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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7962, 2024 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575628

RESUMO

The underlying study was carried out aiming at transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of Goniothalamus macrophyllus as sono-photo-sensitizer (SPS) using microneedle (MN) arrays with iontophoresis (MN-IP), electroporation (MN-EP) in conjunction with applying photodynamic therapy (PDT), sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and sono-photodynamic therapy (SPDT) as an up-to-date activated cancer treatment modality. Study was conducted on 120 male Swiss Albino mice, inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) divided into 9 groups. We employed three different arrays of MN electrodes were used (parallel, triangular, and circular), EP, IP with different volts (6, 9, 12 V), an infrared laser and an ultrasound (pulsed and continuous wave) as our two energy sources. Results revealed that parallel 6 V TDD@MN@IP@EP can be used as effective delivery system for G. macrophyllus from skin directly to target EAC cells. In addition MN@IP@EP@TDD G. macrophyllus is a potential SPS for SPDT treatment of EAC. With respect to normal control mice and as opposed to the EAC untreated control mice, MN@EP@IP TDD G. macrophyllus in the laser, ultrasound, and combination activated groups showed a significant increase in the antioxidant markers TAC level and the GST, GR, Catalase, and SOD activities, while decrease in lipid peroxidation oxidative stress parameter MDA levels. In addition significantly increased apoptotic genes expressions (p53, caspase (3, 9), Bax, and TNF alpha) and on the other hand decreased anti- apoptotic (Bcl-2) and angiogenic (VEGF) genes expressions. Moreover significantly ameliorate liver and kidney function decreasing ALT, AST, urea and creatinine respectively. Furthermore MN@IP@EP@TDD G. macrophyllus combined with SPDT was very effective at reducing the growth of tumors and even causing cell death according to microscopic H&E stain results. This process may be related to a sono- and/or photochemical activation mechanism. According to the findings, MN@IP@EP@TDD G. macrophyllus has a lot of potential as a novel, efficient delivery method that in combination with infrared laser and ultrasound activation SPDT demonstrated promising anticancer impact for treating cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Goniothalamus , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Iontoforese , Administração Cutânea , Pele/metabolismo , Eletroporação/métodos , Carcinoma/metabolismo
2.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(4): 356-357, Abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231991

RESUMO

La hiperhidrosis se caracteriza por excesiva sudoración, habitualmente secundaria a disfunción autonómica con hipersecreción de las glándulas sudoríparas ecrinas. La hiperhidrosis primaria focal es la forma más frecuente, y afecta axilas, palmas, plantas y/o cara. Frecuentemente genera un gran impacto en la calidad de vida y en la actividad social. Su tratamiento es complejo. Los antitranspirantes tópicos son recomendados en primer lugar en la mayoría de casos de hiperhidrosis leve. Múltiples ensayos clínicos y estudios prospectivos avalan la eficacia y tolerabilidad de los anticolinérgicos orales y tópicos. En casos moderado/graves, el glicopirronio tópico, el cual ha sido evaluado en al menos 8 ensayos clínicos con más de 2.000 pacientes en total, podría ser considerado la primera línea farmacológica en la hiperhidrosis axilar mal controlada con antitranspirantes tópicos; seguido por inyecciones de toxina botulínica, sistemas de microondas y por anticolinérgicos orales. En este artículo revisamos el rol de los anticolinérgicos tópicos en el manejo de la hiperhidrosis focal en adultos y niños.(AU)


Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is characterized by overactivity of the eccrine sweat glands, usually associated with dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Primary focal hyperhidrosis is the most common form and can affect the axillae, palms, soles, and/or face, often leading to significantly impaired quality of life and social functioning. Treatment is complex. Topical antiperspirants are normally recommended as the first-line treatment for mild hyperhidrosis. Multiple clinical trials and prospective studies support the efficacy and tolerability of oral and topical anticholinergics in the management of hyperhidrosis. Topical glycopyrronium, which has been investigated in at least 8 clinical trials enrolling more than 2000 patients, is probably the first-line pharmacological treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis in patients with moderate to severe disease poorly controlled with topical antiperspirants. Second-line treatments include botulinum toxin injections, microwave treatment, and oral anticholinergics. We review the use of topical anticholinergics in the management of focal hyperhidrosis in adults and children.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Glicopirrolato , Iontoforese , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Dermatologia , Dermatopatias
3.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(4): T356-T367, Abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231992

