and gas infrastructure removal on marine population dynamics, including connectivity, are not well understood. We modelled the connectivity and metapopulation dynamics of three fish and two benthic invertebrate species inhabiting the natural rocky reefs and offshore oil and gas infrastructure located in the Bass Strait, south-east Australia. Using a network approach, we found that platforms are not major sources, destinations, or stepping-stones for most species, yet act as modest sources for connectivity of Corynactis australis (jewel anemone). In contrast, sections of subsea pipelines appear to act as stepping-stones, source and destination habitats of varying strengths for all study species, except for Centrostephanus rodgersii (long-spined sea urchin). Natural reefs were the main stepping-stones, local source, and destination habitats for all study species. These reefs were largely responsible for the overall metapopulation growth of all study species (average of 96 % contribution across all species), with infrastructure acting as a minor contributor (<2 % average contribution). Full or partial decommissioning of platforms should have a very low or negligible impact on the overall metapopulation dynamics of the species explored, except C. australis, while full removal of pipelines could have a low impact on the metapopulation dynamics of benthic invertebrate species and a moderate impact on fish species (up to 34.1 % reduction in the metapopulation growth). We recommend that the decision to remove offshore infrastructure, either in full or in-part, be made on a platform-by-platform basis and consider contributions of pipelines to connectivity and metapopulation dynamics.


Assuntos
Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Monitoramento Ambiental , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Austrália , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Organismos Aquáticos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 173105, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750737

RESUMO

The decline of river and stream biodiversity results from multiple simultaneous occuring stressors, yet few studies explore responses explore responses across various taxonomic groups at the same locations. In this study, we address this shortcoming by using a coherent data set to study the association of nine commonly occurring stressors (five chemical, one morphological and three hydraulic) with five taxonomic groups (bacteria, fungi, diatoms, macro-invertebrates and fish). According to studies on single taxonomic groups, we hypothesise that gradients of chemical stressors structure community composition of all taxonomic groups, while gradients of hydraulic and morphological stressors are mainly related to larger organisms such as benthic macro-invertebrates and fish. Organisms were sampled over two years at 20 sites in two catchments: a recently restored urban lowland catchment (Boye) and a moderately disturbed rural mountainous catchment (Kinzig). Dissimilarity matrices were computed for each taxonomic group within a catchment. Taxonomic dissimilarities between sites were linked to stressor dissimilarities using multivariable Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Stressor gradients were longer in the Boye, but did in contrast to the Kinzig not cover low stress intensities. Accordingly, responses of the taxonomic groups were stronger in the Kinzig catchment than in the recently restored Boye catchment. The discrepancy between catchments underlines that associations to stressors strongly depend on which part of the stressor gradient is covered in a catchment. All taxonomic groups were related to conductivity. Bacteria, fungi and macro-invertebrates change with dissolved oxygen, and bacteria and fungi with total nitrogen. Morphological and hydraulic stressors had minor correlations with bacteria, fungi and diatoms, while macro-invertebrates were strongly related to fine sediment and discharge, and fish to high flow peaks. The results partly support our hypotheses about the differential associations of the different taxonomic groups with the stressors.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Rios/microbiologia , Animais , Fungos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Peixes , Bactérias/classificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 472: 134529, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723482