RESUMO

La hiperhidrosis se caracteriza por excesiva sudoración, habitualmente secundaria a disfunción autonómica con hipersecreción de las glándulas sudoríparas ecrinas. La hiperhidrosis primaria focal es la forma más frecuente, y afecta axilas, palmas, plantas y/o cara. Frecuentemente genera un gran impacto en la calidad de vida y en la actividad social. Su tratamiento es complejo. Los antitranspirantes tópicos son recomendados en primer lugar en la mayoría de casos de hiperhidrosis leve. Múltiples ensayos clínicos y estudios prospectivos avalan la eficacia y tolerabilidad de los anticolinérgicos orales y tópicos. En casos moderado/graves, el glicopirronio tópico, el cual ha sido evaluado en al menos 8 ensayos clínicos con más de 2.000 pacientes en total, podría ser considerado la primera línea farmacológica en la hiperhidrosis axilar mal controlada con antitranspirantes tópicos; seguido por inyecciones de toxina botulínica, sistemas de microondas y por anticolinérgicos orales. En este artículo revisamos el rol de los anticolinérgicos tópicos en el manejo de la hiperhidrosis focal en adultos y niños.(AU)


Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is characterized by overactivity of the eccrine sweat glands, usually associated with dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Primary focal hyperhidrosis is the most common form and can affect the axillae, palms, soles, and/or face, often leading to significantly impaired quality of life and social functioning. Treatment is complex. Topical antiperspirants are normally recommended as the first-line treatment for mild hyperhidrosis. Multiple clinical trials and prospective studies support the efficacy and tolerability of oral and topical anticholinergics in the management of hyperhidrosis. Topical glycopyrronium, which has been investigated in at least 8 clinical trials enrolling more than 2000 patients, is probably the first-line pharmacological treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis in patients with moderate to severe disease poorly controlled with topical antiperspirants. Second-line treatments include botulinum toxin injections, microwave treatment, and oral anticholinergics. We review the use of topical anticholinergics in the management of focal hyperhidrosis in adults and children.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Glicopirrolato , Iontoforese , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Dermatologia , Dermatopatias
4.
Int J Pharm ; 654: 123992, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479485

RESUMO

Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor used for the management of type-2 diabetes. US FDA-approved products are available exclusively as oral tablets. The inherent drawbacks of the oral administration route necessitate exploring delivery strategies via other routes. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of transdermal administration of linagliptin through various approaches. We compared chemical penetration enhancers (oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, and isopropyl myristate) and physical enhancement techniques (iontophoresis, sonophoresis, microneedles, laser, and microdermabrasion) to understand their potential to improve transdermal delivery of linagliptin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported comparison of chemical and physical enhancement techniques for the transdermal delivery of a moderately lipophilic molecule. All physical enhancement techniques caused a significant reduction in the transepithelial electrical resistance of the skin samples. Disruption of the skin's structure post-treatment with physical enhancement techniques was further confirmed using characterization techniques such as dye binding, histology, and confocal microscopy. In vitro permeation testing (IVPT) demonstrated that the passive delivery of linagliptin across the skin was < 5 µg/sq.cm. Two penetration enhancers - oleic acid (93.39 ± 8.34 µg/sq.cm.) and oleyl alcohol (424.73 ± 42.86 µg/sq.cm.), and three physical techniques - iontophoresis (53.05 ± 0.79 µg/sq.cm.), sonophoresis (141.13 ± 34.22 µg/sq.cm.), and laser (555.11 ± 78.97 µg/sq.cm.) exceeded the desired target delivery for therapeutic effect. This study established that linagliptin is an excellent candidate for transdermal delivery and thoroughly compared chemical penetration and physical transdermal delivery strategies.


Assuntos
Álcoois Graxos , Linagliptina , Absorção Cutânea , Administração Cutânea , Linagliptina/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Iontoforese/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos
5.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(3): e13777, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511581

RESUMO

The phenotypical manifestations of asthma among children are diverse and exhibit varying responses to therapeutic interventions. There is a need to develop objective biomarkers to improve the characterization of allergic and inflammatory responses relevant to asthma to predict therapeutic treatment responses. We have previously investigated histamine iontophoresis with laser Doppler flowmetry (HILD) as a potential surrogate biomarker that characterizes histamine response and may be utilized to guide the treatment of allergic and inflammatory disease. We have identified intra-individual variability of HILD response type among children and adults with asthma and that HILD response type varied in association with racial classification. As laser Doppler flowimetry may be impacted by skin color, we aimed to further validate the HILD method by determining if skin color or tone is associated with observed HILD response type differences. We conducted an observational study utilizing quantification of skin color and tone obtained from photographs of the skin among participants during HILD assessments via the RGB color model. We compared RGB values across racial, ethnic, and HILD response type via the Kruskal-Wallis test and calculated Kendall rank correlation coefficient to evaluate the relationship between RGB composite scores and HILD pharmacodynamic measures. We observed that RGB scores differed among racial groups and histamine response phenotypes (p < 0.05). However, there was a lack of correlation between the RGB composite score and HILD pharmacodynamic measures (r values 0.1, p > 0.05). These findings suggest that skin color may not impact HILD response variations, necessitating further research to understand previously observed differences across identified racial groups.


Assuntos
Asma , Histamina , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Histamina/farmacologia , Iontoforese , Pigmentação da Pele , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/métodos , Biomarcadores
6.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 89, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of calcium ions on promoting the penetrability of riboflavin into the corneal stroma by iontophoresis and to analyse the possible mechanism. METHODS: Forty rabbits were divided into five groups randomly: 0.1% riboflavin-balanced salt solution (BSS) by iontophoresis group, 0.1% riboflavin-saline solution by iontophoresis group, 0.1% riboflavin-zinc gluconate solution by iontophoresis group, 0.1% riboflavin-calcium gluconate solution by iontophoresis group and classical riboflavin instillation after corneal de-epithelialization as the control group. The riboflavin concentrations in corneal stroma were determined and compared by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after removing epithelium and endothelium. RESULTS: Iontophoretic delivery of a 0.1% riboflavin-calcium gluconate solution was the closest to the effect of classical de-epithelialization. The other solvents were unsufficient at enhancing the permeability of the riboflavin. CONCLUSION: Calcium ions can promote the penetrability of riboflavin into the corneal stroma by iontophoresis.


Assuntos
Substância Própria , Epitélio Corneano , Animais , Coelhos , Iontoforese/métodos , Cálcio , Gluconato de Cálcio , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas , Riboflavina , Córnea , Íons
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 109(4): 304-307, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the rate and predictors of 'quantity not sufficient' (QNS) among Brazilian infants younger than 3 months with positive newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF). DESIGN: Prospective, population-based study. SETTING: Public Statewide Newborn Screening Programme where the incidence rate of CF is ≈1:11 000. PATIENTS: Subjects with positive two-tiered immunoreactive trypsinogen. INTERVENTIONS: Sweat induction and collection were performed in the same facility; one sweat sample was obtained per individual. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The QNS rate and its predictors; analysis corresponded to the day of sweat collection. RESULTS: Among the 975 participants, QNS rates for 10 and 15 µL were 3.6% (95% CI 2.5% to 4.9%) and 8.3% (95% CI 6.6% to 10.2%). Infants weighing >3056 and >3845 g and with gestational age higher than 37 weeks had a greater likelihood (5.5 and 6.7, and 2.7 and 5.8 times more, respectively) of avoiding QNS than their peers. CONCLUSION: QNS rates fulfilled the requirements, but predictors differed from those recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundations guidelines.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Pilocarpina , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Iontoforese , Suor/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Triagem Neonatal , Tripsinogênio , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística , Cloretos/análise
8.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(1): 196-203, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246645

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic T-cell-mediated autoimmune skin disease. Tacrolimus (FK506) is commonly used treatment for psoriasis. However, since the molecular weight of FK506 is more than 500 Da, its skin penetration is limited, so that there is a need to improve the penetrability of FK506 to allow for more effective treatment. To this end, we employed iontophoresis (ItP), which is a physical, intradermal drug delivery technology that relies on the use of weak electric current. Previous findings suggest that activation of cell signaling by the weak electric current applied during ItP may affect the expression of inflammatory cytokines, leading to aggravation of psoriasis. In this study, we analyzed the effect of ItP on the expression of various inflammatory cytokines in the skin, and subsequently examined the therapeutic effect of ItP using negatively-charged liposomes encapsulating FK506 (FK-Lipo) in a rat psoriasis model induced by imiquimod. We found that ItP (0.34 mA/cm2, 1 h) did not affect mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines or epidermis thickness, indicating that ItP is a safe technology for psoriasis treatment. ItP of FK-Lipo suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by imiquimod treatment to a greater extent than skin treated with FK506 ointment for 1 h. Furthermore, epidermis thickening was significantly suppressed only by ItP of FK-Lipo. Taken together, results of this study demonstrate the successful development of an efficient treatment for psoriasis by combining FK-Lipo and ItP, without disease aggravation associated with the weak electric current.