RESUMO

Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) have attracted global attention owing to their adverse effects on ecosystems and humans. The Shandong Peninsula is the largest manufacturing base for HFRs in East Asia, yet its impacts on marine ecosystems are unclear. Seventeen HFRs were analyzed in organisms captured from the Xiaoqing River estuary, Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea and Northern East China Sea to investigate the distribution and bioaccumulation of HFRs on a broad scale. The results showed a downward trend in ΣHFR concentrations from the estuary (37.7 ng/g lw on average) to Laizhou Bay (192 ng/g lw) and to coastal seas (3.13 ng/g lw). The concentrations of ΣHFRs were significantly higher in demersal fish (0.71-198 ng/g lw) and benthic invertebrates (0.81-3340 ng/g lw) than in pelagic fish (0.30-27.6 ng/g lw), reflecting a habitat dependence. The concentrations of higher-brominated homologs were greater in benthic invertebrates, whereas a greater level of lower-brominated PBDE congeners was observed in fish, suggesting different profiles between species. Furthermore, the analogue composition of HFRs in fish was similar to that in the dissolved phase of seawater, whereas the HFR pattern in benthic invertebrates was consistent with the profile in sediment. The concentrations of HFRs in organisms vary widely depending on emissions from anthropogenic activities, whereas bioaccumulation patterns are strongly influenced by species and habitat.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Estuários , Retardadores de Chama , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Peixes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Especificidade da Espécie , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Invertebrados/metabolismo
19.
Genome Biol Evol ; 16(5)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713108

RESUMO

In animals, three main RNA interference mechanisms have been described so far, which respectively maturate three types of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs): miRNAs, piRNAs, and endo-siRNAs. The diversification of these mechanisms is deeply linked with the evolution of the Argonaute gene superfamily since each type of sncRNA is typically loaded by a specific Argonaute homolog. Moreover, other protein families play pivotal roles in the maturation of sncRNAs, like the DICER ribonuclease family, whose DICER1 and DICER2 paralogs maturate respectively miRNAs and endo-siRNAs. Within Metazoa, the distribution of these families has been only studied in major groups, and there are very few data for clades like Lophotrochozoa. Thus, we here inferred the evolutionary history of the animal Argonaute and DICER families including 43 lophotrochozoan species. Phylogenetic analyses along with newly sequenced sncRNA libraries suggested that in all Trochozoa, the proteins related to the endo-siRNA pathway have been lost, a part of them in some phyla (i.e. Nemertea, Bryozoa, Entoprocta), while all of them in all the others. On the contrary, early diverging phyla, Platyhelminthes and Syndermata, showed a complete endo-siRNA pathway. On the other hand, miRNAs were revealed the most conserved and ubiquitous mechanism of the metazoan RNA interference machinery, confirming their pivotal role in animal cell regulation.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , MicroRNAs , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA , Ribonuclease III , Animais , Ribonuclease III/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Argonautas/genética , Invertebrados/genética
20.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744496

RESUMO

A fine-scale phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of Peripatopsis lawrencei s.l. was conducted with both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, using both external morphology and scanning electron microscopy of taxonomically important characters. A total of 119 sequences were used for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI ) whereas a single representative specimen from each locality was sequenced for the nuclear 18S rRNA locus. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on the total COI data set and the combined COI + 18S rRNA data set using a Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood analyses. For the combined DNA sequence data set, a divergence time estimation was further undertaken in BEAST and specimens placed in a phylogenetic framework including all the described Peripatopsis species from South Africa. In addition, a phylogeographic study was conducted exclusively on P. lawrencei s.s. (clade A) using an analysis of molecular variance and haplotype network. Phylogenetic results indicated that, at the Oubos sample locality, two highly distinct genetic lineages were present (clades A and B), whereas a divergence time estimation suggests a Miocene cladogenesis of the novel Oubos lineage. Marked phylogeographic structure was observed for P. lawrencei s.s. (restricted to clade A) across the distribution range with limited maternal dispersal. Morphologically, the two sympatric lineages at Oubos A and B differed in leg pair number, ventral colour and dorsal scale rank counts, as evident from scanning electron microscopy. Our results support the recognition of a distinct species that occurs in sympatry with P. lawrencei s.s. The new species, P. aereus sp. nov. (clade B) is described and the implication for fine-scale taxonomic studies on saproxylic taxa is discussed. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AB6E0BDA-7B5F-4FD3-A863-BA7C814E278C.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Invertebrados , Filogenia , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , África do Sul , Invertebrados/genética
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