Assuntos
Iontoforese , Psoríase , Animais , Ratos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Lipossomos , Imiquimode , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas
9.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 61(1): 44-50, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37227009

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with progression of keratoconus after accelerated iontophoresis-assisted epithelium-on corneal cross-linking (I-ON CXL) and to assess the efficacy and safety of re-treatment using accelerated epithelium-off CXL (epi-OFF CXL). METHODS: Sixteen eyes of 16 patients (mean age: 14.6 ± 2.5 years) with keratoconus underwent I-ON CXL. The main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, maximum keratometry index (Kmax), minimum corneal thickness, elevation front and elevation back measured at the thinnest point, total higher order aberrations root main square (HOA RMS), coma RMS, and spherical aberration. An increment of Kmax greater than 1.00 diopter (D) and a decrease of greater than 20 µm in pachymetry were considered to determine the progression of keratoconus. Patients with progression of keratoconus after I-ON CXL were re-treated using an epi-OFF CXL protocol. RESULTS: Two years after I-ON CXL, 12 patients showed progression of keratoconus, whereas 4 patients were stable. There was significant worsening of Kmax (P = .04) and steepest keratometric reading (P = .01). Furthermore, a significant correlation was documented between progression of keratoconus and age (P = .02). These patients were re-treated using an epi-OFF protocol and after 2 years all patients were stable, and a statistically significant reduction of the mean Kmax (P = .007), HOA RMS (P = .05), and coma RMS (P = 05) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: I-ON CXL was ineffective in the treatment of pediatric keratoconus in younger children, whereas it had an efficacy of 2 years in older children. Re-treatment using epi-OFF CXL proved effective to halt progression of keratoconus after I-ON CXL failure. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2024;61(1):44-50.].


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Crosslinking Corneano , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Iontoforese/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Coma/tratamento farmacológico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Paquimetria Corneana , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Colágeno
10.
Mol Pharm ; 21(1): 234-244, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38060844

RESUMO

Assessing drug disposition in the skin after the application of a topical formulation is difficult. It is hypothesized that reverse iontophoresis (RI), which can extract charged/polar molecules for monitoring purposes, may provide a noninvasive approach for the assessment of local drug bioavailability. The passive and RI extraction of salicylic acid (SA) and nicotine (NIC) from porcine skin in vitro was assessed after a simple solution of the former and a transdermal patch of the latter had been applied for 24 and 8 h, respectively. Immediately after this "passive skin loading", the amount of drug in the stratum corneum (SC) and "viable" tissue (VT) was measured either (a) after tape-stripping and subsequent solvent extraction of both skin layers or (b) following RI extraction over 4 h. Parallel experiments were then performed in vivo in healthy volunteers; in this case, the VT was not sampled and the skin loading period for NIC was only 4 h. RI extraction of both drugs was significantly higher (in vitro and in vivo) than that achieved passively, and the cumulative RI extraction profiles as a function of time were mathematically analyzed using a straightforward compartmental model. Best-fit estimates of drug amounts in the SC and VT (ASC,0 and AVT,0, respectively) at the end of "loading" and two first-order rate constants describing transfer between the model compartments were then determined. The in vitro predictions of ASC,0 and AVT,0 were in excellent agreement with the experimental results, as was the value of the former in vivo. The rate constants derived from the in vitro and in vivo results were also similar. In summary, the results provide proof-of-concept that the RI method has the potential to noninvasively assess relevant metrics of drug bioavailability in the skin.


Assuntos
Iontoforese , Pele , Suínos , Animais , Humanos , Iontoforese/métodos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Epiderme
11.
J Dent ; 141: 104797, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38061412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the significant disinfection of the root canal system, its irregularities, and dentinal tubules. However, achieving complete disinfection remains challenging, with frequent failures and occurrence of secondary infections. Here, we propose using iontophoresis to increase the penetration and distribution of disinfecting agents into root canals, using methylene blue for proof-of-concept. METHODS: The marker was applied in bovine root canals, and the radial distribution of the dye in the dentinal tubules was evaluated by optical microscopy. Iontophoresis was applied at 0.5 and 1.5 mA for 5 and 15 min. RESULTS: A significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the marker penetration between passive and iontophoretic applications. Both current density and application time had an important effect on methylene blue distribution, with a greater efficacy delivery to the apical region achieved after 1.5 mA for 5 min or 0.5 mA for 15 min, showing longer application time can compensate for lower application current. CONCLUSION: Iontophoresis increases the penetration and distribution of methylene blue into bovine root canals and dentinal tubules, including its innermost portions. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Iontophoresis has shown to be a promising technique for root canal and dentinal tubule disinfection.


Assuntos
Dentina , Iontoforese , Animais , Bovinos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Cavidade Pulpar , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia
12.
Int J Pharm ; 650: 123686, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070658

RESUMO

Combination chemotherapy, involving the intervention of two or more anti-neoplastic agents has been the cornerstone in breast cancer treatment, owing to the applications it holds in contrast to the mono-therapy approach. This research predominantly focussed on proving the synergy between Lapatinib (LPT) and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and further enhancing its localized permeation via transfersome-loaded delivery and iontophoresis to treat breast tumors. The IC50 values for LPT and 5-FU were found to be 19.38 µg/ml and 5.7 µg/ml respectively and their synergistic effect was proven by the Chou-Talalay assay using CompuSyn software. Furthermore, LPT and 5-FU were encapsulated within transfersomes and administered via the transpapillary route. The drug-loaded carriers were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The ex vivo rat skin permeation studies indicated that when compared to LPT dispersion and 5-FU solution, drug-loaded transfersomes exhibited better permeability and their transpapillary permeation was enhanced on using iontophoresis. Moreover, both LPT and 5-FU transfersomes were found to be stable for 3 months when stored at a temperature of 5 ± 3 °C. The results indicated that this treatment strategy could be an effective approach in contrast to some of the conventional treatments employed to date.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fluoruracila , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Administração Cutânea , Lapatinib , Iontoforese , Portadores de Fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
J Control Release ; 364: 383-392, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914000

RESUMO

Cancer is a leading cause of the death worldwide. However, the conventional cancer therapy still suffers from several limitations, such as systemic side effects, poor efficacy, and patient compliance due to limited accessibility to the tumor site. To address these issues, the localized drug delivery system has emerged as a promising approach. In this study, we developed an iontophoresis-based transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) controlled by a smartphone application for cancer treatment. Iontophoresis, a low-intensity electric current-based TDDS, enhances drug permeation across the skin to provide potential for localized drug delivery and minimize systemic side effects. The fundamental mechanism of our system was modeled using finite element analysis and its performance was corroborated through the flow-through skin permeation tests using a plastic-based microfluidic chip. The results of in vitro cell experiments and skin deposition tests successfully demonstrated that our smartphone-controlled iontophoresis system significantly enhanced the drug permeation for cancer treatment. Therefore, this hand-held smartphone-based iontophoresis TDDS could be a powerful tool for self-administrated anticancer drug delivery applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Absorção Cutânea , Humanos , Iontoforese/métodos , Smartphone , Administração Cutânea , Pele/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo
14.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 46(11): 1635-1638, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914367

RESUMO

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a hydrophilic supra-macromolecule, with a molecular weight (MW) 1000000<. HA is recognized as a biomaterial for skin moisturization. HA solution is typically injected into the skin using a needle. However, needle injection is invasive and does not result in homogeneous distribution of HA over a large area of skin. Therefore, non-invasive and effective technologies for homogenous intradermal delivery of HA are needed. Recently, we demonstrated the use of iontophoresis (ItP) for non-invasive intradermal delivery of various macromolecules, such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) (MW: 12000) and antibodies (MW: 150000). Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that HA can also be delivered non-invasively into the skin by ItP. In this study, we applied ItP to fluorescence-labeled HA (MW: 600000-1120000 and 1200000-1600000) on rat dorsal skin. Following treatment, fluorescence was observed to be widely distributed in the skin, demonstrating successful intradermal delivery of HA via ItP. In addition, the relative moisture content and elasticity of skin treated with ItP/HA was temporarily higher than that of control skin. This is the first report demonstrating successful non-invasive intradermal delivery of HA and improvement of skin conditions by high-molecular weight HA delivered by ItP. In conclusion, ItP would be a useful technology for non-invasive intradermal delivery of high-molecular weight HA for treatment of skin diseases and cosmetology applications.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico , Dermatopatias , Animais , Ratos , Iontoforese , Pele , Administração Cutânea , Absorção Cutânea , Dermatopatias/metabolismo
15.
Int J Pharm ; 648: 123617, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977289

RESUMO

Conventional treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected vector-borne infectious disease, can frequently lead to serious adverse effects. Paromomycin (PAR), an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been suggested for the topical treatment of disease-related lesions, but even when formulated in high drug-loading dosage forms, presents controversial efficacy. The presence of five ionizable amino groups hinder its passive cutaneous penetration but make PAR an excellent candidate for iontophoretic delivery. The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of using iontophoresis for cutaneous PAR delivery and to propose a topical passive drug delivery system that could be applied between iontophoretic treatments. For this, in vitro iontophoretic experiments evaluated different application durations (10, 30, and 360 min), current densities (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mA/cm2), PAR concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 %), and skin models (intact and impaired porcine skin). In addition, 1 % PAR hydrogel had its penetration profile compared to 15 % PAR ointment in passive transport. Results showed iontophoresis could deliver suitable PAR amounts to dermal layers, even in short times and with impaired skin. Biodistribution assays showed both iontophoretic transport and the proposed hydrogel delivered higher PAR amounts to deeper skin layers than conventional ointment, even though applying 15 times less drug. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PAR drug delivery enhancement by iontophoresis. In summary, the association of iontophoresis with a topical application of PAR gel seems appropriate for improving cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Paromomicina , Animais , Suínos , Paromomicina/metabolismo , Paromomicina/farmacologia , Iontoforese/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual , Pomadas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrogéis/farmacologia
16.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 8(1)2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37739426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present the outcome of the interrupted iontophoresis-assisted treatment arm in an ongoing randomised clinical trial (NCT04427956). METHODS: A randomised clinical study of corneal cross-linking (CXL) using continuous UV-A irradiation at a rate of 9 mW/cm2 and three different types of riboflavin and riboflavin delivery mode: (1) iso-osmolar dextran-based riboflavin (epithelium-off), (2) hypo-osmolar dextran-free riboflavin (epithelium-off) and (3) iontophoresis-assisted delivery of riboflavin (epithelium-on) for the treatment of progressive keratoconus. Inclusion criteria were an increase in the maximum keratometry value (Kmax) of 1.0 dioptre over 12 months or 0.5 dioptre over 6 months. The primary outcome in evaluating treatment efficacy was Kmax. Recently presented stratified detection limits were used post hoc to confirm the enrolment of patients with truly progressive keratoconus and in the assessment of the need for re-CXL. RESULTS: Thirteen patients had been randomised to iontophoresis-assisted CXL when the treatment arm was interrupted; two patients dropped out. Of the remaining 11 patients, 7 were deemed as having truly progressive disease according to the more recent stratified detection limits. The disease continued to progress in three patients according to the original definition (increase in Kmax≥1 D), necessitating re-CXL with epithelium-off CXL. This progression was confirmed by post hoc analysis using the stratified detection limits for progression. CONCLUSIONS: The iontophoresis-assisted CXL protocol failed to halt further disease progression in 27% of the patients. The failure rate increased to 38% when considering only the patients deemed to have truly progressive disease using the stratified detection limits.


Assuntos
Iontoforese , Ceratocone , Humanos , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Riboflavina
17.
Nitric Oxide ; 138-139: 96-103, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37619814

RESUMO

Iontophoretic transdermal administration of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride [l-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor] has been used as a non-invasive evaluation of NOS-dependent mechanisms in human skin. However, the availability has yet to be investigated in sweating research. Prior observations using invasive techniques (e.g., intradermal microdialysis technique) to administer l-NAME have implicated that NOS reduces sweating induced by heat stress but rarely influences the response induced by the administration of cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonists. Therefore, we investigated whether the transdermal iontophoretic administration of l-NAME modulates sweating similar to those prior observations. Twenty young healthy adults (10 males, 10 females) participated in two experimental protocols on separate days. Before each protocol, saline (control) and 1% l-NAME were bilaterally administered to the forearm skin via transdermal iontophoresis. In protocol 1, 0.001% and 1% pilocarpine were iontophoretically administered at l-NAME-treated and untreated sites. In protocol 2, passive heating was applied by immersing the lower limbs in hot water (43 °C) until the rectal temperature increased by 0.8 °C above baseline. The sweat rate was continuously measured throughout both protocols. Pilocarpine-induced sweat rate was not significantly different between the control and l-NAME-treated sites in both pilocarpine concentrations (P ≥ 0.316 for the treatment effect and interaction of treatment and pilocarpine concentration). The sweat rate during passive heating was attenuated at the l-NAME-treated site relative to the control (treatment effect, P = 0.020). Notably, these observations are consistent with prior sweating studies administrating l-NAME into human skin using intradermal microdialysis techniques. Based on the similarity of our results with already known observations, we conclude that transdermal iontophoresis of l-NAME is a valid non-invasive technique for the investigation of the mechanisms of sweating related to NOS during heat stress.


Assuntos
Iontoforese , Sudorese , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Administração Cutânea , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Pilocarpina/farmacologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
18.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 36(2): 541-546, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37530163

RESUMO

Alendronate and estradiol are potential molecules for the treatment of osteoporosis but their use is limited by lower skin permeation and first-pass metabolism respectively. To develop a combinatorial dosage regimen of alendronate and estradiol and enhance skin permeation through iontophoresis for the treatment of osteoporosis. The alendronate and estradiol-containing gel system were developed using carbopol-940 and triethanolamine as independent variables while viscosity and ex vivo permeation as dependent variables. The formulated gel was evaluated for viscosity, pH and ex vivo permeation study with and without iontophoresis. A permeation study was performed on rat abdominal skin. The viscosities for the developed formulations were found to be in the range of 945 cp-1298 cp, The pH of the formulation was found to be 7.4 which is ideal for the ionization of most drugs. Ex vivo permeation ranged from 79.99 to 99.89%. The permeation of both drugs was found to be increased upon application of DC (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mA/cm2). The maximum percentage of permeation was found to be 99.89% (F3 batch). The skin permeation of alendronate and estradiol was enhanced by the novel formulation using iontophoresis.


Assuntos
Alendronato , Osteoporose , Ratos , Animais , Administração Cutânea , Iontoforese , Pele/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos
19.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 46(7): 1021-1023, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37394633

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate eye damage caused by ocular iontophoresis (IP) based on an in vitro eye irritation test using a reconstructed human corneal cell. In this study, the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL was selected as the reconstructed corneal cell. The test procedure was performed according to Test Guideline No.492 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, which was partially revised for the IP. From the relationship between the cell viability of the cornea model and the electric field intensity [current density (mA/cm2) × application time (min)] of the IP, we predicted that the intensity values of 465 mA/cm2 × min and 930 mA/cm2 × min caused reversible eye irritation and irreversible eye damage, respectively. However, further studies are required to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of the prediction. This report provides essential knowledge on the clinical safety of ocular IP.


Assuntos
Córnea , Iontoforese , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Epiteliais , Irritantes/toxicidade
20.
Int Ophthalmol ; 43(10): 3601-3607, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37395906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess long-term efficacy and safety of iontophoresis-assisted transepithelial corneal cross-linking (I-CXL) for keratoconus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven eyes of 21 patients (15 M, 6F) affected by progressive keratoconus were evaluated. All subjects were treated with iontophoresis-assisted transepithelial CXL. The patients were examined at baseline and each 6 months after the CXL procedure. Only subjects who completed the follow-up of 5 years were considered in this study. The main outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), corrected visual acuity (CDVA), corneal transparency and corneal parameters such as K-max, central corneal thickness (CCT) and at the thinnest point, and high-order ocular aberrations (HOAs). The ABCD system was used to determine the progression and re-progression of ectasia. SETTING: Ophthalmology Clinic, University Hospital of Messina, Messina, Italy. RESULTS: At 5 years, significant improvements of UCVA from 0.53 ± 0.33 logMAR to 0.4 ± 0.33 logMAR (p = 0.001) and HOAs (p = 0.01) were registered. No significant changes of CDVA (p = 0.4), K-max (p = 0.75), CCT (p = 0.5) were observed at the end of follow-up period. The ABCD system showed re-progression in 25.9% of eyes after 5 years. No adverse events such as corneal opacities and infections were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Iontophoresis-assisted transepithelial CXL resulted to be safe and effective to stabilize progressive keratoconus in adults at a long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Fotoquimioterapia , Adulto , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Crosslinking Corneano , Iontoforese/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
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